Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction

Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Modern Introduction

3rd Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: Frank Brescia
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323162074

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Fundamentals of Chemistry, Third Edition introduces the reader to the fundamentals of chemistry, including the properties of gases, atomic and molecular weights, and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Chemical equations and chemical arithmetic are also discussed, along with the structure of atoms, chemical periodicity, types of chemical bonds, and condensed states of matter. This book is comprised of 26 chapters and begins with a historical overview of chemistry and some terms which are part of the language of chemists. Separation and purification are covered in the first chapter, while the following chapters focus on atomic and molecular weights, stoichiometry, the structure of atoms, and types of chemical bonds. The molecular orbital (MO) theory of bonding, galvanic cells, and chemical thermodynamics are considered next. Separate chapters are devoted to MO theory of covalent and metallic bonding; orbital hybridization; intermolecular forces; acids and bases; ionic equilibrium calculations; and polymers and biochemicals. This monograph is intended for chemistry students.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    To the Student

    1 Introduction

    1.1 General and Historical Remarks

    1.2 Definitions of Some Chemical Teams

    1.3 Classification of the States of Matter

    1.4 The Purification of Materials


    2 Gases

    2.1 The Properties of Gases

    2.2 Boyle's Law

    2.3 The Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac; Absolute Temperature

    2.4 Avogadro's Law

    2.5 The Gas Law; The Mole

    2.6 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

    2.7 Ideal Gases; The Kinetic Molecular Hypothesis

    2.8 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds

    2.9 Deviations from Ideal Behavior


    Additional Problems

    3 Atomic and Molecular Weights

    3.1 The Law of Conservation of Matter

    3.2 The Law of Definite Proportions

    3.3 The Atomic Theory

    3.4 The Law of Combining Volumes; The Avogadro Law

    3.5 Molecular Weights of Gases

    3.6 Atomic Weights; Mass Spectroscopy

    3.7 Molecular Formulas

    3.8 Empirical Formulas


    Additional Problems

    4 Chemical Equations and Chemical Arithmetic

    4.1 Formulas and Valence

    4.2 Chemical Equations

    4.3 Quantitative Information from Chemical Equations


    Additional Problems

    5 The First Law of Thermodynamics

    5.1 The First Law

    5.2 Enthalpy

    5.3 Thermochemistry

    5.4 Hess' Law

    5.5 Bond Energy

    5.6 The Interconvertibility of Matter and Energy


    Additional Problems

    6 Structure of Atoms

    6.1 Quantization of Electricity

    6.2 The Positive Ions

    6.3 The Rutherford Theory of the Atom

    6.4 The Nature of Light

    6.5 Matter Waves

    6.6 Spectra of Elements

    6.7 Quantization of the Energy of an Electron Associated with a Nucleus

    6.8 Origin of Spectral Lines

    6.9 The Elusive Electron

    6.10 Atomic Orbitals

    6.11 Distribution of Electrons in Atoms

    6.12 Electron Spin; Paramagnetism


    Additional Problems

    7 Chemical Periodicity

    7.1 Chemical Periodicity before Mendeleev

    7.2 Mendeleev; Meyer

    7.3 The Periodic Law and Periodic Table; Types of Elements

    7.4 The Periodicity of Valence

    7.5 Sizes of Atoms and Ions

    7.6 Ionization Energy

    7.7 Electron Affinity


    Additional Problems

    8 Types of Chemical Bonds

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Lewis Symbols

    8.3 Ionic Bond

    8.4 Formation of Ionic Solids

    8.5 Covalent Bond; Covalency

    8.6 Multiple Bonds

    8.7 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

    8.8 Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

    8.9 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity

    8.10 Dipole Moments

    8.11 Formal Charge and Oxidation Number

    8.12 Writing Lewis Formulas

    8.13 Periodicity of Bonding, Valence, and Oxidation Number

    8.14 Intermolecular Forces


    Additional Problems

    9 Condensed States of Matter

    9.1 Crystalline Solids

    9.2 The Crystal Lattice; The Unit Cell

    9.3 Compound Lattices

    9.4 Real Crystals

    9.5 Liquids; Glasses

    9.6 Changes of State

    9.7 Spontaneous Change; Entropy

    9.8 Liquid-Gas Interconversion; Vapor Pressure

    9.9 Critical Constants

    9.10 Boiling, Melting, and Freezing Points

    9.11 The Phase Diagram

    9.12 Colloids; Adsorbents


    Additional Problems

    10 Solutions

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Liquid Solutions

    10.3 Measures of Composition for Solutions

    10.4 Solubility

    10.5 Solubility and Temperature

    10.6 Supersaturation

    10.7 Solubility and Molecular Structure

    10.8 Detergency

    10.9 Solid Solutions

    Vapor Pressures of Solutions

    10.10 General Remarks

    10.11 Raoult's Law

    10.12 Deviations from Raoult's Law

    10.13 Vapor Pressure and Equilibrium

    Colligative Properties of Solutions

    10.14 Vapor Pressure Depression

    10.15 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

    10.16 Osmotic Pressure

    10.17 Determination of Molecular Weights


    Additional Problems

    11 Chemical Equilibrium

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 The Law of Chemical Equilibrium

    11.3 Change of K with Form of Equation

    11.4 Combination of Equilibria

    11.5 Principle of Le Chatelier

    11.6 Heterogeneous Equilibrium

    11.7 Equilibrium in Solutions

    11.8 Calculation of the Equilibrium Constant

    11.9 Calculations from the Equilibrium Constant


    Additional Problems

    12 Ionic Solutions

    12.1 Electrical Conductance

    12.2 Colligative Properties of Solutions of Electrolytes

    12.3 Electronic and Ionic Conduction

    12.4 Solvation of Ions

    12.5 Dielectric Constant

    12.6 Covalent Electrolytes

    12.7 Net Ionic Equations

    12.8 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations by the Ion-Electron Method

    12.9 Electrode Reactions

    12.10 Conductivity and Equivalent Conductance

    12.11 Change of Equivalent Conductance with Concentration

    12.12 Strong Electrolytes

    12.13 Weak Electrolytes


    Additional Problems

    13 Acids and Bases

    13.1 Early Definitions

    13.2 Brönsted-Lowry Concept of Acid-Base Reactions

    13.3 Mechanism of Proton Transfer

    13.4 Amphoterism; Self-Ionization

    13.5 Types of Acid-Base Reactions

    13.6 Lewis Acid-Base Concept

    13.7 Examples of Lewis Acids

    13.8 Nucleophilic Displacement

    13.9 Electrophilic Displacement

    13.10 Soft and Hard Acids and Bases


    Additional Problems

    14 Ionic Equilibrium Calculations

    14.1 Introduction

    Acid-Base Equilibria

    14.2 The Ionization of Water

    14.3 pH

    14.4 Strong Acids and Bases

    14.5 Ionization of Weak Acids

    14.6 Ionization of Weak Bases

    14.7 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

    14.8 Polyprotic Acids and Bases

    14.9 General Treatment of Simultaneous Equilibria

    14.10 Common-Ion Effect

    14.11 Buffer Solutions

    Slight Soluble Salts

    14.12 Solubility Product

    14.13 Solubility and pH


    Additional Problems

    15 Analysis of Ions in Solutions

    15.1 Titrations and Molarity

    15.2 Indicators

    15.3 Titration Curves

    15.4 Absorbance; Colorimetry

    15.5 Equivalent Weight and Normality

    15.6 Precision and Accuracy


    Additional Problems

    16 Galvanic Cells

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Electricity from a Chemical Reaction

    16.3 Electrical Work

    16.4 Measurement of Electromotive Force

    16.5 Conventional Notation for Cells

    16.6 The Sign of an Electrode

    16.7 The Nernst Equation

    16.8 Half-Cell Potentials

    16.9 Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

    16.10 Decomposition Potential

    16.11 The Dry Cell and the Storage Cell

    16.12 Corrosion


    Additional Problems

    17 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 The Second Law

    17.3 Reversible Processes

    17.4 Free Energy

    17.5 Free Energy and Emf

    17.6 Free Energy and Equilibrium

    17.7 Emf and Equilibrium

    17.8 Predicting the Direction of a Reaction

    17.9 Entropy and Free Energy

    17.10 Entropy and Heat

    17.11 Heat Engines

    17.12 Fuel Cells


    Additional Problems

    18 Molecular Orbital Theory of Bonding

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Bonding Molecular Orbitals

    18.3 Antibonding MO's

    18.4 Sigma (σ) Bonds

    18.5 Pi (π) Bonds

    18.6 Molecular Orbital Energy Levels

    18.7 Metallic Bonding

    18.8 Metallic Properties in Terms of MO Band Theory

    18.9 Insulators and Semiconductors


    Additional Problems

    19 Orbital Hybridization and Molecular Shape

    19.1 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (AO's)

    19.2 Multiply Bonded Molecules

    19.3 Hybridization with d Orbitals

    19.4 Properties of Covalent Bonds

    19.5 Resonance and Delocalized p Electrons

    19.6 Structure of Oxyanions; p-d π Bonding

    19.7 Structure and Reactivity of Oxyacids and Oxyanions

    19.8 Charge Dispersal and Basicity

    19.9 Molecular Shape

    19.10 Effect of Unshared Pairs of Electrons

    19.11 Molecular Shape and Dipole Moments

    19.12 Molecular Symmetry


    Additional Problems

    20 Chemical Kinetics

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Conditions Affecting Reaction Rates

    20.3 Theory of Reaction Rates

    20.4 Mechanism and Rate Equation

    20.5 Finding a Mechanism

    20.6 Catalysis

    20.7 Half-Life for First-Order Reactions

    20.8 Chain Reactions


    Additional Problems

    21 The Representative Elements

    21.1 The Physical Properties of the Representative Elements

    21.2 Allotropy

    21.3 The Preparation of the Representative Elements

    21.4 Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Cycles

    21.5 The Hydrides of the Representative Elements

    21.6 The Oxides of the Representative Elements

    21.7 Peroxides

    21.8 Properties of the Halides

    21.9 Electron-Deficient Molecules

    21.10 The Zinc Subgroup (Group 2T)

    21.11 Some Common Oxides and Their Role as Environmental Pollutants

    21.12 The Noble Gases (Group 0)


    Additional Problems

    22 Transition Elements; Complex Ions and Molecules

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Complex Formation

    22.3 Coordination Number

    22.4 Werner's Coordination Theory

    22.5 Coordination Number and Shape

    22.6 Bonding in Transition-Metal Complexes

    22.7 Stereoisomerism

    22.8 The Stability of Complex Ions


    Additional Problems

    23 Organic Chemistry

    23.1 What is Organic Chemistry?

    23.2 The Bonding of Carbon

    23.3 Alkane Hydrocarbons; Isomerism and Homology

    23.4 The Shapes of Alkanes; Conformation

    23.5 Multiple Bonds; Geometrical Isomerism

    23.6 Cycloalkanes

    23.7 Benzene and Aromatic Compounds

    23.8 Structure of Benzene; Delocalization Energy

    23.9 Functional Groups

    23.10 Chirality; Optical Isomerism

    Reactions of Organic Compounds

    23.11 Decomposition

    23.12 Displacement or Substitution on Carbon

    23.13 Addition Reactions

    23.14 Elimination Reactions

    23.15 Rearrangements


    Additional Problems

    24 Radiation and Matter

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Molecular Energies

    24.3 General Features of Spectra

    24.4 Electronic Excitation; Uv Spectroscopy

    24.5 Vibrational Excitation; Ir Spectroscopy

    24.6 Nuclear Spin Excitation; Nmr Spectroscopy

    24.7 Mass Spectral Analysis

    24.8 Atmospheric Radiation Chemistry


    Additional Problems

    25 Nuclear Chemistry

    25.1 Radioactivity

    25.2 Nuclear Energy

    25.3 Nuclear Structure

    25.4 The Stability of Nuclei

    25.5 Nuclear Reactions

    25.6 Rate of Radioactive Decay

    25.7 Radiochemistry


    Additional Problems

    26 Polymers and Biochemicals

    26.1 Background and Definitions

    26.2 The Decomposition of Natural High Polymers; Repeating Units

    26.3 The Production of Synthetic High Polymers by Condensation

    26.4 Addition Polymerization

    26.5 The Orientation and Linkage of Monomeric Units

    26.6 Properties of Polymers

    26.7 Ion-Exchange Resins

    26.8 Biochemical Polymers


    Additional Problems

    Appendix I Systems of Measurement and Review of Physical Concepts

    I.1 Matter

    I.2 Motion

    I.3 The Metric System

    I.4 Length

    I.5 Mass

    I.6 Temperature

    I.7 Volume

    I.8 Density

    I.9 Force and Weight

    I.10 Pressure

    I.11 Energy, Work, Heat, and Power

    I.12 Electric Current and Derived Electrical Quantities

    I.13 Radioactivity

    I.14 The Uncertainty of Measurements

    I.15 Exponents and Logarithms

    I.16 Approximate Solutions to Quadratic Equations

    I.17 Vectors

    Appendix II Nomenclature

    II.1 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds

    II.2 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

    Appendix III The Electronic Configurations of the Elements

    Appendix IV Fundamental Constants

    Appendix V Vapor Pressure of Water

    Appendix VI Abbreviations

    Appendix VII Logarithms



Product details

  • No. of pages: 644
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323162074

About the Author

Frank Brescia

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