The demand for comparable, long-term, high quality data on forest ecosystems' status and changes is increasing at the international and global level. Yet, sources for such data are limited and in many case it is not possible to compare data from different monitoring initiatives across space and time because of methodological differences. Apart from technical manuals, there is no comprehensive multidisciplinary, scientific, peer-reviewed reference for forest monitoring methods that can serve and support the user community. This book provides in a single reference the state-of-the-art of monitoring methods as applied at the international level.

The book present scientific concepts and methods that form the basis of the transnational, long-term forest monitoring in Europe and looks at other initiatives at the global level. Standardized methods that have been developed over two decades in international forest monitoring projects are presented. Emphasis is put on trans-nationally harmonized methods, related data quality issues, current achievements and on remaining open questions.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive overview of needs, requirements, organization and possible outcomes of an integrated monitoring program
  • Tested and quality assured, internationally harmonized methodologies based on a complete revision of existing methods carried out in 2009-2011
  • Connection with monitoring results allows assessment of the potential of the monitoring method


The forest research and monitoring community, as well as environmental protection agencies and environmental organizations

Table of Contents

Series Page




Chapter 1. Forest Monitoring: An Introduction

1.1 Setting the Scene

1.2 What is Forest Monitoring?

1.3 Monitoring and Science

1.4 Forest Monitoring by Terrestrial Methods: What Has Been Done?

1.5 This Book


Chapter 2. Pan-European Forest Monitoring: An Overview

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Forest Information Needs

2.3 Approaches of Assessing Forest Information

2.4 ICP Forests

2.5 Cooperations in Monitoring and Data Analyses

2.6 Results

2.7 Conclusions


Chapter 3. Forest and Related-Ecosystem Monitoring in Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Possible Effects of Air Pollution/Acid Deposition in East Asian Forests

3.3 Monitoring Methods in Forest and Related Ecosystems

3.4 Achievements of the Monitoring Program

3.5 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Forest Monitoring Methods in the United States and Canada: An Overview

4.1 Introduction

4.2 FHM in the United States

4.3 Forest Monitoring in Canada: National Early Warning System and the AOSR Case Study

4.4 Conclusion


Chapter 5. A Quality Assurance Framework for Designing Forest Monitoring Programs

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Data Requirements and Sources of Error

5.3 Promoting a QA Framework

5.4 Conclusion: A QA Perspective to Drive the Monitoring Design


Chapter 6. Concepts and Design Principles Adopted in the International Cooperative Program on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests)

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Defining Program Objectives and Implications

6.3 Nature of Monitoring Networks

6.4 Type, Number, and Characteristics of the Monitoring Pl


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© 2013
eBook ISBN:
Print ISBN:

About the series-volume-editors

Marco Ferretti

Affiliations and Expertise

TerraData Environmetrics, Monterotondo Marittimo (Gr), Italy

Richard Fischer

Affiliations and Expertise

Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute for World Forestry, Hamburg, Germany