Forest Monitoring

Forest Monitoring

Methods for terrestrial investigations in Europe with an overview of North America and Asia

1st Edition - March 16, 2013

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  • Editors: Marco Ferretti, Richard Fischer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080982250

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The demand for comparable, long-term, high quality data on forest ecosystems' status and changes is increasing at the international and global level. Yet, sources for such data are limited and in many case it is not possible to compare data from different monitoring initiatives across space and time because of methodological differences. Apart from technical manuals, there is no comprehensive multidisciplinary, scientific, peer-reviewed reference for forest monitoring methods that can serve and support the user community. This book provides in a single reference the state-of-the-art of monitoring methods as applied at the international level.The book present scientific concepts and methods that form the basis of the transnational, long-term forest monitoring in Europe and looks at other initiatives at the global level. Standardized methods that have been developed over two decades in international forest monitoring projects are presented. Emphasis is put on trans-nationally harmonized methods, related data quality issues, current achievements and on remaining open questions.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive overview of needs, requirements, organization and possible outcomes of an integrated monitoring program
  • Tested and quality assured, internationally harmonized methodologies based on a complete revision of existing methods carried out in 2009-2011
  • Connection with monitoring results allows assessment of the potential of the monitoring method


The forest research and monitoring community, as well as environmental protection agencies and environmental organizations

Table of Contents

  • Series Page




    Chapter 1. Forest Monitoring: An Introduction

    1.1 Setting the Scene

    1.2 What is Forest Monitoring?

    1.3 Monitoring and Science

    1.4 Forest Monitoring by Terrestrial Methods: What Has Been Done?

    1.5 This Book


    Chapter 2. Pan-European Forest Monitoring: An Overview

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Forest Information Needs

    2.3 Approaches of Assessing Forest Information

    2.4 ICP Forests

    2.5 Cooperations in Monitoring and Data Analyses

    2.6 Results

    2.7 Conclusions


    Chapter 3. Forest and Related-Ecosystem Monitoring in Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Possible Effects of Air Pollution/Acid Deposition in East Asian Forests

    3.3 Monitoring Methods in Forest and Related Ecosystems

    3.4 Achievements of the Monitoring Program

    3.5 Conclusions


    Chapter 4. Forest Monitoring Methods in the United States and Canada: An Overview

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 FHM in the United States

    4.3 Forest Monitoring in Canada: National Early Warning System and the AOSR Case Study

    4.4 Conclusion


    Chapter 5. A Quality Assurance Framework for Designing Forest Monitoring Programs

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Data Requirements and Sources of Error

    5.3 Promoting a QA Framework

    5.4 Conclusion: A QA Perspective to Drive the Monitoring Design


    Chapter 6. Concepts and Design Principles Adopted in the International Cooperative Program on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests)

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Defining Program Objectives and Implications

    6.3 Nature of Monitoring Networks

    6.4 Type, Number, and Characteristics of the Monitoring Plots and Sites

    6.5 Measurements

    6.6 Quality Assurance and Data Management

    6.7 Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Large-Scale Pan-European Forest Monitoring Network: A Statistical Perspective for Designing and Combining Country Estimates. Example for Defoliation

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Sampling Designs in Large-Scale Forest Monitoring in Europe

    7.3 Relationship Between FCM and NFI Networks

    7.4 Design-Based European Monitoring System of Forest Condition

    7.5 Sampling Strategies at the Country Level

    7.6 Aggregating Country Estimates at the European Level

    7.7 Conclusions


    Chapter 8. Assessment of Tree Condition

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Forest Health Indicators in Relation to Ecosystem Dynamics and Processes

    8.3 Procedures for Visual Assessment of Tree Condition

    8.4 Assessment of Defoliation, Apical Shoot Architecture, and Fructification

    8.5 Biotic and Abiotic Damages

    8.6 Assessment of Removals and Mortality

    8.7 Assessment of Age

    8.8 Relative Crown Distance

    8.9 Examples of Results: European Survey and Specific Studies


    Chapter 9. Tree Phenology

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Objectives

    9.3 Location of Measurements and Observations

    9.4 Variables to be Assessed

    9.5 Measurements

    9.6 Quality Assurance

    9.7 Examples of National Applications

    9.8 Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Tree Growth Measurements in Long-Term Forest Monitoring in Europe

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Objectives

    10.3 Field Measurements

    10.4 QA and Quality Control

    10.5 Calculation of Forest Growth

    10.6 Results of Forest Growth Evaluations

    10.7 Conclusions


    Chapter 11. Assessment of Visible Foliar Injury Induced by Ozone

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Objectives

    11.3 Methods

    11.4 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    11.5 Data Processing

    11.6 Results


    Chapter 12. Tree Foliage: Sampling and Chemical Analyses

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Sampling

    12.3 Chemical Analyses

    12.4 Evaluation and Results


    Chapter 13. Diversity and Composition of Plant and Lichen Species

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Methods and Techniques

    13.3 Measurement Methods

    13.4 Quality Assurance

    13.5 Data Handling, Analysis, and Interpretation

    13.6 Conclusions


    Chapter 14. Litterfall—Biomass, Chemistry, Leaf Area, and Links with Wider Ecosystem Functioning

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Objectives

    14.3 Field Procedures

    14.4 Laboratory Procedures

    14.5 An Evaluation of Litterfall Links with Wider Ecosystem Functioning


    Chapter 15. Forest Soil: Characterization, Sampling, Physical, and Chemical Analyses

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Field Sampling and Field Measurements

    15.3 Laboratory Measurements

    15.4 Data Compilation and Validation

    15.5 Submission of the Data to and Storage in the Central Database

    15.6 Data Evaluation


    Chapter 16. Soil Solution: Sampling and Chemical Analyses

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Objectives

    16.3 Soil Solution Sampling Techniques

    16.4 Storage, Preparation, and Chemical Analyses

    16.5 Examples of Published Leaching Fluxes and Critical Limit Exceedances

    16.6 Conclusions


    Chapter 17. Meteorology

    17.1 Importance of Meteorological Variables on Vitality and Development of Forests

    17.2 Components of Meteorological Monitoring

    17.3 Measurement Design and Techniques

    17.4 Data Collection, Transmission, and Storage

    17.5 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    17.6 Application of Meteorological Monitoring in Water Budget Modeling


    Chapter 18. Atmospheric Deposition to Forest Ecosystems

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Objectives

    18.3 The Deposition Process: Terms and Definitions

    18.4 Precipitation and Throughfall Sampling

    18.5 Interpretation of Atmospheric Deposition

    18.6 Gaps in Knowledge and Future Work

    18.7 Conclusions


    Chapter 19. Methods for Measuring Gaseous air Pollutants in Forests

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Measuring Air Pollutants in Forests

    19.3 Results


    Chapter 20. Quality Assurance in International Forest Monitoring in Europe

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Components of the QA Program

    20.3 Conclusion and Perspectives


    Chapter 21. Data Quality in Field Surveys: Methods and Results for Tree Condition, Phenology, Growth, Plant Diversity and Foliar Injury due to Ozone

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Methods to Evaluate Data Quality in Field Surveys

    21.3 Design and Organization of Comparison Exercises

    21.4 Results

    21.5 Conclusion


    Chapter 22. Data Quality in Laboratories: Methods and Results for Soil, Foliar, and Water Chemical Analyses

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Components of a Laboratory QA Program

    22.3 Reference Methods

    22.4 Control Charts

    22.5 Reference Materials

    22.6 Validation of Analytical Data

    22.7 Interlaboratory QA

    22.8 Quality Indicators

    22.9 Quality Reports


    Chapter 23. Methods for Database Quality Assessment

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Data Providers, Database Managers, and Data Users

    23.3 Quality Control in Databases

    23.4 Documentation of Data Quality

    23.5 The Pan-European Forest Monitoring Database: A Prominent Example

    23.6 Conclusions and Outlook


    Chapter 24. Reporting Forest Monitoring

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 A Communications Strategy for Monitoring Programs

    24.3 Ways of Reporting

    24.4 Use of the Internet

    24.5 Data Access

    24.6 Conclusions


    Chapter 25. Terrestrial Methods in Forest Monitoring: Toward the Next Generation?

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Achievements

    25.3 Questions to be Solved

    25.4 Future Perspectives

    25.5 Conclusions: Toward a New Generation of Forest Monitoring Programs



Product details

  • No. of pages: 536
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: March 16, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080982250

About the Series Volume Editors

Marco Ferretti

Affiliations and Expertise

TerraData Environmetrics, Monterotondo Marittimo (Gr), Italy

Richard Fischer

Affiliations and Expertise

Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute for World Forestry, Hamburg, Germany

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