Future Energy

Future Energy

Improved, Sustainable and Clean Options for our Planet

2nd Edition - November 12, 2013

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  • Editor: Trevor Letcher
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080994246
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080994222

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Description

As the demand for global energy increases, fact-based evaluations of alternative energy sources are needed in order to address the growing interest in how energy is produced, provided, and transported in sustainable ways. Future Energy, Second Edition provides scientists and decision makers with the knowledge they need to understand the relative importance and magnitude of various energy production methods in order to make the energy decisions needed for sustaining development and dealing with climate change. The second edition of Future Energy looks at the present energy situation and extrapolates to future scenarios related to global warming and the increase of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This thoroughly revised and updated edition contains over 30 chapters on all aspects of future energy, each chapter updated and expanded by expert scientists and engineers in their respective fields providing an unbiased and balanced view of the future of energy.

Key Features

  • Provides readers with an up-to-date overview of available energy options, both traditional and renewable, as well as the necessary tools to make informed decisions regarding selection, use, and environmental impacts.
  • Covers a wide spectrum of future energy resources presented in a single book with chapters written by experts of the particular field
  • Eleven new chapters including chapters on: solar heating, energy resources in developing nations and frontiers in oil and gas, Arctic drilling and unconventional oil and gas sources, thorium in nuclear fission, ethanol and other options for future transport fuel, fracking, smart grids, new batteries, environmental issues and the energy options for China

Readership

Students, professionals and researchers in energy engineering and the energy industry, as well as policymakers in government

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    Part I: Introduction

    Chapter 1. Introduction with a Focus on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change

    1.1 Why is it Important to Consider Our Future Energy Options?

    1.2 The Need for a Sustainable, Safe and Non-polluting Energy Source

    1.3 Climate Change

    1.4 Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change

    1.5 What are Our Options for Electricity Generation?

    1.6 What are Our Options for Transport Fuel?

    1.7 The Situation in the World Today

    1.8 How Can We Reduce the Stranglehold of Fossil Fuels?

    References

    Part II: Fossil Fuels (Energy Sources)

    Chapter 2. Conventional Oil and Gas

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    2.3 Hydrocarbon Recovery, Reserves, Production and Consumption

    2.4 Global Warming and the Hydrocarbon Economy

    2.5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 3. Coal Processing and Use for Power Generation

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Coal Reserves, Production and Use

    3.3 Coal Properties

    3.4 Processing of Coal Before Combustion

    3.5 Clean Coal Technologies

    3.6 Role of Coal in the Energy Mix for the Future

    3.7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Frontier Oil and Gas: Deep-Water and the Arctic

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Deep-Water

    4.3 Arctic

    4.4 Clathrate Hydrates

    4.5 Geothermal-Geopressurised Natural Gas

    References

    Chapter 5. Unconventional Oil and Gas: Oilsands

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Bitumen Production from Oilsands

    5.3 Transport Fuel Production from Bitumen

    5.4 Bitumen Characterisation

    5.5 Bitumen Upgrading Processes

    5.6 Future of Oilsands

    References

    Chapter 6. Shale-Hosted Hydrocarbons and Hydraulic Fracturing

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Shale-Hosted Hydrocarbons

    6.3 Extraction Methods

    6.4 The Future of Shale-Hosted Hydrocarbons: Production Projections

    6.5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. Coal Bed Methane: Reserves, Production and Future Outlook

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Properties and Origin of Coal Bed Gas

    7.3 CBM Availability and Production

    7.4 Drilling and Extraction Techniques

    7.5 Environmental Issues of CBM Extraction

    7.6 Future Outlook

    References

    Chapter 8. Methane Hydrates

    8.1 Background

    8.2 Estimates of Gas Hydrate Resources

    8.3 Gas Hydrate Exploration

    8.4 Gas Hydrate Production Technology

    8.5 Conclusions

    References

    Part III: Nuclear Power (Energy Sources)

    Chapter 9. Nuclear Fission

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Nuclear Reactor Technology

    9.3 Managing Irradiated Fuel

    9.4 Thorium as an Alternative Fuel

    9.5 Practicalities of Nuclear Energy

    9.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 10. Nuclear Fusion

    10.1 What is Nuclear Fusion

    10.2 Desirable Characteristics of Fusion Power

    10.3 Why Fusion Power is Difficult

    10.4 Approaches to Fusion Reactors

    10.5 Economics of Fusion Energy

    10.6 Prospects for Fusion Energy

    References

    Part IV: Transport Energy (Energy Sources)

    Chapter 11. Biofuels for Transport

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Biofuels for Transport

    11.3 Biofuels in the World Today

    11.4 Biofuel Policies and Perspectives

    11.5 Sustainability Challenges

    11.6 Scientific Challenges and Opportunities

    11.7 Perspectives and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 12. Transport Fuel: Biomass-, Coal-, Gas- and Waste-to-Liquids Processes

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Overview of Alternative Carbon Feed-to-Liquid (XTL) Processes

    12.3 Direct Liquefaction

    12.4 Indirect Liquefaction

    12.5 Environmental Footprint of Liquefaction

    12.6 Future Energy

    References

    Chapter 13. Transport Fuel – LNG and Methane

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Sources of Natural Gas

    13.3 Natural Gas Extraction

    13.4 Natural Gas Reserves

    13.5 Utilisation of Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    13.6 Regional Trends in NGVs

    13.7 Prospects for the Future Use of Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    13.8 Conclusions

    References

    Part V: Transport Energy (Energy Storage)

    Chapter 14. Transport Energy – Lithium Ion Batteries

    14.1 Background

    14.2 Lithium Ion Battery Types and Materials

    14.3 Overview of Battery Performance and Expectations

    14.4 Future Technologies

    14.5 Conclusions

    References

    Part VI: Renewables (Energy Sources)

    Chapter 15. Wind Energy

    15.1 The Global Resource

    15.2 Resource Assessment

    15.3 Wind Turbine Technology

    15.4 Power System Integration

    15.5 Environmental Impact

    15.6 Future Developments and Research Requirements

    References

    Chapter 16. Tidal Current Energy: Origins and Challenges

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Tidal Current Drivers

    16.3 Devices

    16.4 Anchors and Fixings

    16.5 Biofouling

    16.6 Conclusions

    References

    Recommended Reading

    Chapter 17. Wave Energy

    17.1 Background, Context and Drivers of Wave Energy

    17.2 What Is Ocean Wave Energy?

    17.3 The Energy Resource and How It Is Measured

    17.4 Forecasting and Prediction

    17.5 Challenges and Benefits

    17.6 Converter Types

    17.7 Device Rating

    17.8 Modern Devices

    17.9 Economics of Wave Energy

    17.10 Alternative Output

    17.11 Future

    References

    Chapter 18. Solar Energy: Photovoltaics

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Electrical Operating Characteristics

    18.3 PV Physics

    18.4 PV Cell Design

    18.5 Field Performance

    18.6 Barriers to Growth

    References

    Chapter 19. Solar Energy – Concentrating Solar Power

    19.1 Introduction – Concept and Basic Characteristics

    19.2 State of the Art

    19.3 Cost and Market

    References

    Chapter 20. Solar Energy – Water Heating

    20.1 Solar Water Heater Basics

    20.2 Market Assessment

    20.3 The Future of Solar Water Heating

    20.4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 21. Hydroelectric Power

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Hydropower Resources

    21.3 Technology

    21.4 Sustainability Issues

    21.5 Cost Issues

    21.6 Integration into the Broader Energy System

    21.7 Future Deployment

    References

    Chapter 22. Geothermal Energy

    22.1 Heat Flow and Subsurface Temperatures

    22.2 Tectonic Controls

    22.3 Types of Geothermal Systems

    22.4 Worldwide Geothermal Potential

    22.5 Worldwide Geothermal Development

    22.6 Methods for Electrical Generation

    22.7 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy

    22.8 Environmental Challenges

    22.9 Recent Progress in Geothermal Energy Usage

    22.10 The Future

    22.11 Sources of Additional Information

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part VII: New Possible Energy Options

    Chapter 23. Hydrogen: An Energy Carrier

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Hydrogen

    23.3 Basic Elements Needed for Hydrogen Utilisation

    23.4 Current Status

    23.5 Now and the Future Around the World

    References

    Recommended Websites

    Chapter 24. Fuel Cells: Energy Conversion Technology

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 SOFC Power System

    24.3 Electrical Losses

    24.4 SOFC Materials

    24.5 Research Trend

    24.6 Challenges

    24.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Part VIII: Environmental and Related Issues

    Chapter 25. Environmental Impacts of Energy Production, Distribution and Transport

    25.1 Introduction to Energy Sources

    25.2 Energy Life Cycles

    25.3 Upstream Component

    25.4 Fuel Cycle

    25.5 Operation Stage

    25.6 Downstream Component

    References

    Chapter 26. CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    26.1 Background of CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    26.2 CO2 Properties

    26.3 CO2 Emissions from the Electricity Sector

    26.4 CO2 Capture from Electricity

    26.5 CO2 Capture from Industrial Processes

    26.6 CO2 Transport

    26.7 CO2 Storage

    26.8 Cost of CO2 Capture and Storage

    26.9 Status of CCS

    26.10 CCS Potential

    26.11 CCS Challenges and Enablers

    26.12 The Future

    References

    Chapter 27. Overview of Energy Storage Technologies

    27.1 In a Nutshell

    27.2 Energy Production and Transmission

    27.3 Energy Consumption

    27.4 Overview of Storage Technologies

    27.5 Research and Developments

    27.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28. Smart Grids: An Optimised Electric Power System

    28.1 Chapter Scope

    28.2 Traditional Power Systems

    28.3 The New Smart Grid Power System Model

    28.4 Smart Grid Building Blocks

    28.5 A Summary of Smart Grid Financial Benefits

    28.6 Challenges in Evaluating Smart Grid Investments

    28.7 Other Smart Grid Issues

    28.8 Societal Benefits: Energy Efficiency, Energy Conservation, Energy-Saving Devices and Emissions Reductions

    References

    Chapter 29. Energy Resources in Developing Nations

    29.1 Concept and Context

    29.2 Energy Resources

    29.3 Implication of Resources Exploitation on Water and Food Resources

    29.4 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 30. The Transition to Future Energy

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Sustainable Energy for All

    30.3 Major Challenges Require Transition of Energy System

    30.4 The Gap Between Science and Society

    30.5 The Fourth ‘P’ of Sustainable Practice – Connecting Disciplines

    30.6 Chapter Summary – Society Must Lead

    References

    Chapter 31. Energy Options and Predictions for China

    31.1 Background

    31.2 Energy and Emission Scenarios

    31.3 Key Energy Factors to Go to the Energy Transition and Low Emission Pathway

    31.4 Uncertainties Analysis

    31.5 Summary

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 738
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2013
  • Published: November 12, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080994246
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080994222

About the Editor

Trevor Letcher

Trevor Letcher
Professor Letcher was Professor of Chemistry, and Head of Department in South Africa (University of the Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and Natal) (1969 -2004). He has published over 300 papers on chemical thermodynamic topics in peer reviewed journals; and 100 papers in popular science and education journals. He has edited and written 28 books ranging from Future Energy Climate Change, Storing Energy, Wind Energy, Solar Energy, Managing Global Warming and Unraveling Environmental Disasters. He has been awarded gold medals by the South African Institute of Chemistry and the South African Association for the Advancement of Science. He is currently Emeritus Professor at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and living in the United Kingdom.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

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