Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780121323325, 9780323162074

Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction

3rd Edition

Authors: Frank Brescia
eBook ISBN: 9780323162074
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 644
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Fundamentals of Chemistry, Third Edition introduces the reader to the fundamentals of chemistry, including the properties of gases, atomic and molecular weights, and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Chemical equations and chemical arithmetic are also discussed, along with the structure of atoms, chemical periodicity, types of chemical bonds, and condensed states of matter. This book is comprised of 26 chapters and begins with a historical overview of chemistry and some terms which are part of the language of chemists. Separation and purification are covered in the first chapter, while the following chapters focus on atomic and molecular weights, stoichiometry, the structure of atoms, and types of chemical bonds. The molecular orbital (MO) theory of bonding, galvanic cells, and chemical thermodynamics are considered next. Separate chapters are devoted to MO theory of covalent and metallic bonding; orbital hybridization; intermolecular forces; acids and bases; ionic equilibrium calculations; and polymers and biochemicals. This monograph is intended for chemistry students.

Table of Contents


To the Student

1 Introduction

1.1 General and Historical Remarks

1.2 Definitions of Some Chemical Teams

1.3 Classification of the States of Matter

1.4 The Purification of Materials


2 Gases

2.1 The Properties of Gases

2.2 Boyle's Law

2.3 The Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac; Absolute Temperature

2.4 Avogadro's Law

2.5 The Gas Law; The Mole

2.6 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

2.7 Ideal Gases; The Kinetic Molecular Hypothesis

2.8 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds

2.9 Deviations from Ideal Behavior


Additional Problems

3 Atomic and Molecular Weights

3.1 The Law of Conservation of Matter

3.2 The Law of Definite Proportions

3.3 The Atomic Theory

3.4 The Law of Combining Volumes; The Avogadro Law

3.5 Molecular Weights of Gases

3.6 Atomic Weights; Mass Spectroscopy

3.7 Molecular Formulas

3.8 Empirical Formulas


Additional Problems

4 Chemical Equations and Chemical Arithmetic

4.1 Formulas and Valence

4.2 Chemical Equations

4.3 Quantitative Information from Chemical Equations


Additional Problems

5 The First Law of Thermodynamics

5.1 The First Law

5.2 Enthalpy

5.3 Thermochemistry

5.4 Hess' Law

5.5 Bond Energy

5.6 The Interconvertibility of Matter and Energy


Additional Problems

6 Structure of Atoms

6.1 Quantization of Electricity

6.2 The Positive Ions

6.3 The Rutherford Theory of the Atom

6.4 The Nature of Light

6.5 Matter Waves

6.6 Spectra of Elements

6.7 Quantization of the Energy of an Electron Associated with a Nucleus

6.8 Origin of Spectral Lines

6.9 The Elusive Electron

6.10 Atomic Orbitals

6.11 Distribution of Electrons in Atoms

6.12 Electron Spin; Paramagnetism


Additional Problems

7 Chemical Periodicity

7.1 Chemical Periodicity before Mendeleev

7.2 Mendeleev; Meyer

7.3 The Periodic Law and Periodic Table; Types of Elements

7.4 The Periodicity of Valence

7.5 Sizes of Atoms and Ions

7.6 Ionization Energy

7.7 Electron Affinity


Additional Problems

8 Types of Chemical Bonds

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Lewis Symbols

8.3 Ionic Bond

8.4 Formation of Ionic Solids

8.5 Covalent Bond; Covalency

8.6 Multiple Bonds

8.7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

8.8 Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

8.9 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity

8.10 Dipole Moments

8.11 Formal Charge and Oxidation Number

8.12 Writing Lewis Formulas

8.13 Periodicity of Bonding, Valence, and Oxidation Number

8.14 Intermolecular Forces


Additional Problems

9 Condensed States of Matter

9.1 Crystalline Solids

9.2 The Crystal Lattice; The Unit Cell

9.3 Compound Lattices

9.4 Real Crystals

9.5 Liquids; Glasses

9.6 Changes of State

9.7 Spontaneous Change; Entropy

9.8 Liquid-Gas Interconversion; Vapor Pressure

9.9 Critical Constants

9.10 Boiling, Melting, and Freezing Points

9.11 The Phase Diagram

9.12 Colloids; Adsorbents


Additional Problems

10 Solutions

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Liquid Solutions

10.3 Measures of Composition for Solutions

10.4 Solubility

10.5 Solubility and Temperature

10.6 Supersaturation

10.7 Solubility and Molecular Structure

10.8 Detergency

10.9 Solid Solutions

Vapor Pressures of Solutions

10.10 General Remarks

10.11 Raoult's Law

10.12 Deviations from Raoult's Law

10.13 Vapor Pressure and Equilibrium

Colligative Properties of Solutions

10.14 Vapor Pressure Depression

10.15 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

10.16 Osmotic Pressure

10.17 Determination of Molecular Weights


Additional Problems

11 Chemical Equilibrium

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Law of Chemical Equilibrium

11.3 Change of K with Form of Equation

11.4 Combination of Equilibria

11.5 Principle of Le Chatelier

11.6 Heterogeneous Equilibrium

11.7 Equilibrium in Solutions

11.8 Calculation of the Equilibrium Constant

11.9 Calculations from the Equilibrium Constant


Additional Problems

12 Ionic Solutions

12.1 Electrical Conductance

12.2 Colligative Properties of Solutions of Electrolytes

12.3 Electronic and Ionic Conduction

12.4 Solvation of Ions

12.5 Dielectric Constant

12.6 Covalent Electrolytes

12.7 Net Ionic Equations

12.8 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations by the Ion-Electron Method

12.9 Electrode Reactions

12.10 Conductivity and Equivalent Conductance

12.11 Change of Equivalent Conductance with Concentration

12.12 Strong Electrolytes

12.13 Weak Electrolytes


Additional Problems

13 Acids and Bases

13.1 Early Definitions

13.2 Brönsted-Lowry Concept of Acid-Base Reactions

13.3 Mechanism of Proton Transfer

13.4 Amphoterism; Self-Ionization

13.5 Types of Acid-Base Reactions

13.6 Lewis Acid-Base Concept

13.7 Examples of Lewis Acids

13.8 Nucleophilic Displacement

13.9 Electrophilic Displacement

13.10 Soft and Hard Acids and Bases


Additional Problems

14 Ionic Equilibrium Calculations

14.1 Introduction

Acid-Base Equilibria

14.2 The Ionization of Water

14.3 pH

14.4 Strong Acids and Bases

14.5 Ionization of Weak Acids

14.6 Ionization of Weak Bases

14.7 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

14.8 Polyprotic Acids and Bases

14.9 General Treatment of Simultaneous Equilibria

14.10 Common-Ion Effect

14.11 Buffer Solutions

Slight Soluble Salts

14.12 Solubility Product

14.13 Solubility and pH


Additional Problems

15 Analysis of Ions in Solutions

15.1 Titrations and Molarity

15.2 Indicators

15.3 Titration Curves

15.4 Absorbance; Colorimetry

15.5 Equivalent Weight and Normality

15.6 Precision and Accuracy


Additional Problems

16 Galvanic Cells

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Electricity from a Chemical Reaction

16.3 Electrical Work

16.4 Measurement of Electromotive Force

16.5 Conventional Notation for Cells

16.6 The Sign of an Electrode

16.7 The Nernst Equation

16.8 Half-Cell Potentials

16.9 Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

16.10 Decomposition Potential

16.11 The Dry Cell and the Storage Cell

16.12 Corrosion


Additional Problems

17 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Second Law

17.3 Reversible Processes

17.4 Free Energy

17.5 Free Energy and Emf

17.6 Free Energy and Equilibrium

17.7 Emf and Equilibrium

17.8 Predicting the Direction of a Reaction

17.9 Entropy and Free Energy

17.10 Entropy and Heat

17.11 Heat Engines

17.12 Fuel Cells


Additional Problems

18 Molecular Orbital Theory of Bonding

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Bonding Molecular Orbitals

18.3 Antibonding MO's

18.4 Sigma (σ) Bonds

18.5 Pi (π) Bonds

18.6 Molecular Orbital Energy Levels

18.7 Metallic Bonding

18.8 Metallic Properties in Terms of MO Band Theory

18.9 Insulators and Semiconductors


Additional Problems

19 Orbital Hybridization and Molecular Shape

19.1 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (AO's)

19.2 Multiply Bonded Molecules

19.3 Hybridization with d Orbitals

19.4 Properties of Covalent Bonds

19.5 Resonance and Delocalized p Electrons

19.6 Structure of Oxyanions; p-d π Bonding

19.7 Structure and Reactivity of Oxyacids and Oxyanions

19.8 Charge Dispersal and Basicity

19.9 Molecular Shape

19.10 Effect of Unshared Pairs of Electrons

19.11 Molecular Shape and Dipole Moments

19.12 Molecular Symmetry


Additional Problems

20 Chemical Kinetics

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Conditions Affecting Reaction Rates

20.3 Theory of Reaction Rates

20.4 Mechanism and Rate Equation

20.5 Finding a Mechanism

20.6 Catalysis

20.7 Half-Life for First-Order Reactions

20.8 Chain Reactions


Additional Problems

21 The Representative Elements

21.1 The Physical Properties of the Representative Elements

21.2 Allotropy

21.3 The Preparation of the Representative Elements

21.4 Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Cycles

21.5 The Hydrides of the Representative Elements

21.6 The Oxides of the Representative Elements

21.7 Peroxides

21.8 Properties of the Halides

21.9 Electron-Deficient Molecules

21.10 The Zinc Subgroup (Group 2T)

21.11 Some Common Oxides and Their Role as Environmental Pollutants

21.12 The Noble Gases (Group 0)


Additional Problems

22 Transition Elements; Complex Ions and Molecules

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Complex Formation

22.3 Coordination Number

22.4 Werner's Coordination Theory

22.5 Coordination Number and Shape

22.6 Bonding in Transition-Metal Complexes

22.7 Stereoisomerism

22.8 The Stability of Complex Ions


Additional Problems

23 Organic Chemistry

23.1 What is Organic Chemistry?

23.2 The Bonding of Carbon

23.3 Alkane Hydrocarbons; Isomerism and Homology

23.4 The Shapes of Alkanes; Conformation

23.5 Multiple Bonds; Geometrical Isomerism

23.6 Cycloalkanes

23.7 Benzene and Aromatic Compounds

23.8 Structure of Benzene; Delocalization Energy

23.9 Functional Groups

23.10 Chirality; Optical Isomerism

Reactions of Organic Compounds

23.11 Decomposition

23.12 Displacement or Substitution on Carbon

23.13 Addition Reactions

23.14 Elimination Reactions

23.15 Rearrangements


Additional Problems

24 Radiation and Matter

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Molecular Energies

24.3 General Features of Spectra

24.4 Electronic Excitation; Uv Spectroscopy

24.5 Vibrational Excitation; Ir Spectroscopy

24.6 Nuclear Spin Excitation; Nmr Spectroscopy

24.7 Mass Spectral Analysis

24.8 Atmospheric Radiation Chemistry


Additional Problems

25 Nuclear Chemistry

25.1 Radioactivity

25.2 Nuclear Energy

25.3 Nuclear Structure

25.4 The Stability of Nuclei

25.5 Nuclear Reactions

25.6 Rate of Radioactive Decay

25.7 Radiochemistry


Additional Problems

26 Polymers and Biochemicals

26.1 Background and Definitions

26.2 The Decomposition of Natural High Polymers; Repeating Units

26.3 The Production of Synthetic High Polymers by Condensation

26.4 Addition Polymerization

26.5 The Orientation and Linkage of Monomeric Units

26.6 Properties of Polymers

26.7 Ion-Exchange Resins

26.8 Biochemical Polymers


Additional Problems

Appendix I Systems of Measurement and Review of Physical Concepts

I.1 Matter

I.2 Motion

I.3 The Metric System

I.4 Length

I.5 Mass

I.6 Temperature

I.7 Volume

I.8 Density

I.9 Force and Weight

I.10 Pressure

I.11 Energy, Work, Heat, and Power

I.12 Electric Current and Derived Electrical Quantities

I.13 Radioactivity

I.14 The Uncertainty of Measurements

I.15 Exponents and Logarithms

I.16 Approximate Solutions to Quadratic Equations

I.17 Vectors

Appendix II Nomenclature

II.1 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds

II.2 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

Appendix III The Electronic Configurations of the Elements

Appendix IV Fundamental Constants

Appendix V Vapor Pressure of Water

Appendix VI Abbreviations

Appendix VII Logarithms




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© Academic Press 1975
Academic Press
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About the Author

Frank Brescia

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