Fundamentals of Learning and Memory - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123568304, 9781483277561

Fundamentals of Learning and Memory

2nd Edition

Authors: John P. Houston
eBook ISBN: 9781483277561
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 658
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Description

Fundamentals of Learning and Memory, Second Edition provides information pertinent to the basic conditioning processes. This book presents an integration of the fields of animal and human learning. Organized into six parts encompassing 17 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the definition of learning that encompasses many of the elements of alternative definitions. This text then considers the processes of acquisition, including a detailed discussion of contiguity, practice, and reinforcement. Other chapters include an extensive discussion of issues, problems, and alternative theories within the field of retention. This book discusses as well the problem of transfer, with emphasis on stimulus generation and transfer of training. The final chapter deals with behavior modification as a general method for understanding, altering, and controlling behavior, which differs dramatically from more traditional clinical or therapeutic approaches. This book is a valuable resource for psychologists, behavior therapists, behavior modification theorists, and psychology students.

Table of Contents


Preface

Preface to the First Edition

Part I. Introduction

Chapter 1. What Is Learning? A Word Definition and Some Examples

A Verbal Definition of Learning

Examples of Learning

Summary

Chapter 2. Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

Operant and Respondent Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

Selected Examples of Instrumental Conditioning

Summary

Chapter 3. Learning Tasks: Some Similarities and Differences

Is Paired-Associate Learning Related to Either Classical or Instrumental Conditioning?

Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Compared

Similarities Among Paired-Associate Learning, Classical Conditioning, and Instrumental Conditioning

Conclusion

Summary

Chapter 4. Biological Limits

The "Interchangeable-Parts" Conception of Learning

The Continuum of Preparedness

Bait Shyness: Taste Aversion

Species-Specific Defense Reactions

Instinctive Drift

Imprinting

Implications for General Learning Theory

Summary

Part II. Acquisition

Chapter 5. The Role of Contiguity in Learning

The Concept of Contiguity

What Are Stimuli, Responses, and Associations?

The Search for Noncontiguous Learning

Contiguity without Learning

Conclusion

Summary

Chapter 6. The Role of Practice in Learning

Introduction

Learning Curves

Hull's System: A Theory of Gradual Growth

All-or-None Theory

Patterns of Practice

Levels of Processing

Conclusion

Summary

Chapter 7. Reinforcement: Facts and Theory

Operational and Theoretical Definitions

Parameters of Reinforcement

Secondary Reinforcement

Theories of Reinforcement

Conclusion

Summary

Part III. Transfer

Chapter 8. Generalization and Discrimination

Generalization

Discrimination and Stimulus Control

Discrimination Processes in Humans

Response Differentiation

Summary

Chapter 9. Transfer of Training

Transfer Designs: Specific and Nonspecific Transfer

Specific Transfer: Similarity Effects

The Stage Analysis of Transfer of Training

Generalization and Transfer of Training

Mediation Paradigms and Transfer of Training

Part-Whole Transfer in Free Recall

Negative Transfer in Problem Solving

Transfer Effects in Animals

Summary

Part IV. Retention

Chapter 10. Interference and Memory

Proactive Inhibition

Retroactive Inhibition

Decay Versus Interference

Variables Affecting PI and RI

The Generality of Interference Effects

The Two-Factor Theory of Forgetting

Challenges to Unlearning

A Further Challenge: Accessibility Versus Unavailability

Reducing Interference Effects

Summary

Chapter 11. Information Processing and Memory

The Components of Memory: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Separate-Storage Models

Sensory Memory, Short-term Store, Long-term Store

Additional Models: More and Less

Levels of Processing

A Continuum of Memory Models

Summary

Chapter 12. Issues in Memory

Introduction

Short-term Memory Versus Long-term Memory

Recognition Versus Recall

Episodic Versus Semantic Memory

Animal Memory Versus Human Memory

Contextual Cues and State-Dependent Memory

Summary

Chapter 13. Structure and Organization in Memory

Introduction

Word Association

Chunking and Rewriting: 7 ± 2

Clustering in Recall

Subjective Organization

Lexical Memory

Stimulus Selection: Animals and Humans

Mental Images

Mnemonics

Issues in Organization

Summary

Part V. Cognitive Processes

Chapter 14. Concepts and Problems

What Is Concept Formation?

Simple Concept Formation

Complex Concept Learning: Rules Versus Prototypes

Animals and Concepts

Problem Solving

Gestalt Interpretations

Three Modern Ideas: Subgoals, Heuristics, Strategies

Transfer in Problem Solving

Knowledge and Problem Solving

Planning and Problem Solving

Summary

Chapter 15. Language

The Importance of Language

Language Development

Words

Sentences

Prose

Apes and Language

Summary

Part VI. Extensions and Applications

Chapter 16. The Physical Basis of Learning

Rationale

Techniques

The Physical Brain

The Electrical Brain

The Chemical Brain

The Synapse: Chemical and Electrical Interaction

Summary

Chapter 17. Behavior Modification

Introduction

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

Extinction Techniques

Punishment Techniques

Cognitive Behavior Modification

Mixed Methods

The Problem of Generalization

Summary

References

Name Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
658
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483277561

About the Author

John P. Houston