Foundations of Microprogramming - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120451500, 9781483215877

Foundations of Microprogramming

1st Edition

Architecture, Software, and Applications

Authors: Ashok K. Agrawala Tomlinson G. Rauscher
Editors: Robert L. Ashenhurst
eBook ISBN: 9781483215877
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1976
Page Count: 436
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Description

Foundations of Microprogramming: Architecture, Software, and Applications discusses the foundations and trends in microprogramming, focusing on the architectural, software, and application aspects of microprogramming. The book reviews microprocessors, microprogramming concepts, and characteristics, as well as the architectural features in microprogrammed computers. The text explains support software and the different hierarchies or levels of languages. These include assembler languages which are mnemonic or symbolic representation of machine commands; the procedure oriented machine-dependent; and the procedure oriented machine independent. A simulator is used to interpret programs written in machine or micro-language before the instructions in the program can be run. A simulator and translator (which change some steps from one program written in another language to another program) should interface with the design language of the computer for these components to operate even when a new machine is developed. The book cites four existing computers which have "simple" diagonal microinstructions such as the Hewlett-Packard HP21MX and the Microdata 3200. Horizontal types of microinstructions allow parallel execution of many micro-operations, such as the Cal Data family of computers, the Varian 73, and the NANODATA QM-1. Microprogramming is applied in emulation, program enhancement, operating systems, signal processing, and graphics. The text can benefit programmers, computer engineers, computer technicians, and computer instructors dealing with many aspects of computers such as programming, hardware interface, networking, engineering or design.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 Introduction to Microprogramming Concepts

1.1 Basic Computer Organization

1.1.1 Basic Hardware Resources

1.1.2 Control of Primitive Operations

1.1.3 Generation of Control Information

1.2 Evolution of Microprogramming

1.3 A Simple Microprogrammable Machine — An Example

1.4 Microprogramming and Programming

1.5 Microprogrammability

1.6 Microprogramming, Microprocessors, and Microcomputers

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 2 Architectural Characteristics of Microprogrammed Computers

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Hardware Components

2.2.1 Overview of Hardware Components

2.2.2 Control Store Design

2.2.3 Arithmetic and Logic Unit Design

2.2.4 Local Store

2.2.5 Main Memory

2.2.6 DataPaths

2.2.7 Summary of the SMM

2.3 Microinstruction Design

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 The Vertical-Horizontal Characteristics

2.3.3 The Encoding Characteristic

2.3.4 Microinstruction Design for the SMM

2.3.5 Microinstruction Sequencing

2.3.6 Residual Control

2.3.7 Control Store Literals

2.4 Microinstruction Implementation

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 The Serial-Parallel Characteristics

2.4.3 The Monophase-Polyphase Characteristics

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 3 Microprogramming Languages and Support Software

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Microprogramming Languages and their Translators

3.3 Simulators and Their Implementation

3.4 Computer Description Languages

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 4 Computers with Vertical Microinstructions

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Standard Logic CASH-8

4.2.1 CASH-8 Background

4.2.2 CASH-8 Architecture

4.2.3 CASH-8 Microprogrammability

4.3 The Burroughs B17ØØ

4.3.1 Burroughs B17ØØ Overview

4.3.2 B1726 Architecture

4.3.3 B1726 Microprogrammability

4.3.4 B1726 Microprogramming Language

4.3.5 Sample B1726 Microprograms

Bibliography

Chapter 5 Computers with Diagonal Microinstructions

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Hewlett-Packard HP21MX

5.2.1 HP21MX Background

5.2.2 HP21MX Architecture

5.2.3 HP21MX Microprogrammability

5.2.4 HP21MX Microprogram Examples

5.2.5 Additional HP21MX Features

5.3 The Digital Scientific META 4

5.3.1 META 4 Background

5.3.2 META 4 Architecture

5.3.3 META 4 Microprogrammability

5.3.4 META 4 Examples

5.4 The INTERDATA Model 85

5.4.1 INTERDATA Model 85 Background

5.4.2 INTERDATA Model 85 Architecture

5.4.3 INTERDATA 85 Microprogrammability

5.4.4 INTERDATA 85 Microprogram Example

5.5 The Microdata 32ØØ

5.5.1 Microdata 32ØØ Background

5.5.2 Microdata 32ØØ Architecture

5.5.3 Microdata 32ØØ Microprogrammability

5.5.4 Microdata 32ØØ Microprogram Example

5.6 Other Computers with Diagonal Microinstructions

5.6.1 The Datasaab FCPU

5.6.2 The MLP-9ØØ

5.6.3 The Control Data 56ØØ

5.6.4 The Data General ECLIPSE

Bibliography

Chapter 6 Computers with Horizontal Microinstructions

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Cal Data Processor

6.2.1 Cal Data Background

6.2.2 Cal Data Architecture

6.2.3 Cal Data Microprogrammability

6.2.4 Cal Data Microprogram Example

6.3 The PRIME 3ØØ

6.3.1 PRIME 3ØØ Background

6.3.2 PRIME 3ØØ Architecture

6.3.3 PRIME 3ØØ Microprogrammability

6.4 The Varian 73

6.4.1 Varian 73 Background

6.4.2 Varian 73 Architecture

6.4.3 Varian 73 Microprogrammability

6.4.4 Additional Varian 73 Features

6.5 Tne Nanodata QM-1

6.5.1 QM-1 Background

6.5.2 QM-1 Architecture

6.5.3 QM-1 Microprogrammability and Nanoprogrammability

6.5.4 QM-1 Examples

6.6 The Burroughs Interpreter

6.6.1 Interpreter Background

6.6.2 Interpreter Architecture

6.6.3 Interpreter Microprogrammability

6.6.4 Interpreter Examples

6.6.5 Interpreter Applications

6.7 The Argonne Microprocessor (AMP)

6.7.1 AMP Background

6.7.2 AMP Architecture

6.7.3 AMP Microprogrammability

6.7.4 AMP Example

6.7.5 AMP Experiences

6.8 MATHILDA

6.8.1 MATHILDA Background

6.8.2 MATHILDA Architecture

6.8.3 MATHILDA Microprogrammability

6.8.4 MATHILDA Example

6.8.5 Additional MATHILDA Features

Bibliography

Chapter 7 Developments in Microprogramming Languages

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Register Transfer Microprogramming Languages

7.3 Higher Level Machine-Dependent Languages

7.4 Higher Level Machine-Independent Languages

7.5 An Evaluation of Developments in Microprogramming Languages

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 8 Applications of Microprogramming

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Emulation

8.3 Program Enhancement

8.4 Executing Higher Level Language Programs

8.5 Operating Systems

8.6 Signal Processing

8.7 Graphics

8.8 Microdiagnostics and Fault Tolerance

8.9 Other Applications of Microprogramming

Annotated Bibliography

Chapter 9 Perspective

9.1 Overview

9.2 The Past

9.3 The Present

9.4 The Future

9.5 Concluding Remarks

Annotated Bibliography

Details

No. of pages:
436
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483215877

About the Author

Ashok K. Agrawala

Tomlinson G. Rauscher

About the Editor

Robert L. Ashenhurst

Ratings and Reviews