The demand for comparable, long-term, high quality data on forest ecosystems' status and changes is increasing at the international and global level. Yet, sources for such data are limited and in many case it is not possible to compare data from different monitoring initiatives across space and time because of methodological differences. Apart from technical manuals, there is no comprehensive multidisciplinary, scientific, peer-reviewed reference for forest monitoring methods that can serve and support the user community. This book provides in a single reference the state-of-the-art of monitoring methods as applied at the international level.

The book present scientific concepts and methods that form the basis of the transnational, long-term forest monitoring in Europe and looks at other initiatives at the global level. Standardized methods that have been developed over two decades in international forest monitoring projects are presented. Emphasis is put on trans-nationally harmonized methods, related data quality issues, current achievements and on remaining open questions.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive overview of needs, requirements, organization and possible outcomes of an integrated monitoring program
  • Tested and quality assured, internationally harmonized methodologies based on a complete revision of existing methods carried out in 2009-2011
  • Connection with monitoring results allows assessment of the potential of the monitoring method


The forest research and monitoring community, as well as environmental protection agencies and environmental organizations

Table of Contents

Section 1 – Introduction to Forest Monitoring
Ch. 1.1 Forest monitoring: an introduction
Ch. 1.2 Pan European Forest monitoring – an overview
Ch. 1.3 Forest and related-ecosystem monitoring in Acid Deposition Monitoring in East Asia (EANET)
Ch. 1.4 Forest Monitoring methods in the US and Canada – an overview
Section 2. Designing Forest Monitoring
Ch. 2.1 A Quality Assurance framework for designing forest monitoring programmes
Ch. 2.2 Concepts and design principles adopted in the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests)
Ch. 2.3 A statistical perspective for designing a large-scale European forest monitoring network, combining country estimates and for integration with National Forest Inventories – example for defoliation
Section 3. Monitoring methods for above-ground vegetation
Ch. 3.1 Assessment of tree condition
Ch. 3.2 Tree phenology
Ch. 3.3 Tree growth measurements in long-term forest monitoring in Europe
Ch. 3.4 Assessment of visible foliar injury due to ozone
Ch. 3.5 Tree foliage – sampling and chemical analysis
Ch. 3.7 Litterfall – biomass, chemistry, leaf area and links with wider ecosystem functioning
Section 4. Monitoring methods for soil
Ch. 4.1 Forest soil – characterization, sampling, physical and chemical analyses
Ch. 4.2 Soil solution – sampling and chemical analysis
Section 5. Monitoring methods for atmospheric-related variables in forests
Ch. 5.1 Meteorology
Ch. 5.2 Atmospheric deposition to forest ecosystems
Ch. 5.3 Methods for measuring gaseous air pollutants in forests
Section 6. Methods to ensure monitoring quality
Ch. 6.1 Quality Assurance in international forest monitoring in Europe
Ch. 6.2 Data quality in field surveys: methods and results for tree condition, phenology, growth, plant diversity and foliar injury due to ozone
Ch. 6.3 Data quality assessment in laboratories


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© 2013
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