Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444527851, 9780080931562

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

1st Edition

Authors: Mohamed Fahim Taher Al-Sahhaf Amal Elkilani
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444527851
eBook ISBN: 9780080931562
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 27th November 2009
Page Count: 516
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Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics.

The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not commonly discussed in most refinery textbooks. Throughout the source, problem sets and examples are given to help the reader practice and apply the fundamental principles of refining. Chapters 1-10 can be used as core materials for teaching undergraduate courses. The first two chapters present an introduction to the petroleum refining industry and then focus on feedstocks and products. Thermophysical properties of crude oils and petroleum fractions, including processes of atmospheric and vacuum distillations, are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Conversion processes, product blending, and alkylation are covered in chapters 5-10. The remaining chapters discuss hydrogen production, clean fuel production, refining economics and safety, acid gas treatment and removal, and methods for environmental and effluent treatments.

This source can serve both professionals and students (on undergraduate and graduate levels) of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Chemistry, and Chemical Technology. Beginners in the engineering field, specifically in the oil and gas industry, may also find this book invaluable.

Key Features

  • Provides balanced coverage of fundamental and operational topics
  • Includes spreadsheets and process simulators for showing trends and simulation case studies
  • Relates processing to planning and management to give an integrated picture of refining


Students in Chemical Engineering, practitioners in refineries, and consultants to the Oil and Gas industry

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Refining Processes

1.2.1. Physical Separation Processes

1.2.2. Chemical Catalytic Conversion Processes

1.2.3. Thermal Chemical Conversion Processes

1.3. Refinery Configuration

1.3.1. Type of Products

1.3.2. Environmental Regulation

1.3.3. Crude Assay and Quality

1.3.4. Refinery-petrochemical Integration

1.3.5. Development of New Technology

2. Refinery Feedstocks and Products

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Composition of Crude Oils

2.2.1. Paraffins

2.2.2. Olefins

2.2.3. Naphthenes (cycloalkanes)

2.2.4. Aromatics

2.2.5. Sulphur Compounds

2.2.6. Oxygen Compounds

2.2.7. Nitrogen Compounds

2.2.8. Metallic Compounds

2.2.9. Asphaltenes and Resins

2.3. Products Composition

2.3.1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

2.3.2. Gasoline

2.3.3. Kerosene

2.3.4. Jet Fuel

2.3.5. Diesel Fuel

2.3.6. Fuel Oil

2.3.7. Residual Fuel Oil

2.3.8. Lube Oil

2.3.9. Asphalt

2.3.10. Petroleum Coke

2.4. Physical Property Characterization Data

2.4.1. Fractionation

2.4.2. True Boiling Point Distillation

2.4.3. ASTM Distillation

2.4.4. Simulated Distillation by Gas Chromatography

2.4.5. API Gravity

2.4.6. Pour Point

2.4.7. Viscosity

2.4.8. Refractive Index

2.4.9. Freezing Point

2.4.10. Aniline Point

2.4.11. Flash Point

2.4.12. Octane Number

2.4.13. Cetane Number

2.4.14. Smoke Point

2.4.15. Reid Vapour Pressure

2.4.16. Water, Salt and Sediment

2.4.17. Molecular Weight

2.5. Chemical Analysis Data

2.5.1. Elemental Analysis

2.5.2. Carbon Residue

2.5.3. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis

2.5.4. Hydrocarbon Family Analysis

2.5.5. Aromatic Carbon Content

2.5.6. SARA Analysis

3. Thermophysical Properties of Petroleum Fractions and Crude Oils

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Basic Input Data

3.2.1. Specific Gravity

3.2.2. Boiling Point Curves

3.2.3. ASTM Distillation

3.2.4. True Boiling Point Distillation

3.2.5. Conversion between ASTM and TBP Distillation

3.3. Pseudo-Components

3.3.1. Breakup of TBP Curve into Pseudo-components

3.3.2. Breakup of TBP Curve into Pseudo-components Using Generalized Form

3.3.3. Calculation of Pseudo-components Specific Gravities

3.4. Thermophysical Properties Calculation

3.4.1. Molecular Weight

3.4.2. Viscosity

3.4.3. Refractive Index

3.4.4. Molecular Type Composition of Petroleum Fractions

3.4.5. Pseudo-critical Constants and Acentric Factors

3.4.6. Generalized Equation for Thermophysical Properties

3.5. Calculation of Enthalpy of Petroleum Fractions

3.6. Estimation of Properties Related to Phase Changes

3.6.1. Cubic Equations of State

3.6.2. Vapour–liquid Equilibrium

3.7. Calculating Properties Utilizing UNISIM Software

Questions and Problems

4. Crude Distillation

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Process Description

4.3. Operation of Crude Distillation Units

4.3.1. Fractionation

4.3.2. Overflash

4.3.3. Column Pressure

4.3.4. Overhead Temperature

4.3.5. Pre-flash Columns and Crude Column Capacity

4.4. Crude Oil Desalting

4.4.1. Types of Salts in Crude Oil

4.4.2. Desalting Process

4.4.3. Description of Desalter

4.4.4. Desalter Operating Variables

4.5. Vacuum Distillation

4.5.1. Process Description

4.6. Crude Distillation Material Balance

4.6.1. Crude Assay Data

4.6.2. Material Balance

4.6.3. Sulphur Material Balance

4.7. Design of Crude Distillation Units Using Process Simulators

Questions and Problems

5. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Catalytic Reforming

5.2.1. Reformer Feed Characterization

5.2.2. Role of Reformer in the Refinery and Feed Preparation

5.2.3. Research Octane Number

5.2.4. Reforming Reactions

5.2.5. Thermodynamics of Reforming Reactions

5.2.6. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysts

5.2.7. Process Technology

5.2.8. Material Balance in Reforming

5.2.9. Process Simulation of Reformer by Equilibrium Reactions

5.3. Isomerization of Light Naphtha

5.3.1. Thermodynamics of Isomerization

5.3.2. Isomerization Reactions

5.3.3. Isomerization Catalysts

5.3.4. Isomerization Yields

Questions and Problems

6. Thermal Cracking and Coking

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Coke Formation

6.3. Thermodynamics of Coking of Light Hydrocarbons

6.4. Visbreaking

6.4.1. Feed Sources

6.4.2. Visbreaking Reactions

6.4.3. Visbreaking Severity

6.4.4. Kinetics of Visbreaking

6.4.5. Product Yield and Properties

6.4.6. Prediction of Visbreaking Yields

6.4.7. Process Description

6.5. Delayed Coking

6.5.1. Role of Delayed Coker

6.5.2. Process Description

6.5.3. Delayed Coking Variables

6.5.4. Types of Coke and their Properties

6.5.5. Coking and Decoking Operation

6.5.6. Delayed Coker Yield Prediction

6.5.7. Process Simulation of Delayed Coking

6.6. Fluid Coking

6.7. Flexicoking

6.7.1. Yield Correlations for Flexicoking

Questions and Problems

7. Hydroconversion

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Hydrotreating

7.2.1. Objectives of Hydrotreating

7.2.2. Role of Hydrotreating

7.2.3. Chemistry of Hydrotreating

7.2.4. Hydrotreating Catalysts

7.2.5. Thermodynamics of Hydrotreating

7.2.6. Reaction Kinetics

7.2.7. Hydrotreating Processes

7.2.8. Make-up Hydrogen

7.2.9. Operating Conditions

7.2.10. Hydrotreating Correlations

7.2.11. Simulation of ARDS Unit

7.3. Hydrocracking

7.3.1. Role of Hydrocracking in the Refinery

7.3.2. Feeds and Products

7.3.3. Hydrocracking Chemistry

7.3.4. Hydrocracking Catalysts

7.3.5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrocracking

7.3.6. Hydrocracking Processes

7.3.7. Process Configuration

7.3.8. Hydrocracking Severity

7.3.9. Catalytic Dewaxing

7.3.10. Hydrocracking Correlations

7.3.11. Simulation of Hydrocracking Units

Question and Problems

8. Fluidised Catalytic Cracking

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Role of FCC in the Refinery

8.3. Feedstock and Products

8.4. Fluidisation

8.5. FCC Reactions

8.5.1. Primary Reactions

8.5.2. Secondary Reactions

8.6. Thermodynamics of FCC Reactions

8.7. FCC Catalyst

8.7.1. Zeolite

8.7.2. Matrix

8.8. FCC Configuration

8.9. Process Description

8.10. Modes of Fluidisation in FCC unit

8.11. FCC Yield Correlations

8.12. Material and Energy Balances

8.12.1. Material Balance

8.12.2. Energy Balance

8.13. Kinetic Model for FCC Reactor

8.14. Concentration and Temperature Profiles in the Riser

8.15. Simulation of FCC Unit

8.16. New Technology

8.16.1. Deep Catalytic Cracking

8.16.2. Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

8.16.3. Petro-FCC

Questions and Problems

9. Product Blending

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Reid Vapour Pressure Blending

9.3. Flash Point Blending

9.4. Pour Point Blending

9.5. Cloud Point Blending

9.6. Aniline Point Blending

9.7. Smoke Point Blending

9.8. Viscosity Blending

9.9. Gasoline Octane Number Blending

9.10. Linear Programming (LP) For Blending

Questions and Problems

10. Alkylation

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Role of Alkylation and Polymerization Units in the Refinery

10.3. Alkylation Processes

10.3.1. Sulphuric Acid Alkylation Process

10.3.2. Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation

10.3.3. Solid Catalyst Alkylation

10.3.4. AlkyClean Process

10.4. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Alkylation

10.4.1. Effect of Operating Conditions

10.5. Performance of Alkylation Process

10.6. Material Balance Calculations Using Yield Factors

10.7. Simulation of the Alkylation Process

Questions and Problems

11. Hydrogen Production

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Hydrogen Requirements in Modern Refineries

11.3. Steam Reforming

11.3.1. Flow Process

11.3.2. Feed Preparation

11.3.3. Steam Reforming Reactions

11.3.4. Thermodynamics of Steam Reforming

11.3.5. Operating Variables (Crew and Shumake, 2006)

11.3.6. Reformer Process Simulation

11.4. Product Purification

11.4.1. High-Temperature Shift Converter

11.4.2. Low-Temperature Shift Converter

11.4.3. Carbon Dioxide Removal

11.5. New Developments in Steam Reforming

Questions and Problems

12. Clean Fuels

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Specifications of Clean Fuels

12.3. Production of Clean Fuels from Crude Oil

12.3.1. Deep Desulphurization

12.4. Production of Clean Fuels from Natural Gas and Coal

12.4.1. Synthesis Gas Production

12.5. Production of Clean Fuels from Biological Sources (Biofuels)

12.5.1. Bio-diesel

12.5.2. Ethanol and Methanol

12.5.3. Bio-Fuel from Flash Pyrolysis

12.5.4. Bio-Fuel from Hydrothermal Upgrading (HTU)

12.5.5. Gasification Routes

Questions and Problems

13. Residue Upgrading

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Upgrading Options

13.3. Non-catalytic Residue Upgrading Processes

13.3.1. Solvent Deasphalting

13.3.2. Thermal Processes

13.4. Catalytic Processes

13.4.1. Residue-fluidized Catalytic Cracking

13.4.2. Hydroprocessing

13.4.3. Aquaconversion

Questions and Problems

14. Safety in Petroleum Refineries

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Hazards in Refinery Units

14.2.1. Crude Oil Pre-treatment

14.2.2. Crude Oil Distillation

14.2.3. Catalytic Reforming

14.2.4. Thermal Cracking

14.2.5. Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking

14.2.6. Fluid Catalytic Cracking

14.2.7. Alkylation

14.2.8. Hydrogen Production

14.3. Safety Programs and Regulations

14.4. Accidents and Loss Prevention Measures

14.5. Risk Management and Risk Assessment

14.6. Fire and Explosions

14.7. Hazard Analysis

14.7.1. Worst Case Scenario

14.7.2. Fault Tree Analysis

14.7.3. HAZOP Case study

14.8. Safety Considerations in Plant Layout

14.9. Safe Operation Systems

14.9.1. Pressure Relief Systems

14.9.2. Flare Relief System

14.9.3. Air Emission Monitoring

14.9.4. Water Emission Monitoring

14.9.5. Solid Waste Monitoring

14.10. Emergency Alarms

14.11. Noise in Refinery

Questions and Problems

15. Acid Gas Processing and Mercaptans Removal

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Absorption of Acid Gases

15.2.1. Chemical Solvents

15.2.2. Physical Solvents

15.2.3. Membrane Absorption

15.3. Sulphur Recovery

15.3.1. Claus Process

15.3.2. Tail Gas Clean Up

15.4. Mercaptans Removal

15.4.1. Gasoline MEROX

15.4.2. Kerosene MEROX

Question and Problems

16. Refinery Economics

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Refining Capacity

16.3. Refining Costs

16.3.1. Capital Costs

16.3.2. Operating Costs

16.3.3. Factors Affecting Refinery Costs

16.4. Refining Margins

16.5. Refinery Complexity

16.6. Economic Analysis

16.6.1. Cash Flow Diagram

16.6.2. Time Value of Money

16.6.3. Inflation

16.6.4. Taxation and After-tax Cash Flow

16.6.5. Profitability and Project Evaluation

16.6.6. Case Study: Refinery Economic Evaluation

16.7. Global Trends

Questions and Problems

17. Environmental Aspects in Refining

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Wastes in Refinery Units

17.2.1. Desalter

17.2.2. Crude Distillation

17.2.3. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization

17.2.4. Thermal Cracking and Coking

17.2.5. Hydrocracking

17.2.6. Hydrotreating

17.2.7. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC)

17.2.8. Alkylation

17.2.9. Asphalt Production, Solvent Extraction and Dewaxing

17.2.10. Hydrogen Production

17.3. Waste Management

17.3.1. Gas Waste

17.3.2. Wastewater

17.3.3. Solid Waste

Questions and Problems

18. Overall Refinery Case Study

18.1. Introduction

18.2. The Case Study


Appendix A Conversion Factors

Appendix B Definition of Terms

Appendix C Process Simulator (UNISIM) Manual

Appendix D Research Octane Number for Hydrocarbons




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About the Author

Mohamed Fahim

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait

Taher Al-Sahhaf

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait

Amal Elkilani

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait