Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic and Non-communicable Diseases

Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic and Non-communicable Diseases

1st Edition - November 30, 2021

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  • Editor: Ram Singh
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128231753
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128198155

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Description

Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic and Non-communicable Diseases presents strategies for the prevention of non-communicable diseases and undernutrition through the use of functional foods and nutraceuticals. Research has shown that the use of certain functional foods and nutraceuticals, including spices, herbs, and millets, animal foods and plant foods can play a role in the treatment and prevention of various diseases and in health promotion. Finally, the book explores epigenetic modulation as a new method for the development of functional foods and functional farming. Intended for nutritionists, food scientists and those working in related health science professions, this book contributes to the discussions focused on nutritional transition, globalization, how to administer foods in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes, heart attacks, neuropsychiatric disorders, bone and joint diseases, and carcinogenesis.

Key Features

  • Places emphasis on food diversity to provide perfect combinations of nutritional ingredients
  • Presents the utility and necessity of functional food production for health promotion
  • Offers suggestions to increase functional food production while simultaneously decreasing production costs

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, nutrition researchers, food scientists, and engineers. Those working in related health science professions, including physicians, cardiologists, neurologists, gastroenterologists, as well as students completing studies in related fields

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Editorial: the 10 qualities of a high-quality diet
  • Shifting national dietary guidelines
  • Food diversity
  • Glycemic index
  • Dietary fatty acids
  • Flexitarian diet and microbiota
  • Diets for good health, a healthy life expectancy, and sustainability
  • Section 1: Functional food and nutraceutical availability
  • Chapter 1. Western diets and risk of non-communicable diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Role of the global health community in the prevention of NCDs
  • Global nutritional dynamics, health education, and health promotion
  • Is life expectancy either healthy or happy?
  • Randomized, controlled trials with Mediterranean-style diets
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 2. Estimates of functional food and nutraceutical availability in the world, with reference to food peroxidation and food safety
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates of functional foods
  • Quality of foods and diets
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Peroxidation of foods during processing, storage and heating
  • Mechanisms of oxidation and peroxidation of foods
  • Prevention of peroxidation of foods
  • Estimates of food production for the global population
  • Estimates of total functional foods available for consumption
  • Estimates of functional food consumption
  • Estimates of Food and Agriculture Organization for functional foods production
  • Estimates of functional foods with reference to nutrients
  • Estimates of functional food production in India
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Epigenetic modulation of nutritional factors with reference to microgravity conditions for plants and animals: a new biotechnological approach for developing functional foods
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sprouted foods
  • Microgravity conditions
  • Epigenetic mechanisms of evolution and functional foods
  • Environmental factors and genetic variations among humans
  • Effects of nutrients and the agouti gene
  • The evolutionary diet, the environment, and health
  • Eggs as functional foods after hens are fed functional foods
  • Epigenetic modulation in plants for food production
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Section 2: Evolutionary diet and functional foods available in the world
  • Chapter 4. Beneficial effects of gourds in health and diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Gourds as functional foods
  • Ash gourd (Kumehrah)
  • Bottle gourd (Lauki)
  • Bitter gourd (Karela)
  • Other gourd vegetables (snake gourd, pointed gourd, ridge gourd, ivy gourd)
  • Flavonoids, phenolics, and carotenoids with regard to NCDs
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5. Effects of guava fruit intake on cardiometabolic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Composition of guava fruit
  • Effects of guava fruits on health and diseases
  • Can hypopotassemia and hypomagnesemia aggravate hypertension?
  • Mechanisms
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6. Exploring the quality of foods from ancient China based on traditional Chinese medicine
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Use of plant foods from West Africa in the management of metabolic syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Some West African plant foods
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 8. Best quality foods of Iran for the prevention of non-communicable diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Functional foods and prevention of non-communicable diseases
  • Pistachios
  • Pomegranates
  • Peaches
  • References
  • Chapter 9. Medical rice: discovery of a new food
  • Abstract
  • Expanding medical costs in countries with aging populations
  • Functional ingredients in rice bran
  • Effects of brown rice on well-being
  • Definition of medical rice
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 10. The role of rice as a whole grain in the management of metabolic syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Varieties of rice
  • Nutrient contents of rice
  • Rice modification: the impacts on health
  • References
  • Section 3: Fatty acids in the diet as functional foods
  • Chapter 11. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid–rich diets and risk of non-communicable diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids in modern diets
  • Synthesis of lipid mediators
  • Deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy and its outcome
  • Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on non-communicable diseases
  • Effects of omega-3 fatty acids and a balanced omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in non-communicable diseases
  • References
  • Chapter 12. Nutritional modulators of preconceptional and perinatal factors for primordial prevention of non-communicable diseases: the role of a millet-based diet rich in functional foods
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Preconception nutrition of the father and mother
  • Malnutrition during pregnancy
  • Effects of dietary supplementation on health of mothers
  • Effects of a millet-based Indo-Mediterranean style diet on cardiometabolic disorders
  • References
  • Chapter 13. Olive fruit and olive oil bioactive polyphenols in the promotion of health
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Absorption and oral bioavailability of olive polyphenols
  • Safety or toxicity of olive polyphenols
  • Effects against oxidative stress and inflammation
  • Endothelial dysfunction and impaired wound healing
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Neurodegenerative disease
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14. Do modern eggs, but not wild-type eggs, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer?
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Composition of eggs
  • Nutrition in transition and risk of non-communicable diseases
  • Egg intake and risk of non-communicable diseases
  • Effects of animal foods on trimethylamine-N-oxide
  • Mechanisms
  • Effects of changes in feed on the composition of eggs and meat
  • Can a prudent diet improve gut microbiota and health?
  • Comments
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 15. Effects of nutritional factors on immunity
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Risk factors and immunity
  • Diet and immunity
  • Effects of polyphenols and flavonoids on immunity
  • Effects of fatty acids on immunity
  • Arachidonic acid
  • Effects of herbs on immunity
  • References
  • Chapter 16. Fish, fish oil, and fish peptides and other seafood
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The fish oil debate
  • Fish peptides and fish in the diets
  • Effects of fish proteins on coronary risk factors
  • Effect of fish protein in coronary artery disease
  • Effects of fish peptides in hypertension
  • Fish intake and all-cause morbidity and mortality
  • Mechanisms of action of fish proteins and peptides
  • American Heart Association advisory
  • References
  • Section 4: Functional foods and micronutrients
  • Chapter 17. Sumac: a functional food and herbal remedy in traditional herbal medicine in the Asia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18. Quark cheese: characteristics, preparation, and health effects as a functional food
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Beneficial and adverse effects of quark cheese
  • Characteristics of quark cheese
  • Quark cheese as a probiotic
  • Functional properties of quark cheese
  • Preparation methods of quark cheese
  • Factor affecting the preparation of quark cheese
  • Quark filtration technology
  • Application based on end use of quark cheese
  • Recent advances in the preparation of quark cheese
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 19. Cocoa and chocolate consumption and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Historical view of cocoa
  • Biochemistry and pharmakokinetics
  • Mechanisms of action
  • Platelet dysfunction
  • Clinical studies on the effect of cocoa on cardiometabolic diseases
  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and vascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Reduction in blood lipids
  • Dysfunction of the endothelium
  • Stroke
  • Memory dysfunction and dementia
  • Other chronic diseases
  • Drug development
  • Functional food development
  • Agricultural policy
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 20. A survey of biological nitrogen fixation in adzuki beans, soybeans, and mung beans, three legumes in traditional Chinese medicine
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 21. Functional food and organic farming for sustainable development with a vision for sustainable food and farming
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 22. Organic acids: microbial sources, production, and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Microbial sources for organic acid production
  • Citric acid
  • Gluconic acid
  • Fumaric acid
  • Lactic acid
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Section 5: Fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains
  • Chapter 23. Role of millets in disease prevention and health promotion
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Health benefit of the millets
  • The role of millets in the management of various diseases
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 24. Potential health benefits of selected fruits: apples, blueberries, grapes, guavas, mangos, pomegranates, and tomatoes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Unique characteristics of various fruits
  • Apples
  • Blueberries
  • Grapes
  • Guava
  • Mango
  • Pomegranate
  • Tomato
  • Summary and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 25. Bioactive ingredients of legumes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26. Effects of nuts consumption on cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nut consumption and risk of all-cause mortality
  • Effects of nuts on clinical and biochemical risk factors
  • Diet, nut intake, and risk of non-communicable diseases
  • Controlled trials of nut consumption
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Section 6: Spices as new functional foods
  • Chapter 27. Effects of fenugreek seeds on cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Fenugreek seeds
  • Mechanisms
  • Effects of fenugreek seeds on blood lipids and blood glucose
  • Effects of fenugreek seeds on oxidative stress and inflammation
  • Other beneficial effects of fenugreek seeds
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 28. Functional and therapeutic applications of some general and rare spices
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Anise or aniseed
  • Asafetida
  • Bishop’s weed
  • Clove
  • Cumin
  • Fennel
  • Saffron
  • Star anise
  • Sweet flag
  • Vanilla
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 7: Probiotics and prebiotics and microbiome
  • Chapter 29. Beneficial effects of cinnamon on cardiovascular risk factors and type 2 diabetes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chemical composition
  • Medicinal uses of cinnamon
  • Comments
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 30. Novel prebiotics and next-generation probiotics: opportunities and challenges
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The human alimentary tract
  • Prebiotic concept: influence of gut flora and health benefits
  • Probiotics
  • Prebiotics and probiotics in the management of obesity
  • Conclusion and future research
  • References
  • Chapter 31. Effect of lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 as a tyndallized probiotic in allergic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Animal experiments
  • Clinical evidence
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 8: Bee products
  • Chapter 32. The bee propolis for preventing and healing non-communicable diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • What is propolis?
  • Chemical and nutrient composition of propolis
  • Propolis as an antioxidant and immunomodulator
  • Propolis and diabetes
  • Propolis and renal diseases
  • Propolis and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases
  • Propolis and cancer
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 33. Nutraceutical and medicinal properties of native stingless bees honey and their contribution to human health
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Native stingless bee honey
  • Physicochemical characteristics of native stingless bee honey
  • Physical characteristics of native stingless bee honey in Yucatan
  • Chemical characteristics of native stingless bee honey in Yucatan
  • Acidity
  • Total reducing sugars
  • Glucose and sucrose
  • Medicinal properties
  • Chemoprevention
  • Antiinflammatory properties
  • Antibacterial and antifungal properties
  • Healing
  • Dietary supplement
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Section 9: New approaches in food development
  • Chapter 34. Genetically modified organisms and foods: perspectives and challenges
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Probable risks of making use of genetically modified products
  • Benefits of using genetically modified products
  • Basic concepts related to genetically modified products
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 10: Nutrition, NCDS and brain dysfunction
  • Chapter 35. Circadian disruption and metabolic disease risk
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Internal circadian desynchronization resulting from competing synchronizers
  • Circadian rhythm amplification by caloric restriction and time-restricted feeding
  • Circadian rhythm alterations associated with metabolic dysfunction
  • Clock genes and nutrient-sensing pathways
  • Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 36. Anticancerous compounds in fruits, their extraction, and relevance to food
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Fruits and phytochemicals
  • Extraction techniques for anticancer compounds from fruits
  • Methods of application of anticancer compounds in food
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 37. Antioxidant diets and functional foods attenuate dementia and cognition in elderly subjects
  • Abstract
  • List of abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Overview of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases
  • Role of nutrition in the attenuation of dementia and cognition
  • Influence of specific nutrients to protect against neurodegenerative diseases
  • Polyphenolic compounds
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Tryptophan
  • Role of probiotics and prebiotics in the improvement of memory and cognition
  • Multivitamins and trace elements
  • Dietary pattern for improving dementia and cognition
  • Mediterranean + dietary approaches to stop hypertension intervention for neurodegenerative delay diet
  • Physical activity
  • Discussion and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 38. The role of modified Mediterranean neuroprotective diet on emotion, cognition, and depression
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Burden of psychological disorders
  • Risk factors and protective factors in mental disorders
  • Nutrition in psychological disorders
  • Diets for cognition and dementia
  • Mediterranean-style diets and cognition
  • Association of diets with depression
  • Association of micronutrients intake with depression
  • Polyphenols in psychological disorders and dementia
  • The modified Indo-mediterranean neuroprotective diet and emotions
  • The Singh and Wilczynska hypothesis on emotions
  • The theories of emotions
  • Regenerative therapies for emotion, depression, and cognition
  • Prayer, meditation, and yoga
  • Mechanisms
  • Guidelines for prevention of mental disorders
  • Future research
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Section 11: Antioxidants in functional foods
  • Chapter 39. Role of nutraceuticals, functional foods, and spices in the management of metabolic syndrome and related disorders
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Impact of nutraceuticals in the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome and related disorders
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions and future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 40. Nutraceuticals as a natural alternative for preventive and proactive health care
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Categories and subcategories of nutraceuticals
  • Future prospects for nutraceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals from medicinal herbs
  • Nutraceuticals in the management of key diseases
  • Evidence-based nutraceuticals with researched dose from Nutra-V Inc. as examples of natural alternatives
  • Regulatory guidelines
  • Discussion and conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 41. International food security directed toward older adults: an overview
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Author contributions
  • References
  • Section 12: Eating disorders
  • Chapter 42. New choices of functional foods for modification of eating habits of children for prevention of non-communicable diseases in later life
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Transition of eating history and food palatability
  • Unfavorable diet in lunch in kindergartens
  • Strategies to change frequencies of the ingredients for young children
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 13: Nutraceuticals
  • Chapter 43. Vitamins and minerals as nutraceuticals in cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress
  • Role of nutraceuticals in the prevention of cell damage
  • Epidemiological evidence
  • Effects of nutraceutical folic acid on stroke risk
  • Effects of nutraceutical folic acid on cardiovascular diseases risk
  • Effects of B-complex vitamins on stroke risk
  • Comments
  • Individual vitamins and minerals
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 44. Polyphenolics and flavonoids in health and diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Antioxidants in the prevention of cell damage
  • Polyphenolics and flavonoids
  • Effects of polyphenolics and flavonoids on mortality
  • Effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular diseases
  • Effects of flavonoids in hypertension
  • Effects of flavonoids on cardiometabolic risk factors
  • Effects of polyphenols on diabetes
  • Effects of polyphenols and flavonoids on cancers
  • Randomized, controlled trials
  • Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid/flavonoid ratio on cardiovascular diseases
  • Effects of flavonoid intake and bioavailability
  • Selection of flavonoids for therapy
  • Limitations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 45. Interactions of bioflavonoids and other polyphenolic-type nutraceuticals with drugs
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Interactions in general
  • Polyphenols, bioflavonoids, and main sources: a brief overview
  • Other polyphenolic-type compounds frequently used in nutraceuticals
  • The main mechanisms of herbs and dietary supplements–drug interactions
  • The physiological and therapeutic impact of herbs and dietary supplements–drug interactions
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 46. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of nutraceuticals derived from marine origin
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Marine source a rich source of functional foods and nutraceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals as cardioprotective and neuroprotective agents
  • Supplements
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 14: Nutrients for metabolic diseases
  • Chapter 47. Coenzyme Q10 in the pathogenesis and prevention of metabolic and mitochondrial non-communicable diseases
  • Abstract
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Metabolic mitochondrial non-communicable diseases and coenzyme Q10
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 48. Plants of the genus Annona: Source of potential anti-cancer therapeutics
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Family Annonaceae, genus Annona
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 15: Amino acids, cortisol and hydrogen
  • Chapter 49. Molecular hydrogen as a nutraceutical for extending the health span
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Human research progression
  • Amelioration of age-related markers and stressors
  • Relevance in human diseases
  • Adverse events
  • Commercially available options
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Chapter 50. Nutraceuticals to decrease cortisol and hyperglycemia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Tetrahydrocannabivarin
  • Tribulus terrestris
  • Urtica dioica (common nettle)
  • Momordica charantia (bitter melon)
  • Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon)
  • Coccinia indica
  • Salvia officinalis
  • Artichoke
  • Chamomile
  • Sumac bran
  • Citrullus colocynthis
  • Cardamom
  • Chicory
  • Schisandra
  • Carob
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 51. Biochemical and dietary functions of tryptophan and its metabolites in human health
  • Abstract
  • Background information
  • Role of tryptophan in health and disease
  • Dietary requirements of tryptophan
  • Oxidative stress, free radical production, and pathological changes
  • Biochemistry of tryptophan
  • Biosynthesis and metabolism of tryptophan
  • Physiological functions of tryptophan
  • Antioxidant properties of tryptophan and possible mechanisms of action
  • Anti-inflammatory properties of tryptophan
  • Distortion of tryptophan metabolism and occurrence of non-communicable diseases
  • Role of microbial tryptophan catabolism in the gut
  • Clinical studies done with tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan
  • Preclinical studies done with tryptophan
  • Toxicity of tryptophan and its metabolites
  • Antioxidant capacity of stored breast milk
  • Platelet-derived serotonin
  • Chronobiology and chronomedicine of tryptophan
  • Tryptophan’s role in circadian rhythm sleep disorders
  • Discussion and conclusions
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 854
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: November 30, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128231753
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128198155

About the Editor

Ram Singh

Dr. Ram B Singh is president of the Tsim Tsoum Insitutute in Krakow, Poland. He's an honorary fellow of the Halberg Chronobiology Centre, a member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, a fellow of the International Academy of Cardiovascular Sciences, and former president and founder of the Indian Society of Hypertension, International College of Cardiology, and International College of Nutrition. He is the editor of the World Heart Journal and former professor of medicine at Subharti Medical College. He has contributed over 500 research papers to peer reviewed journals and has edited seven books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant Neuro-cardiologist, Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad-10(UP), India

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