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Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444527851, 9780080931562

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

1st Edition

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Authors: Mohamed Fahim Taher Al-Sahhaf Amal Elkilani
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444527851
eBook ISBN: 9780080931562
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 27th November 2009
Page Count: 516
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Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics.

The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not commonly discussed in most refinery textbooks. Throughout the source, problem sets and examples are given to help the reader practice and apply the fundamental principles of refining. Chapters 1-10 can be used as core materials for teaching undergraduate courses. The first two chapters present an introduction to the petroleum refining industry and then focus on feedstocks and products. Thermophysical properties of crude oils and petroleum fractions, including processes of atmospheric and vacuum distillations, are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Conversion processes, product blending, and alkylation are covered in chapters 5-10. The remaining chapters discuss hydrogen production, clean fuel production, refining economics and safety, acid gas treatment and removal, and methods for environmental and effluent treatments.

This source can serve both professionals and students (on undergraduate and graduate levels) of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Chemistry, and Chemical Technology. Beginners in the engineering field, specifically in the oil and gas industry, may also find this book invaluable.

Key Features

  • Provides balanced coverage of fundamental and operational topics
  • Includes spreadsheets and process simulators for showing trends and simulation case studies
  • Relates processing to planning and management to give an integrated picture of refining


Students in Chemical Engineering, practitioners in refineries, and consultants to the Oil and Gas industry

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Refining Processes
1.2.1. Physical Separation Processes
1.2.2. Chemical Catalytic Conversion Processes
1.2.3. Thermal Chemical Conversion Processes
1.3. Refinery Configuration
1.3.1. Type of Products
1.3.2. Environmental Regulation
1.3.3. Crude Assay and Quality
1.3.4. Refinery-petrochemical Integration
1.3.5. Development of New Technology
2. Refinery Feedstocks and Products
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Composition of Crude Oils
2.2.1. Paraffins
2.2.2. Olefins
2.2.3. Naphthenes (cycloalkanes)
2.2.4. Aromatics
2.2.5. Sulphur Compounds
2.2.6. Oxygen Compounds
2.2.7. Nitrogen Compounds
2.2.8. Metallic Compounds
2.2.9. Asphaltenes and Resins
2.3. Products Composition
2.3.1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
2.3.2. Gasoline
2.3.3. Kerosene
2.3.4. Jet Fuel
2.3.5. Diesel Fuel
2.3.6. Fuel Oil
2.3.7. Residual Fuel Oil
2.3.8. Lube Oil
2.3.9. Asphalt
2.3.10. Petroleum Coke
2.4. Physical Property Characterization Data
2.4.1. Fractionation
2.4.2. True Boiling Point Distillation
2.4.3. ASTM Distillation
2.4.4. Simulated Distillation by Gas Chromatography
2.4.5. API Gravity
2.4.6. Pour Point
2.4.7. Viscosity
2.4.8. Refractive Index
2.4.9. Freezing Point
2.4.10. Aniline Point
2.4.11. Flash Point
2.4.12. Octane Number
2.4.13. Cetane Number
2.4.14. Smoke Point
2.4.15. Reid Vapour Pressure
2.4.16. Water, Salt and Sediment
2.4.17. Molecular Weight
2.5. Chemical Analysis Data
2.5.1. Elemental Analysis
2.5.2. Carbon Residue
2.5.3. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis
2.5.4. Hydrocarbon Family Analysis
2.5.5. Aromatic Carbon Content
2.5.6. SARA Analysis
3. Thermophysical Properties of Petroleum Fractions and Crude Oils
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Basic Input Data
3.2.1. Specific Gravity
3.2.2. Boiling Point Curves
3.2.3. ASTM Distillation
3.2.4. True Boiling Point Distillation
3.2.5. Conversion between ASTM and TBP Distillation
3.3. Pseudo-Components
3.3.1. Breakup of TBP Curve into Pseudo-components
3.3.2. Breakup of TBP Curve into Pseudo-components Using Generalized Form
3.3.3. Calculation of Pseudo-components Specific Gravities
3.4. Thermophysical Properties Calculation
3.4.1. Molecular Weight
3.4.2. Viscosity
3.4.3. Refractive Index
3.4.4. Molecular Type Composition of Petroleum Fractions
3.4.5. Pseudo-critical Constants and Acentric Factors
3.4.6. Generalized Equation for Thermophysical Properties
3.5. Calculation of Enthalpy of Petroleum Fractions
3.6. Estimation of Properties Related to Phase Changes
3.6.1. Cubic Equations of State
3.6.2. Vapour–liquid Equilibrium
3.7. Calculating Properties Utilizing UNISIM Software
Questions and Problems
4. Crude Distillation
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Process Description
4.3. Operation of Crude Distillation Units
4.3.1. Fractionation
4.3.2. Overflash
4.3.3. Column Pressure
4.3.4. Overhead Temperature
4.3.5. Pre-flash Columns and Crude Column Capacity
4.4. Crude Oil Desalting
4.4.1. Types of Salts in Crude Oil
4.4.2. Desalting Process
4.4.3. Description of Desalter
4.4.4. Desalter Operating Variables
4.5. Vacuum Distillation
4.5.1. Process Description
4.6. Crude Distillation Material Balance
4.6.1. Crude Assay Data
4.6.2. Material Balance
4.6.3. Sulphur Material Balance
4.7. Design of Crude Distillation Units Using Process Simulators
Questions and Problems
5. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Catalytic Reforming
5.2.1. Reformer Feed Characterization
5.2.2. Role of Reformer in the Refinery and Feed Preparation
5.2.3. Research Octane Number
5.2.4. Reforming Reactions
5.2.5. Thermodynamics of Reforming Reactions
5.2.6. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysts
5.2.7. Process Technology
5.2.8. Material Balance in Reforming
5.2.9. Process Simulation of Reformer by Equilibrium Reactions
5.3. Isomerization of Light Naphtha
5.3.1. Thermodynamics of Isomerization
5.3.2. Isomerization Reactions
5.3.3. Isomerization Catalysts
5.3.4. Isomerization Yields
Questions and Problems
6. Thermal Cracking and Coking
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Coke Formation
6.3. Thermodynamics of Coking of Light Hydrocarbons
6.4. Visbreaking
6.4.1. Feed Sources
6.4.2. Visbreaking Reactions
6.4.3. Visbreaking Severity
6.4.4. Kinetics of Visbreaking
6.4.5. Product Yield and Properties
6.4.6. Prediction of Visbreaking Yields
6.4.7. Process Description
6.5. Delayed Coking
6.5.1. Role of Delayed Coker
6.5.2. Process Description
6.5.3. Delayed Coking Variables
6.5.4. Types of Coke and their Properties
6.5.5. Coking and Decoking Operation
6.5.6. Delayed Coker Yield Prediction
6.5.7. Process Simulation of Delayed Coking
6.6. Fluid Coking
6.7. Flexicoking
6.7.1. Yield Correlations for Flexicoking
Questions and Problems
7. Hydroconversion
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Hydrotreating
7.2.1. Objectives of Hydrotreating
7.2.2. Role of Hydrotreating
7.2.3. Chemistry of Hydrotreating
7.2.4. Hydrotreating Catalysts
7.2.5. Thermodynamics of Hydrotreating
7.2.6. Reaction Kinetics
7.2.7. Hydrotreating Processes
7.2.8. Make-up Hydrogen
7.2.9. Operating Conditions
7.2.10. Hydrotreating Correlations
7.2.11. Simulation of ARDS Unit
7.3. Hydrocracking
7.3.1. Role of Hydrocracking in the Refinery
7.3.2. Feeds and Products
7.3.3. Hydrocracking Chemistry
7.3.4. Hydrocracking Catalysts
7.3.5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrocracking
7.3.6. Hydrocracking Processes
7.3.7. Process Configuration
7.3.8. Hydrocracking Severity
7.3.9. Catalytic Dewaxing
7.3.10. Hydrocracking Correlations
7.3.11. Simulation of Hydrocracking Units
Question and Problems
8. Fluidised Catalytic Cracking
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Role of FCC in the Refinery
8.3. Feedstock and Products
8.4. Fluidisation
8.5. FCC Reactions
8.5.1. Primary Reactions
8.5.2. Secondary Reactions
8.6. Thermodynamics of FCC Reactions
8.7. FCC Catalyst
8.7.1. Zeolite
8.7.2. Matrix
8.8. FCC Configuration
8.9. Process Description
8.10. Modes of Fluidisation in FCC unit
8.11. FCC Yield Correlations
8.12. Material and Energy Balances
8.12.1. Material Balance
8.12.2. Energy Balance
8.13. Kinetic Model for FCC Reactor
8.14. Concentration and Temperature Profiles in the Riser
8.15. Simulation of FCC Unit
8.16. New Technology
8.16.1. Deep Catalytic Cracking
8.16.2. Catalytic Pyrolysis Process
8.16.3. Petro-FCC
Questions and Problems
9. Product Blending
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Reid Vapour Pressure Blending
9.3. Flash Point Blending
9.4. Pour Point Blending
9.5. Cloud Point Blending
9.6. Aniline Point Blending
9.7. Smoke Point Blending
9.8. Viscosity Blending
9.9. Gasoline Octane Number Blending
9.10. Linear Programming (LP) For Blending
Questions and Problems
10. Alkylation
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Role of Alkylation and Polymerization Units in the Refinery
10.3. Alkylation Processes
10.3.1. Sulphuric Acid Alkylation Process
10.3.2. Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation
10.3.3. Solid Catalyst Alkylation
10.3.4. AlkyClean Process
10.4. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Alkylation
10.4.1. Effect of Operating Conditions
10.5. Performance of Alkylation Process
10.6. Material Balance Calculations Using Yield Factors
10.7. Simulation of the Alkylation Process
Questions and Problems
11. Hydrogen Production
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Hydrogen Requirements in Modern Refineries
11.3. Steam Reforming
11.3.1. Flow Process
11.3.2. Feed Preparation
11.3.3. Steam Reforming Reactions
11.3.4. Thermodynamics of Steam Reforming
11.3.5. Operating Variables (Crew and Shumake, 2006)
11.3.6. Reformer Process Simulation
11.4. Product Purification
11.4.1. High-Temperature Shift Converter
11.4.2. Low-Temperature Shift Converter
11.4.3. Carbon Dioxide Removal
11.5. New Developments in Steam Reforming
Questions and Problems
12. Clean Fuels
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Specifications of Clean Fuels
12.3. Production of Clean Fuels from Crude Oil
12.3.1. Deep Desulphurization
12.4. Production of Clean Fuels from Natural Gas and Coal
12.4.1. Synthesis Gas Production
12.5. Production of Clean Fuels from Biological Sources (Biofuels)
12.5.1. Bio-diesel
12.5.2. Ethanol and Methanol
12.5.3. Bio-Fuel from Flash Pyrolysis
12.5.4. Bio-Fuel from Hydrothermal Upgrading (HTU)
12.5.5. Gasification Routes
Questions and Problems
13. Residue Upgrading
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Upgrading Options
13.3. Non-catalytic Residue Upgrading Processes
13.3.1. Solvent Deasphalting
13.3.2. Thermal Processes
13.4. Catalytic Processes
13.4.1. Residue-fluidized Catalytic Cracking
13.4.2. Hydroprocessing
13.4.3. Aquaconversion
Questions and Problems
14. Safety in Petroleum Refineries
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Hazards in Refinery Units
14.2.1. Crude Oil Pre-treatment
14.2.2. Crude Oil Distillation
14.2.3. Catalytic Reforming
14.2.4. Thermal Cracking
14.2.5. Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking
14.2.6. Fluid Catalytic Cracking
14.2.7. Alkylation
14.2.8. Hydrogen Production
14.3. Safety Programs and Regulations
14.4. Accidents and Loss Prevention Measures
14.5. Risk Management and Risk Assessment
14.6. Fire and Explosions
14.7. Hazard Analysis
14.7.1. Worst Case Scenario
14.7.2. Fault Tree Analysis
14.7.3. HAZOP Case study
14.8. Safety Considerations in Plant Layout
14.9. Safe Operation Systems
14.9.1. Pressure Relief Systems
14.9.2. Flare Relief System
14.9.3. Air Emission Monitoring
14.9.4. Water Emission Monitoring
14.9.5. Solid Waste Monitoring
14.10. Emergency Alarms
14.11. Noise in Refinery
Questions and Problems
15. Acid Gas Processing and Mercaptans Removal
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Absorption of Acid Gases
15.2.1. Chemical Solvents
15.2.2. Physical Solvents
15.2.3. Membrane Absorption
15.3. Sulphur Recovery
15.3.1. Claus Process
15.3.2. Tail Gas Clean Up
15.4. Mercaptans Removal
15.4.1. Gasoline MEROX
15.4.2. Kerosene MEROX
Question and Problems
16. Refinery Economics
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Refining Capacity
16.3. Refining Costs
16.3.1. Capital Costs
16.3.2. Operating Costs
16.3.3. Factors Affecting Refinery Costs
16.4. Refining Margins
16.5. Refinery Complexity
16.6. Economic Analysis
16.6.1. Cash Flow Diagram
16.6.2. Time Value of Money
16.6.3. Inflation
16.6.4. Taxation and After-tax Cash Flow
16.6.5. Profitability and Project Evaluation
16.6.6. Case Study: Refinery Economic Evaluation
16.7. Global Trends
Questions and Problems
17. Environmental Aspects in Refining
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Wastes in Refinery Units
17.2.1. Desalter
17.2.2. Crude Distillation
17.2.3. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization
17.2.4. Thermal Cracking and Coking
17.2.5. Hydrocracking
17.2.6. Hydrotreating
17.2.7. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC)
17.2.8. Alkylation
17.2.9. Asphalt Production, Solvent Extraction and Dewaxing
17.2.10. Hydrogen Production
17.3. Waste Management
17.3.1. Gas Waste
17.3.2. Wastewater
17.3.3. Solid Waste
Questions and Problems
18. Overall Refinery Case Study
18.1. Introduction
18.2. The Case Study
Appendix A Conversion Factors
Appendix B Definition of Terms
Appendix C Process Simulator (UNISIM) Manual
Appendix D Research Octane Number for Hydrocarbons


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2010
27th November 2009
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Mohamed Fahim

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait

Taher Al-Sahhaf

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait

Amal Elkilani

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait

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