Fundamentals of Nanoparticles - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323512558, 9780128135174

Fundamentals of Nanoparticles

1st Edition

Classifications, Synthesis Methods, Properties and Characterization

Editors: Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf Ahmed Barhoum
eBook ISBN: 9780128135174
Paperback ISBN: 9780323512558
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 31st May 2018
Page Count: 590
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors

CHAPTER 1 Nanostructures for Imaging, Medical Diagnostics and Therapy
Maria Vallet-Regi

1 Introduction

2 Types of Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

2.1 Organic Nanoparticles

2.2 Inorganic Nanoparticles

3 Nanoparticles for Diagnostics

3.1 In vitro Diagnostics

3.2 In vivo Imaging

4 Nanoparticles for Therapy

4.1 Cancer Nanomedicine

4.2 Nanomedicine for Other Applications

5 Conclusions



CHAPTER 2 Nature’s Nanoparticles—Using Viruses as Nanomedicines and for Bio-Imaging
Alaa Aljabali

1 Introduction: Protein Cages as Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials

2 Plant Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) and Viral Nanoparticles

2.1 Expression of Plant VLPs

2.2 Advantages of Plant VLPs as Nanoparticles

2.3 Disadvantages of Plant VLPs

3 Plant VLPs and Viral Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery

3.1 Strategies for Loading Drugs Into Viral NPs

3.2 Drug Bioconjugation to the Viral Capsids

4 Medical Applications of Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs

4.1 VNPs as Drug Carriers

4.2 VNPs as Bioimaging Agents




CHAPTER 3 Catalytic Applications of Janus Nanoparticles
Edward Arenas-Calderon

1 Introduction

1.1 Masking and Immobilization Method of Functionalization

1.2 Janus Nanoparticles for Liquid/Liquid Interfacial Catalysis

1.3 Snowman-Like Janus Nanoparticles to 4-Nitrophenol and 4-Nitroanisole Reduction

2 Janus Nanoparticles to Photocatalytic Applications



CHAPTER 4 Tailored Nanomaterials for Antimicrobial Applications
Diego Gardini

1 Introduction

2 Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Nanomaterials

2.1 Cell Membrane Disruption

2.2 DNA Damage

2.3 Release of Heavy Metal Ions

2.4 Interrupted Transmembrane Electron/Ion Transport

2.5 Oxidative Stress

3 Antimicrobial Nanomaterials

3.1 Nanometals

3.2 Metal Oxides Nanostructures

3.3 Carbonaceous Nanomaterials

3.4 Chitosan and Cationic Polymers

4 Engineering the Nanomaterials for an Enhanced Antimicrobial Efficacy

4.1 Size Effects

4.2 Shape, Crystallography, and Orientation Effects

4.3 Effect of Chemical Doping and Functionalization

4.4 Synergistic Nanostructure Assemblies

5 Disadvantages

6 Conclusion and Future Directions



CHAPTER 5 Nanocomposite Polymer Film for Antibiofouling Materials Surfaces
Kanematsu Hideyuki

1 Introduction

2 Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials

3 Antibiofouling Effect of Nanoparticles

4 Biofilms and EPS

5 Industrial Evaluation of Antibiofouling Effects (Biofilms) on Materials

6 Nanocomposite Polymer Coating Against Biofouling

7 Future Scope



CHAPTER 6 Engineered Nanomaterials for Wastewater Treatment: Current and Future Trends
Michael K. Danquah

1 Introduction

2 Nanomaterials Being Used in Wastewater Treatment

2.1 Nanosorbents

2.2 Nanocatalysts

2.3 Nanostructured Membranes

2.4 Nanobiocides

2.5 Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs

3 Pros and Cons of Nanotechnology Applications in Wastewater Treatment

4 Implications of Nanotechnology for Sustainable Clean Water

5 Future of Nanotechnology in Water Treatment

6 Conclusions



CHAPTER 7 Functional Thin Films and Nanostructures for Sensors
Taylor Mabe, James Ryan, Jianjun Wei

1 Introduction

2 Self-Assembly of Thin Films/Surface Functionalization

3 Thin Film Deposition

3.1 Physical Vapor Deposition

3.2 Evaporation

3.3 Resistive and RF Evaporation

3.4 Electron Beam Evaporation

3.5 Sputtering

3.6 Chemical Vapor Deposition

3.7 Molecular Beam Epitaxy

3.8 Film Characteristics

4 Processes Used for Nanostructuring

4.1 Optical Lithography

4.2 Etching

4.3 Lift-Off

4.4 Focused Ion Beam Milling

4.5 Electron Beam Lithography

4.6 Nanosphere Lithography

4.7 Nanoimprint Lithography

5 Future Directions



CHAPTER 8 Nanoarchitectured Carbon–Metal Oxide Electrodes for Supercapacitance Energy Storage
Yiyang Liu, Zheng Zeng, Jianjun Wei

1 Introduction

2 Carbon Nanoarchitectures

3 CNM-Metal Oxide Nanoarchitecture

3.1 Carbon Nanotube (CNT)-Metal Oxide Nanoarchitectures

3.2 Carbon Nanotube Forests (CNTF)-Metal Oxide Nanoarchitectures

3.3 Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)-Metal Oxide Nanoarchitecture

3.4 Templated Graphene Foam (TGF)-Metal Oxide Nanoarchitecture

3.5 Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber (ECNF)-Metal Oxide Nanoarchitecture

3.6 Hybrid CNM Nanoarchitecture

4 Summary

5 Future Challenges and Outlook



CHAPTER 9 Engineered Nanomaterials for Papermaking Industry
Peter Samyn

1 Introduction

2 Nanocellulose

2.1 Micro- and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

2.2 Cellulose Nanocrystals and Nanoparticles

2 Micro- and Nanofillers for Papermaking

3 Electrospinning of Paper-Based Nanofibers

4 Organic Nanoadditives for Papermaking

5 Processing of Nanomaterials in Papermaking

6 Nanofunctional Paper

7 Conclusions and Outlook



CHAPTER 10 Excipients Used in Oral Nanocarrier-Based Formulations
Rajan Jog and Diane Burgess

2 Function of Excipients Used in Oral Nanocarriers

2.1 Oral Polymeric Nanoparticles

2.2 Oral Lipid Nanoparticles

2.3 Drug-Polymer Conjugates

2.4 Drug-Lipid Conjugates

2.5 Polymeric Micelles

2.6 Oral Liposomes

2.7 Bilosomes

2.8 Niosomes

2.9 Layersomes

3 Safety of Excipients Through Oral Route

4 Regulatory Status of Excipients

5 Conclusions and Future Outlook



CHAPTER 11 Applications of Nanoparticle Technologies in the Construction Industry. A Step Forward Toward Greener Buildings
Dimitra Papadaki, George Kiriakidis, Theocharis Tsoutsos

1 Introduction

2 Applications of Nanomaterials in the Construction Industry

2.1 Cementitious Nanomaterials

2.2 Nanomaterials Used as Coatings

2.3 Energy Saving Nanomaterials in the Building Sector

3 Critical Processes Parameters

4 Limitations, Challenges and Drawbacks of Nanoparticles in the Construction Industry

5 Environmental Impact of Nanomaterials in the Construction Industry

6 Conclusions and Future Directions



CHAPTER 12 The Application of Ionic Liquids in Nanotechnology
Vasanthakumar Arumugam

1 Introduction

1.1 Brief Introduction of Ionic Liquids

1.2 Influence of Ionic Liquids in Nanotechnology

2 History of Ionic Liquid Nanomaterials

3 Why Researchers Using Ionic Liquids in Nanotechnology

4 Significant Impact of Ionic Liquids in Nanotechnology

5 Recent Trends in Ionic Liquid Nontechnology

6 General Synthesis of IL Containing Nanomaterials

7 Applications of Ionic Liquid Nanocomposite

7.1 Sensors

7.2 Catalyst

8 Manipulating the Cation and Anion

9 Stabilized Ionic Liquid Nanoparticles

10 Conclusion



CHAPTER 13 Nanostructured Self-healing Polymers and Composites
Yasaman Pooshidani

1 Introduction

2 Self-healing at the Nanoscale

3 Self-healing Mechanisms in Natural Processes

4 Self-healing Mechanisms in Synthetic Processes

4.1 Autonomic Self-healing Materials

4.2 Nonautonomic Self-healing Materials

5 Computer Simulation

6 Conclusions



CHAPTER 14 Drug Scavenging Lipid Based Nanoparticles as Detoxifying Agents in vivo
Zimei Wu

1 Introduction

2 Lipid Emulsions

2.1 Pharmacokinetic Effects

2.2 Pharmacodynamic Effects

2.3 ILE use in oral Overdose

2.4 Advances: ILE Modifications

3 Liposomes

3.1 Electrostatic Interaction

3.2 pH gradient Liposomes

3.3 Multilamellar Liposomes Spherulites

3.4 Stealth Liposomes

4 Potential Adverse Effects of use of Lipid Based Nanoparticles as Detoxifying Agents

4.1 Binding of Molecules Other Than Target

4.2 Immune Reaction

5 Trends in Using Lipid Based Nanoparticle in Detoxification

5.1 Peritoneal and Hemodialysis

5.2 Electrostatic Attraction Liposomes in Dialysis Techniques

5.3 Liposome Supported Peritoneal Dialysis

6 Conclusions and Future Perspective



CHAPTER 15 Nanostructured Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Technology
Priyanka Prabhu

1 Introduction

2 Factors to be Considered in Designing Polymeric Scaffolds

2.1 Topological Features

2.2 Mechanical Properties

2.3 Biological Properties

3 Types of Polymeric Scaffolds: A Representation of Various Types of Polymer Scaffolds =

3.1 Nanoporous Scaffold

3.2 Nanofibrous Scaffold

3.3 Hydrogel Scaffolds

3.4 Nanoparticulate Scaffold

3.5 Nanocomposite Scaffold

3.6 Nanopatterned Scaffolds

4 Techniques to Fabricate Nanostructured Scaffolds

4.1 Casting Technique

4.2 Gas based Techniques

4.3 Molding Based Techniques

4.4 Charge Based Techniques

4.5 Extrusion Based Techniques

4.6 Template Based Techniques

4.7 Printing Based Techniques

4.8 Self-Organization Based Techniques

5 Conclusions



CHAPTER 16 Functional Thin Films and Nanostructures for Sensors
Abdul Shaban, Judit Telegdi, Felhosi Llona and Keresztes Zsofia 

1 Introduction to Sensors

2 Types of Sensors

2.1 Chemical Sensors

2.2 Electrochemical Sensors

2.3 Optical Sensors

2.4 Biosensors

3 Sensors and Signal Processing

3.1 Sensors and Transducers

3.2 Signal Conditioning of Sensors

3.3 Transduction Principles

4 Nanostructured Thin Films

4.1 Synthesis Methods

4.2 Immobilization

4.3 Techniques for Layer Deposition

4.4 Nanolayers/Nanoparticles Characterizations

4.5 Modeling of Dimensionally Constrained Materials Systems

5 Applications of Functional Thin Films and Nanostructure-Based Sensors

6 Summary



CHAPTER 17 Micro/nanocapsules for Anticorrosion Coatings
Abdul Shaban, Judit Telegdi and Vastag Gyongyi

1 Introduction: Anticorrosion Coatings

2 Smart Coatings: Applications of Micro- and Nanocapsules in Self-healing Coatings: Chemical and Physical Aspects of Self-healing

2.1 Advantages of Encapsulation of Active Materials

2.2 Chemical Aspects of the Self-healing

2.3 Materials Applicable for Shell

2.4 Micro-/Nanoencapsulation Techniques

2.5 The Core Materials in Anticorrosive M/NCs

2.6 Influence of the Capsule Parameters on the Inhibition Efficiency

2.7 Factors That Influence the Applicability of the M/NCs

2.8 Capsule Size, Coating Formulation

3 Encapsulation of Corrosion Inhibitors in Nanocontainers for Self-healing Coatings

4 Selection of Inhibitors: Metal Dependence of Inhibitors With Shell Materials

4.2 Release of Inhibitors From the Capsules in the Self-healing Process

4.3 Compatibility of Shell Materials With Other Coating Components

5 Evaluation of Self-healing Activity of Micro- and Nanocapsules Filled with Inhibitors

5.1 Nonelectrochemical Techniques (Visualization Techniques)

5.2 Electrochemical Techniques

6 Motivating Prospects for the Future, Multilevel Complexity of Self-healing

7 Summary



CHAPTER 18 Nanoradiopharmaceuticals in Current Molecular Medicine

Ralph Santos-Oliveira

1 Introduction

1.1 Nanoparticles First-Generation Group

1.2 Nanoparticles 2nd-Generation Group

1.3 Nanoparticles 3rd-Generation Group

2 Types of Materials

2.1 Polymeric Nanoparticles

2.2 Liposomes

2.3 Nanoemulsions

2.4 Hydroxyapatite

2.5 Mesoporous Silica

2.6 Gold nanoparticles

2.7 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

3 Labeling Process

4 Conclusions





Fundamentals of Nanoparticles: Classifications, Synthesis Methods, Properties and Characterization explores the nanoparticles and architecture of nanostructured materials being used today in a comprehensive, detailed manner. This book focuses primarily on the characterization, properties and synthesis of nanoscale materials, and is divided into three major parts. This is a valuable reference for materials scientists, and chemical and mechanical engineers working in R&D and academia, who want to learn more about how nanoparticles and nanomaterials are characterized and engineered.

Part one covers nanoparticles formation, self-assembly in the architecture nanostructures, types and classifications of nanoparticles, and signature physical and chemical properties, toxicity and regulations. Part two presents different ways to form nanometer particles, including bottom-up and top-down approaches, the classical and non-classical theories of nanoparticles formation and self-assembly, surface functionalization and other surface treatments to allow practical use. Part three covers characterization of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials, including the determination of size and shape, in addition to atomic and electronic structures and other important properties.

Key Features

  • Includes new physical and chemical techniques for the synthesis of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures
  • Features an in-depth treatment of nanoparticles and nanostructures, including their characterization and chemical and physical properties
  • Explores the unusual properties of materials that are developed by modifying their shape and composition and by manipulating the arrangement of atoms and molecules
  • Explains important techniques for the synthesis, fabrication and the characterization of complex nano-architectures


Materials scientists, chemical and mechanical engineers working in R&D and academia


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About the Editors

Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf Editor

Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf is an Editor for the Nanotechnology section of the Insciences Journal and for the International Journal of Applied Sciences. He was previously a professor with the College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas Pan-American, USA. In 2010 Professor Makhlouf was the recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Experienced Researchers Program and was awarded the Prize of Excellence and Innovation in Science and their Applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas Pan-American, USA

Ahmed Barhoum Editor

He was previously a Visiting Researcher at Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany, and has also conducted research at universities in France and Egypt.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium