Forest Monitoring - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080982229, 9780080982250

Forest Monitoring, Volume 12

1st Edition

Methods for terrestrial investigations in Europe with an overview of North America and Asia

Series Volume Editors: Marco Ferretti Richard Fischer
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080982229
eBook ISBN: 9780080982250
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 18th March 2013
Page Count: 536
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Table of Contents

Series Page




Chapter 1. Forest Monitoring: An Introduction

1.1 Setting the Scene

1.2 What is Forest Monitoring?

1.3 Monitoring and Science

1.4 Forest Monitoring by Terrestrial Methods: What Has Been Done?

1.5 This Book


Chapter 2. Pan-European Forest Monitoring: An Overview

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Forest Information Needs

2.3 Approaches of Assessing Forest Information

2.4 ICP Forests

2.5 Cooperations in Monitoring and Data Analyses

2.6 Results

2.7 Conclusions


Chapter 3. Forest and Related-Ecosystem Monitoring in Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Possible Effects of Air Pollution/Acid Deposition in East Asian Forests

3.3 Monitoring Methods in Forest and Related Ecosystems

3.4 Achievements of the Monitoring Program

3.5 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Forest Monitoring Methods in the United States and Canada: An Overview

4.1 Introduction

4.2 FHM in the United States

4.3 Forest Monitoring in Canada: National Early Warning System and the AOSR Case Study

4.4 Conclusion


Chapter 5. A Quality Assurance Framework for Designing Forest Monitoring Programs

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Data Requirements and Sources of Error

5.3 Promoting a QA Framework

5.4 Conclusion: A QA Perspective to Drive the Monitoring Design


Chapter 6. Concepts and Design Principles Adopted in the International Cooperative Program on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests)

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Defining Program Objectives and Implications

6.3 Nature of Monitoring Networks

6.4 Type, Number, and Characteristics of the Monitoring Plots and Sites

6.5 Measurements

6.6 Quality Assurance and Data Management

6.7 Conclusions


Chapter 7. Large-Scale Pan-European Forest Monitoring Network: A Statistical Perspective for Designing and Combining Country Estimates. Example for Defoliation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Sampling Designs in Large-Scale Forest Monitoring in Europe

7.3 Relationship Between FCM and NFI Networks

7.4 Design-Based European Monitoring System of Forest Condition

7.5 Sampling Strategies at the Country Level

7.6 Aggregating Country Estimates at the European Level

7.7 Conclusions


Chapter 8. Assessment of Tree Condition

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Forest Health Indicators in Relation to Ecosystem Dynamics and Processes

8.3 Procedures for Visual Assessment of Tree Condition

8.4 Assessment of Defoliation, Apical Shoot Architecture, and Fructification

8.5 Biotic and Abiotic Damages

8.6 Assessment of Removals and Mortality

8.7 Assessment of Age

8.8 Relative Crown Distance

8.9 Examples of Results: European Survey and Specific Studies


Chapter 9. Tree Phenology

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Objectives

9.3 Location of Measurements and Observations

9.4 Variables to be Assessed

9.5 Measurements

9.6 Quality Assurance

9.7 Examples of National Applications

9.8 Conclusions


Chapter 10. Tree Growth Measurements in Long-Term Forest Monitoring in Europe

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Objectives

10.3 Field Measurements

10.4 QA and Quality Control

10.5 Calculation of Forest Growth

10.6 Results of Forest Growth Evaluations

10.7 Conclusions


Chapter 11. Assessment of Visible Foliar Injury Induced by Ozone

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Objectives

11.3 Methods

11.4 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

11.5 Data Processing

11.6 Results


Chapter 12. Tree Foliage: Sampling and Chemical Analyses

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sampling

12.3 Chemical Analyses

12.4 Evaluation and Results


Chapter 13. Diversity and Composition of Plant and Lichen Species

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Methods and Techniques

13.3 Measurement Methods

13.4 Quality Assurance

13.5 Data Handling, Analysis, and Interpretation

13.6 Conclusions


Chapter 14. Litterfall—Biomass, Chemistry, Leaf Area, and Links with Wider Ecosystem Functioning

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Objectives

14.3 Field Procedures

14.4 Laboratory Procedures

14.5 An Evaluation of Litterfall Links with Wider Ecosystem Functioning


Chapter 15. Forest Soil: Characterization, Sampling, Physical, and Chemical Analyses

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Field Sampling and Field Measurements

15.3 Laboratory Measurements

15.4 Data Compilation and Validation

15.5 Submission of the Data to and Storage in the Central Database

15.6 Data Evaluation


Chapter 16. Soil Solution: Sampling and Chemical Analyses

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Objectives

16.3 Soil Solution Sampling Techniques

16.4 Storage, Preparation, and Chemical Analyses

16.5 Examples of Published Leaching Fluxes and Critical Limit Exceedances

16.6 Conclusions


Chapter 17. Meteorology

17.1 Importance of Meteorological Variables on Vitality and Development of Forests

17.2 Components of Meteorological Monitoring

17.3 Measurement Design and Techniques

17.4 Data Collection, Transmission, and Storage

17.5 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

17.6 Application of Meteorological Monitoring in Water Budget Modeling


Chapter 18. Atmospheric Deposition to Forest Ecosystems

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Objectives

18.3 The Deposition Process: Terms and Definitions

18.4 Precipitation and Throughfall Sampling

18.5 Interpretation of Atmospheric Deposition

18.6 Gaps in Knowledge and Future Work

18.7 Conclusions


Chapter 19. Methods for Measuring Gaseous air Pollutants in Forests

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Measuring Air Pollutants in Forests

19.3 Results


Chapter 20. Quality Assurance in International Forest Monitoring in Europe

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Components of the QA Program

20.3 Conclusion and Perspectives


Chapter 21. Data Quality in Field Surveys: Methods and Results for Tree Condition, Phenology, Growth, Plant Diversity and Foliar Injury due to Ozone

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Methods to Evaluate Data Quality in Field Surveys

21.3 Design and Organization of Comparison Exercises

21.4 Results

21.5 Conclusion


Chapter 22. Data Quality in Laboratories: Methods and Results for Soil, Foliar, and Water Chemical Analyses

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Components of a Laboratory QA Program

22.3 Reference Methods

22.4 Control Charts

22.5 Reference Materials

22.6 Validation of Analytical Data

22.7 Interlaboratory QA

22.8 Quality Indicators

22.9 Quality Reports


Chapter 23. Methods for Database Quality Assessment

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Data Providers, Database Managers, and Data Users

23.3 Quality Control in Databases

23.4 Documentation of Data Quality

23.5 The Pan-European Forest Monitoring Database: A Prominent Example

23.6 Conclusions and Outlook


Chapter 24. Reporting Forest Monitoring

24.1 Introduction

24.2 A Communications Strategy for Monitoring Programs

24.3 Ways of Reporting

24.4 Use of the Internet

24.5 Data Access

24.6 Conclusions


Chapter 25. Terrestrial Methods in Forest Monitoring: Toward the Next Generation?

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Achievements

25.3 Questions to be Solved

25.4 Future Perspectives

25.5 Conclusions: Toward a New Generation of Forest Monitoring Programs




The demand for comparable, long-term, high quality data on forest ecosystems' status and changes is increasing at the international and global level. Yet, sources for such data are limited and in many case it is not possible to compare data from different monitoring initiatives across space and time because of methodological differences. Apart from technical manuals, there is no comprehensive multidisciplinary, scientific, peer-reviewed reference for forest monitoring methods that can serve and support the user community. This book provides in a single reference the state-of-the-art of monitoring methods as applied at the international level.

The book present scientific concepts and methods that form the basis of the transnational, long-term forest monitoring in Europe and looks at other initiatives at the global level. Standardized methods that have been developed over two decades in international forest monitoring projects are presented. Emphasis is put on trans-nationally harmonized methods, related data quality issues, current achievements and on remaining open questions.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive overview of needs, requirements, organization and possible outcomes of an integrated monitoring program
  • Tested and quality assured, internationally harmonized methodologies based on a complete revision of existing methods carried out in 2009-2011
  • Connection with monitoring results allows assessment of the potential of the monitoring method


The forest research and monitoring community, as well as environmental protection agencies and environmental organizations


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© Elsevier 2013
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About the Series Volume Editors

Marco Ferretti Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

TerraData Environmetrics, Monterotondo Marittimo (Gr), Italy

Richard Fischer Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute for World Forestry, Hamburg, Germany