Frontiers in Physicochemical Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125669603, 9780323147316

Frontiers in Physicochemical Biology

1st Edition

Editors: Bernard Pullman
eBook ISBN: 9780323147316
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 520
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Frontiers in Physicochemical Biology documents the proceedings of an international symposium held in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, (Fondation Edmond de Rothschild) in Paris, May 23-27, 1977. The symposium was organized to cover the main topics of modern day molecular biology and biophysics, which are also the major disciplines researched at the Institute.
The contributions made by researchers at the symposium are organized into four parts. Part I contains papers on the physical chemistry of fundamental biomolecules. Part II presents studies on physicochemical aspects of the mechanisms of genetic expression. Part III examines the biochemistry of oxygen and hemoglobin. Part IV deals with the study of organized systems.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Part I The Physical Chemistry of Fundamental Biomolecules

1 Current Progress and Future Prospects of the Research on Nucleic Acids

I. Introduction

II. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies

III. Experimental Evaluation of Electrostatic Interaction and Studies on Nonionic Oligonucleotide Analogues

IV. Future Prospects


2 The Structure of Transfer RNA Molecules in Solution

I. Introduction

II. Tertiary Structure of tRNA in Solution

III. Ring-Current Shift Theory Analysis of Low-Field nmr Spectra

IV. Hydrogen Binding of the Ribose 2'-OH Group in RNA

V. Summary


3 The Chemistry of Membrane-Active Peptides and Proteins



4 Conformational Analysis of Polypeptides: Application to Homologous Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Standard Geometry

III. Computation Procedures

IV. Approaches to the Multiple-Minimum Problem

V. Computation of Models for the Three-Dimensional Structures of Three Snake Venom Inhibitors

VI. Concluding Remarks


5 Aspects of Biomolecules in Their Surroundings: Hydration and Cation Binding

I. Introduction

II. Hydration

III. Cation Binding

IV. The Triple System: Substrate-Water-Cation or the Problem of the Through-Water Cation Binding


Part II Physicochemical Aspects of the Mechanisms of Genetic Expression

6 Site-Directed Mutagenesis as a Tool in Genetics

I. Phage Qβ and Its Replication

II. Site-Directed Mutations in Qβ RNA

III. Perspectives for Site-Directed Mutagenesis


7 Gene Control by the λ Phage Repressor

I. Operator Structure

II. Promoter Structure

III. λ Repressor

IV. Repressor Control of Ν and cro

V. Self-Regulation of cl

VI. Translational Control of cI

VII. Summary


8 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Protein-Nucleotide Interactions

I. Ternary Enzyme-Metal Nucleotide Complexes

II. Higher Enzyme-Substrate Complexes

III. Working Enzymes

IV. Conclusions


9 The Role of RNA's in the Structure and Function of Ribosomes

I. A Rapid Survey of Present Knowledge on the Structure of E. coli Ribosomal RNA's

II. RNA-RNA Interactions

III. Interactions between Ribosomal RNA's and Proteins


10 Mechanism of Initiation of Protein Synthesis

I. Initiation Sequence: Characterization of Factors

II. Selection of Initiation Signals

III. Secondary Structure of mRNA as Negative Control

IV. Part Played by Ribosomal Proteins and Initiation Factors

V. Specific Mutants Affecting Initiation

VI. Conclusion


Part III Biochemistry of Oxygen and Hemoglobin

11 Molecular Oxygen and Superoxide Dismutase: Environmental Threat and Biological Defense

I. Induction of Superoxide Dismutase in Escherichia coli K12

II. Induction of Superoxide Dismutase in E. coli, at Constant Oxygenation, in Response to Changes in Metabolism

III. A Convenient New Assay for Superoxide Dismutase


12 Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase: A Superoxide-Utilizing Enzyme

I. Introduction

II. Biological Function

III. Purification and Molecular Properties

IV. Role of Superoxide Anion

V. Experiments with KO2

VI. Interaction of Enzyme with KO2

VII. Experiments with 18O2-

VIII. Interaction of Enzyme with Substrate

IX. Is O2- a Substrate in Vivo?

X. Conclusion


13 Reaction Intermediates of D-Amino Acid Oxidase

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence of Two Types of Oxidoreduction Intermediates

III. Lifetime of the Purple Intermediate

IV Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on the Formation of the Intermediate

V. Role of Protein in the Formation of the Intermediates

VI. Reactivity of the Intermediates with Molecular Oxygen


14 Biological Aspects of Superoxide Dismutase

I. Introduction

II. Production of O2-

III. Superoxide Dismutases

IV. Variation in SOD Levels during Development of Ceratitis capitata

V. Erythrocyte SOD, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase Levels in Different Animals

VI. Biological Utility of O2-

VII. Toxicity of Superoxide Radicals

VIII. Ionizing Irradiations

IX. Chemiluminescence of O2-

X. Clinical Aspects of SOD Levels in Humans

XI. General Conclusion


15 Recent Developments on the Active-Site Structure and Mechanism of Bovine Copper- and Zinc-Containing Superoxide Dismutase

I. Chemical Structure of the Metal Binding Sites and General Reaction Mechanism of the Enzyme

II. Anionic Inhibitors of the Enzyme

III. Spectral Studies of Co2+-Substituted Superoxide Dismutase

IV. Catalytic Protonation and Deprotonation of the Bridging Imidazole


16 Binding of Oxygen to Hemoglobin A in the T-State

I. Models

II. The Value of L and Properties of R- and T-State Hemoglobins

III. Effects of Temperature on the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Reaction

IV. Effect of pH and Effectors

V. Conclusions and Problems


Part IV Study of Organized Systems

17 The Structure and Assembly of the Membrane of Semliki Forest Virus

I. Semliki Forest Virus

II. Composition of SFV

III. Growth Cycle of SFV

IV. Structure of the Virus Membrane Glycoproteins

V. The Final Event in Virus Maturation: The Budding



18 Oscillations: A Property of Organized Systems

I. General Mechanistics of Dynamic Organization

II. Nonequilibrium Dynamics

III. Experimental Observation of Oscillations

IV. General Remarks


19 Cation-Induced Regulatory Mechanism of Enzyme Reactions

I. Introduction

II. Catalytic Implications of the Polyelectrolyte Theory: An Oversimplified Treatment

III. Membrane-Bound Enzymes

IV. Gene Expression Systems

V General Conclusion


20 The Proton Pumps of Photosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Protolytic Reactions in Green Plant Photosynthesis

III. The Proton Pumps of Bacterial Photosynthesis

IV. Photochemical Reaction Centers


21 The Photosynthetic Intramembrane Electric Field

I. Formation of the Membrane Potential in Algae

II. Relaxation of the Membrane Potential


Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1978
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Bernard Pullman

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