Forensic Toxicology

Forensic Toxicology

Principles and Concepts

2nd Edition - October 22, 2021

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  • Authors: Nicholas Lappas, Courtney Lappas
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128192863
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128192870

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Description

The second edition of Forensic Toxicology: Principles and Concepts takes the reader back to the origins of forensic toxicology providing an overview of the largely unchanging principles of the discipline. The text focuses on the major tenets in forensic toxicology, including an introduction to the discipline, principles of forensic toxicology including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions and toxicogenomics, fundamentals of forensic toxicology analysis, types of interpretations based on analytical forensic toxicology results, and reporting from the laboratory to the courtroom. Also included in the second edition is a Unit focused on the forensic toxicology of individual drugs of abuse.

Key Features

  • Includes significant emphasis on the fundamental principles and concepts of forensic toxicology
  • Provides students with an introduction to the core tenets of the discipline, focusing on the concepts, strategies, and methodologies utilized by professionals in the field
  • Coauthored by a forensic toxicologist with over 40 years of experience as a professor who has taught graduate courses in forensic and analytical toxicology and who has served as a consultant and expert witness in civil and criminal cases

Readership

Upper Level Undergraduate Students and beginning Graduate Students studying Forensic Toxicology and/or Forensic Chemistry

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Section 1. Principles of Toxicology
  • Chapter 1. Principles of Pharmacokinetics
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Acid Base Chemistry
  • 1.3. Transmembrane Movement
  • 1.4. Absorption
  • 1.5. Distribution
  • 1.6. Metabolism
  • 1.7. Excretion
  • 1.8. Conclusion
  • Chapter 2. Principles of Pharmacodynamics
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Drug Effects
  • 2.3. Specific and Nonspecific drugs
  • 2.4. Target Molecules
  • 2.5. Receptor Theories
  • 2.6. Transduction Systems
  • Chapter 3. Drug Interactions
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Opioids
  • 3.3. Cannabinoids
  • 3.4. Ethanol
  • 3.5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 4. Toxicogenomics
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Transport Proteins
  • 4.3. Metabolic Enzymes
  • 4.4. Phase I Metabolic Enzymes
  • 4.5. Phase II Metabolic Enzymes
  • 4.6. Molecular Autopsy
  • 4.7. Conclusion
  • Review Questions
  • Application Questions
  • Section 2. Introduction to Forensic Toxicology
  • Chapter 5. The Development of Forensic Toxicology
  • 5.1. Definitions
  • 5.2. Landmarks in Forensic Toxicology
  • 5.3. Forensic Toxicology in the United States
  • 5.4. Forensic Toxicology Growing Pains
  • Chapter 6. The Duties and Responsibilities of Forensic Toxicologists
  • 6.1. Analysis
  • 6.2. Interpretation
  • 6.3. Reporting
  • 6.4. Research
  • 6.5. Ethics
  • Review Questions
  • Application Questions
  • Chapter 7. Forensic Toxicology Resources
  • 7.1. Books
  • 7.2. Journals
  • 7.3. Web Resources
  • 7.4. Professional Organizations
  • Chapter 8. The Laboratory
  • 8.1. Administrative Location of the Laboratory
  • 8.2. Personnel
  • 8.3. Laboratory Design
  • 8.4. Laboratory Equipment
  • 8.5. Laboratory Safety
  • 8.6. Laboratory Security
  • Section 3. Analysis
  • Chapter 9. Analytical Strategy
  • 9.1. Types of Analytical Strategies
  • 9.2. The Common Strategy
  • 9.3. Samples
  • 9.4. Analytes
  • Chapter 10. Sample Handling
  • 10.1. Sample Selection
  • 10.2. Sample Collection
  • 10.3. Sample Preservation
  • 10.4. Sample Transport
  • 10.5. Sample Acquisition
  • Review Questions
  • Application Questions
  • Chapter 11. Storage Stability of Analytes
  • 11.1. Stability Studies
  • 11.2. Storage Periods
  • 11.3. Storage Stability of Selected Drugs
  • Review Questions
  • Application Questions
  • Chapter 12. Analytical Samples
  • 12.1. Blood
  • 12.2. Urine
  • 12.3. Breath
  • 12.4. Vitreous Humor
  • 12.5. Hair
  • 12.6. Oral Fluid
  • 12.7. Nails
  • 12.8. Sweat
  • 12.9. Gastric Contents
  • 12.10. Liver
  • 12.11. Bile
  • 12.12. Brain
  • 12.13. Lung
  • 12.14. Adipose Tissue
  • 12.15. Bone and Bone Marrow
  • 12.16. Skeletal Muscle
  • 12.17. Breast Milk
  • 12.18. Neonatal Samples
  • 12.19. Miscellaneous Human Samples
  • 12.20. Nonhuman Samples
  • Chapter 13. Sample Preparation
  • 13.1. Decontamination
  • 13.2. Physical Alteration
  • 13.3. Protein Removal
  • 13.4. Fat Removal
  • 13.5. Hydrolysis
  • 13.6. Extraction
  • 13.7. Volatilization
  • 13.8. Liquid-Liquid Extraction
  • 13.9. Solid-Phase Extraction
  • 13.10. Solid-Phase Microextraction
  • 13.11. Miscellaneous Extraction Techniques
  • Review Questions
  • Application Questions
  • Chapter 14. Methods of Detection, Identification, and Quantitation
  • 14.1. Criteria for the Selection of Methods
  • 14.2. Methods of Detection, Identification, and Quantitation
  • 14.3. Color Tests (Spot Tests)
  • 14.4. Volatilization
  • 14.5. Immunoassays
  • 14.6. Chromatography
  • 10.7. Thin-Layer Chromatography
  • 14.8. Gas Chromatography
  • 14.9. Liquid Chromatography
  • 14.10. Mass Spectrometry
  • 14.11. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
  • 14.12. Additional Methods
  • Chapter 15. Quality Assurance and Quality Control
  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. Records
  • 15.3. Methods Validation
  • 15.4. Control Methods
  • 15.5. Proficiency Testing
  • 15.6. Analyst Competence
  • 15.7. Security
  • 15.8. Accreditation
  • 15.9. Additional Resources
  • Chapter 16. Analytical Errors
  • 16.1. Sample Preparations
  • 16.2. Analytical Synthesis
  • 16.3. Thermal Effects
  • 16.4. Derivatization
  • Section 4. Interpretation
  • Chapter 17. Types of Interpretations
  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. Reasoning in Forensic Toxicology Interpretation
  • 17.3. Nonanalytical Case-Related Evidence
  • 17.4. Interpretations
  • 17.5. Was a Person Exposed to a Specific Drug?
  • 17.6. Was the Presence of the Detected Drug Due to Intentional or Unintentional Use?
  • 17.7. What Was the Route of Administration?
  • 17.8. What Was the Elapsed Time between the Last Dose and Sample Collection?
  • 17.9. Was the Subject a Naïve or a Chronic User?
  • 17.10. Was the Presence of an Analyte Consistent with “Old” Use or “New” Use?
  • 17.11. Is the Presence or Concentration of an Analyte a Violation of a Statute or Regulation?
  • 17.12. Did the Drug or Chemical Cause or Contribute to an Adverse Event?
  • Chapter 18. Factors That Influence the Interpretations of Analyte Concentrations
  • 18.1. Tolerance and Addiction
  • 18.2. Postmortem Redistribution
  • 18.3. Age
  • 18.4. Hysteresis
  • 18.5. Adulterants, Diluents, and Contaminants
  • Section 5. Reporting
  • Chapter 19. Reports
  • 19.1. Laboratory Reports
  • 19.2. Expert Reports
  • Chapter 20. Testifying
  • 20.1. Preliminaries
  • 20.2. Qualification of the Expert Witness
  • 20.3. Admissibility of Scientific Testimony
  • 20.4. Expert Testimony
  • 20.5. The Dos and Don’ts of Expert Testifying
  • 20.5.8. Hot Tubbing
  • Section 6. Drugs of Abuse
  • Chapter 21. Ethanol
  • 21.1. Disposition
  • 21.2. Pharmacodynamics
  • 21.3. Stability
  • 21.4. Analysis
  • 21.5. Interpretation
  • Chapter 22. Opioids
  • 22.1. Opioids
  • 22.2. Chemical Structures
  • 22.3. Opioid Derivations
  • 22.4. Pharmacokinetics
  • 22.5. Pharmacodynamics
  • 22.6. Novel Synthetic Opioids
  • 22.7. Tolerance
  • 22.8. Detection of Opioids in Biological Samples
  • 22.9. Stability of Opioids
  • Chapter 23. Morphine
  • 23.1. Pharmacokinetics
  • 23.2. Pharmacodynamics
  • Chapter 24. Heroin
  • 24.1. Pharmacokinetics
  • 24.2. Pharmacodynamics
  • 24.3. Interpretation
  • 24.4. Factors that Influence Interpretation
  • Chapter 25. The Fentanyls
  • 25.1. Fentanyl and Fentanyl Analogs (fentanyls)
  • 25.2. Pharmacokinetics
  • 25.3. Pharmacodynamics
  • 25.4. Analysis
  • 25.5. Interpretation
  • 25.6. Postmortem Redistribution
  • 25.7. Stability
  • Chapter 26. Cannabinoids
  • 26.1. Classification
  • 26.2. Anatomy
  • 26.3. Pharmacokinetics
  • 26.4. Pharmacodynamics
  • 26.5. Acute and Chronic Effects
  • 26.6. Therapeutic Marijuana
  • 26.7. Cause of Death
  • 26.8. Storage and Stability
  • 26.9. Analysis
  • 26.10. Interpretation
  • 26.11. Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Section 7. Cases in Toxicology
  • Chapter 27. The Case of William Palmer
  • Chapter 28. The Case of Marie Besnard
  • Chapter 29. The Case of Claus von Bulow
  • Chapter 30. Physician Poisoners
  • 30.1. The Case of Dr. Mario Jascalevich
  • 30.2. The Case of Dr. Harold Shipman
  • Glossary
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 22, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128192863
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128192870

About the Authors

Nicholas Lappas

Dr. Nicholas T. Lappas, an Associate Professor Emeritus in the Department of Forensic Sciences at the George Washington University, has extensive experience and demonstrated expertise in both the teaching and practice of forensic toxicology. In 1975, Dr. Lappas, was one of the first two full time faculty members appointed to the faculty of the Department of Forensic Sciences at the George Washington University. Prior to this appointment, he was a forensic toxicologist in the Allegheny Coroner’s Office in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At GWU, he developed the MFS program in forensic toxicology, through which he has mentored hundreds of students and taught several graduate courses, including Forensic Toxicology, Analytical Toxicology, Medicinal Chemistry and Forensic Serology. Dr. Lappas’ research interests have been focused on the development of analytical toxicology methods and the evaluation of factors that influence the interpretation of analytical toxicology results. His professional activities include serving as a forensic toxicology consultant in more than 500 criminal and civil cases and as an expert witness in more than 100 cases.

Affiliations and Expertise

The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

Courtney Lappas

Dr. Courtney Lappas, Professor of Biology and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Lebanon Valley College is a Molecular Pharmacologist who has extensive experience teaching and conducting biomedical research. Previously a Fellow at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Lappas’ research interests focus on the utilization of novel pharmacological tools in the treatment and/or prevention of immunological pathologies. Dr. Lappas incorporates her experience in translational research into her teaching and mentoring in courses including Pharmacology, Immunology, Molecular Biology and Drugs and Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lebanon Valley College, Annville, PA, USA

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