Fundamentals of Wind Farm Aerodynamic Layout Design

Fundamentals of Wind Farm Aerodynamic Layout Design

1st Edition - January 17, 2022
  • Author: Farschad Torabi
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128230169

Purchase options

Purchase options
Available for Pre-Order
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Fundamentals of Wind Farm Aerodynamic Layout Design, Volume Four provides readers with effective wind farm design and layout guidance through algorithm optimization, going beyond other references and general approaches in literature. Focusing on interactions of wake models, designers can combine numerical schemes presented in this book which also considers wake models’ effects and problems on layout optimization in order to simulate and enhance wind farm designs. Covering the aerodynamic modeling and simulation of wind farms, the book's authors include experimental tests supporting modeling simulations and tutorials on the simulation of wind turbines. In addition, the book includes a CFD technique designed to be more computationally efficient than currently available techniques, making this book ideal for industrial engineers in the wind industry who need to produce an accurate simulation within limited timeframes.

Key Features

  • Features novel CFD modeling
  • Offers global case studies for turbine wind farm layouts
  • Includes tutorials on simulation of wind turbine using OpenFoam


Researchers and engineers in wind forecasting. Engineers, practitioners in industry and researchers working on the advancement and application wind energy

Table of Contents

  • 1. Wind Energy, Its Origin and Power
    1.1. History of Wind Turbines
    1.2. Pros and Cons of Wind Energy
    1.3. Trend of Wind Energy in the World
    1.4. Types of Wind Turbine
    1.5. Wind Turbine Components
    1.5.1. Blades
    1.5.2. Gear Box
    1.5.3. Generator
    1.5.4. Tower
    1.5.5. Yaw Systems
    1.5.6. Brakes
    1.5.7. Monitoring Systems
    1.5.8. Anemometer
    1.5.9. Lubrication System
    1.5.10. Foundation
    1.5.11. Other Components
    1.6. Summary
    1.7. Problems

    2. Properties of Wind
    2.1. Atmospheric Properties
    2.1.1. Global Wind Direction
    2.1.2. Variation of Wind with Altitude
    2.1.3. Turbulence
    2.2. Statistical Study of Wind
    2.2.1. Mean and Variance
    2.2.2. Probability
    2.2.3. Weibul Density Function
    2.2.4. Wind Rose Chart
    2.3. Wind Power
    2.3.1. Power of a Wind Element
    2.3.2. Power of an Ideal Turbine, Actuator--Disk Model
    2.3.3. Betz Limit
    2.4. Efficiency of Wind Turbine Components
    2.4.1. Coefficient of Performance
    2.4.2. Efficiency of Gear Box
    2.4.3. Efficiency of Generator
    2.4.4. Overall Efficiency
    2.5. Summary
    2.6. Problems

    3. Basics of Aerodynamics
    3.1. Airfoils
    3.1.1. NACA series
    3.1.2. NREL
    3.1.3. Other Types
    3.2. Aerodynamic Forces on an Airfoil
    3.3. Lift and Drag
    3.4. Aerodynamic Forces on a Blade
    3.5. Generated Vortex behind a Wind Turbine
    3.6. Blade Element Method
    3.7. Summary
    3.8. Problems

    4. Wind Farm Design Fundamentals
    4.1. Wake Generation of a Wind Turbine
    4.2. Offshore and Onshore Wind Farms
    4.3. Gained Energy of a Farm
    4.4. Wind Rose Diagram
    4.5. Optimization
    4.6. Summary
    4.7. Problems

    5. Conventional Models for Wake Generation behind a Wind Turbine
    5.1. Jenson Model
    5.2. Fradsen
    5.3. Eddy Viscosity
    5.4. Summary
    5.5. Problems

    6. Analytical Model based on Similarity Solution
    6.1. Turbulent Free-Shear Wake
    6.2. Self--Similarity Method
    6.3. Similarity Solution for a Single Wind Turbine
    6.4. Wake Interaction
    6.5. Simulation of a Wind Farm
    6.6. Summary
    6.7. Problems

    7. Numerical Simulation of Wind Farms using OpenFOAM
    7.1. Different Numerical methods
    7.1.1. Full Rotor
    7.1.2. Actuator Line
    7.1.3. Actuator Disc
    7.2. Simulation of a Single Wind Turbine using Actuator Disc Method
    7.2.1. Domain Size Calculation
    7.2.2. Geometry Production using BlockMesh
    7.2.3. Mesh Generation using BlockMesh
    7.2.4. Actuator Disc Implementation
    7.2.5. Turbine Setting
    7.2.6. Source Term Definition
    7.2.7. Turbulence Modelling
    7.2.8. Numerical Setting
    7.2.9. Parallel Processing
    7.2.10. SimpleFOAM
    7.2.11. Other Useful Solvers
    7.2.12. Post processing using ParaView
    7.3. Wind Farm Layout Generation
    7.3.1. Separation Distance
    7.3.2. Manual Layout Generation
    7.3.3. Automatic Layout Generation
    7.3.4. Upstream Velocity
    7.4. Modified Actuator Disc
    7.4.1. Radial Load Distribution
    7.4.2. Modified Source Term
    7.5. Summary
    7.6. Problems

    8. Optimization for Wind Farm Layout Design
    8.1. Optimization Algorithms
    8.2. Cost Function and Constraints
    8.3. Coupling of Optimization Methods and Wake Models
    8.4. Summary
    8.5. Problems

    A. Ancient Persian Wind Turbines
    B. Sample Wind Turbines
    B.1. Sample WT1
    B.2. Sample WT2
    B.3. Sample WT3
    C. Sample Wind Farms
    C.1. Sample WF1
    C.2. Sample WF2
    C.3. Sample WF3
    D. Blade Element Method
    D.1. Steady--State BEM
    D.1.1. Model Development
    D.1.2. Summary of the Model
    D.1.3. Modification of the Coefficients
    D.2. Unsteady BEM
    D.2.1. Model Development
    D.2.2. Summary of the Model
    E. Optimization Methods
    E.1. Genetic Algorithm
    E.2. PISO Algorithm
    F.  Implementing Blade Element Method in C++
    G.  Implementing Optimization Methods in C++

Product details

  • No. of pages: 510
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: January 17, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128230169

About the Author

Farschad Torabi

Farschad Torabi is an assistant professor at K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Iran. His research interests include renewable energies, batteries and electrochemical systems. His background is in mechanical engineering and his research agenda addresses numerical simulation, using a combination of computational fluid mechanics and analytical methods.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran