Forensic Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128006061, 9780128006245

Forensic Chemistry

1st Edition

Editors: Max Houck
eBook ISBN: 9780128006245
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128006061
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 8th January 2015
Page Count: 492
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Table of Contents

  • Editor: Biography
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Section 1. Introduction
    • Introduction
    • Principles of Forensic Science
      • Glossary
      • What Is Forensic Science?
      • The Trace as the Basic Unit of Forensic Science
      • Two Native Principles
      • Nonnative Principles
      • See also
    • Forensic Classification of Evidence
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Methods of Classification
      • Class Level Information
      • Uniqueness and Individualization
      • Relationships and Context
      • See also
    • Interpretation/The Comparative Method
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Analogy and Comparison within a Forensic Process
      • The Comparative Method within Forensic Science
      • See also
    • The Forensic Analysis of Chemical Unknowns
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Common Submissions
      • Safety Considerations and Presumptive Testing
      • Contextual Information
      • Analytical Approach
      • Interpretation of Results
      • See also
    • Microchemistry
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Types of Microchemical Reactions
      • Microchemical Analysis
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 2. Methods
    • Introduction
    • Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Fundamentals of CE
      • Electrophoretic Mobilities
      • Background Electrolytes
      • Modes of Separation in Electrophoresis
      • Instrumentation and Sample Handling
      • Future Directions
      • See also
    • Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • CE Methodology
      • Injection
      • Separation
      • Detection
      • Interpretation of Electropherograms
      • Recent Developments in CE
      • CE Typing Methodologies Used by Forensic Biologists
      • The Future of CE in Forensic Biology
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry
      • Introduction
      • Applications
      • See also
    • Chromatography: Basic Principles
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Classification of Chromatographic Techniques
      • Chromatographic Distribution Equilibria
      • Band Broadening in Chromatography
      • Additional Comments on Band Broadening
      • Optimization of Chromatographic Performance
      • See also
    • Gas Chromatography
      • Introduction
      • GC Columns
      • Gas Pressure and Flow Control
      • Oven Temperature
      • Sample Introduction
      • Split/Splitless Injection
      • On-Column Injection
      • Solid Injection
      • Programmed Temperature Volatilization Injection
      • Headspace Introduction
      • Pyrolysis GC
      • Simple Injection–Dual Detection
      • Detectors
      • Flame Ionization Detector
      • Nitrogen–Phosphorus Detector or Alkali FID
      • Electron Capture Detector
      • Mass Selective Detector
      • See also
    • Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatography
      • Introduction
      • Column (or Liquid–Solid) Chromatography
      • HPLC and Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography
      • Thin-Layer Chromatography
      • See also
    • Mass Spectrometry
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Instrumentation
      • Sample Introduction
      • Ion Source
      • Mass Analyzer
      • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
      • Ion Detector
      • Data Interpretation
      • Forensic Applications of MS
      • See also
    • Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
      • Introduction
      • Ionization Techniques
      • Sample Preparation and Injection Techniques
      • Matrix Effects
      • Overview of State-of-the-Art LC–MS Instrumentation
      • Application of LC–MS to Forensic Sciences
      • See also
    • Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Multiplied Powers
      • Different Ways of Looking at Data
      • Requirements
      • Instrumentation
      • Forensic Applications
      • See also
    • Spectroscopy: Basic Principles
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Electromagnetic Radiation and Light
      • Matter
      • Interaction between Radiation and Matter
      • Instrumentation and Techniques
      • See also
    • Spectroscopic Techniques
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Identification of Substances
      • Quantification of Substances
      • Related Techniques
      • See also
    • Analytical Light Microscopy
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Microscopes Used in Analysis in the Forensic Sciences
      • See also
    • Microscopy (Electron)
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Additional Instrumentation for Electron Microscope Applications
      • Forensic Applications of SEM
      • See also
    • Presumptive Chemical Tests
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Chemical Tests on Drug Evidence
      • Chemical Tests on Explosives Evidence
      • Chemical Tests on Biological Specimens
      • See also
    • Nonchromatographic Separation Techniques
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Physical Separations
      • Volatile Materials
      • Chemical Separations
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 3. Drugs
    • Introduction
    • Classification
      • Introduction
      • Natural Drugs
      • Semisynthetic Drugs
      • Synthetic Drugs
      • See also
    • Analysis of Controlled Substances
      • Introduction
      • Analytical Strategy
      • Physical Examination
      • Presumptive Tests
      • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
      • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
      • Chromatography
      • Thin-Layer Chromatography
      • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
      • Gas Chromatography
      • Quantitative Chromatographic Analysis
      • Mass Spectrometry
      • Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Volatile Substances and Inhalants
      • Glossary
      • Diagnosis of VSA
      • See also
    • Herbal Psychoactive Substances
      • Introduction
      • Traditional Drugs of Abuse of Herbal Origin
      • Emerging and Popular Herbal Drugs of Abuse
      • Analytical Methods
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • See also
    • Designer Drugs
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Designer Drugs of Various Structural Types
      • Forensic Relevance
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Clandestine Laboratories
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Recognition
      • Forensic Components
      • See also
    • Clandestine Explosive Laboratories
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Recognition of Clandestine Explosive Laboratories
      • Objectives of Clandestine Explosive Laboratory Examination
      • The Examination of Clandestine Explosive Laboratories
      • Case Study: The Explosions in London on July 7, 2005
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Validation of Twelve Chemical Spot Tests for the Detection of Drugs of Abuse
      • Introduction
      • Materials and Methods
      • Results and Discussion
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 4. Fire and Arson
    • Introduction
    • Chemistry of Fire
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Conditions for a Fire
      • Fire as a Chemical Reaction
      • Phase Change and Pyrolysis
      • Heat Source and Transfer
      • Flammability Limits, Flash Point, and Fire Point
      • Ignition
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Physics/Thermodynamics
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Physical Thermodynamics: The Relevant Background
      • The Role of Thermodynamics in Fire Investigation
      • Fire: Ignition and Propagation
      • Thermodynamic Classification of Ignition Sources
      • Smoldering
      • Flames
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Thermal Degradation
      • Introduction
      • Thermal Degradation Effects
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Types of Fires
      • Glossary
      • Theory of Fire
      • Physical States of Fuel
      • The Fire Triangle
      • See also
    • Evidence Collection at Fire Scenes
      • Glossary
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Sample Selection, and Documentation
      • Comparison Samples
      • Packaging Options
      • Clothing and Shoes
      • Liquids for Comparison
      • Evidence Collection for Other Types of Testing
      • See also
    • Fire Scene Inspection Methodology
      • Glossary
      • Introduction and Overview
      • First Assumptions
      • Planning the Investigation
      • Initial Evaluation: Can This Inspection Be Conducted Safely?
      • Documentation
      • Reconstruction
      • Inventory
      • Avoiding Spoliation
      • Origin Determination
      • Cause Determination
      • See also
    • Fire Patterns and Their Interpretation
      • Glossary
      • Introduction and Overview
      • Plume-Generated Patterns
      • Confinement Patterns
      • Movement Patterns
      • Irregular Patterns
      • Spalling
      • Electrical Damage
      • Clean Burn
      • Intensity Patterns
      • Ventilation-Generated Fire Patterns
      • See also
    • Analysis of Fire Debris
      • Introduction
      • Evidence Collection: Sampling Containers
      • Preliminary Examination of Fire-Debris Samples
      • Extraction and Sampling Techniques
      • Analysis
      • See also
    • Interpretation of Fire-Debris Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Classification
      • Interpretation of Neat Liquids
      • Interpretation of ILRs
      • Systematic Approach
      • Significance of Findings
      • See also
    • Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis
      • Introduction
      • Fires and Explosions
      • Pollution and Toxic Substances
      • Unrecognized Hazards and Unexpected Consequences
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 5. Explosives
    • Introduction
    • Explosions
      • Explosives Effects
      • Types of Explosions
      • Primary Effects of an Explosion
      • Results of Explosions
      • See also
    • Commercial
      • Introduction
      • Performance Parameters
      • NG-Containing Explosives
      • AN-Based Explosives
      • Detonating Cords
      • Boosters (Primers)
      • Detonators
      • See also
    • Military
      • Introduction
      • High Explosives
      • Propellants
      • See also
    • Improvised Explosive Devices
      • Introduction
      • Elements of IEDs
      • Effects of IEDs
      • Detection and Countermeasures to IEDs
      • Forensic Science and IEDs
      • The Courts
      • See also
    • Improvised Explosives
      • Introduction
      • History
      • Classifications
      • Mixtures
      • Synthetics
      • See also
    • Explosives: Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Caution!
      • Introduction
      • Methods and Procedures
      • Postexplosion and Trace Analysis of Explosives
      • Criteria of Identification
      • Interpretation
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 6. Interpretation
    • Introduction
    • The Frequentist Approach to Forensic Evidence Interpretation
      • Glossary
      • Example
      • Range Tests
      • Formal Hypothesis Tests
      • Significance Levels and Small or Big Values
      • The Two-Sample t-Test
      • Confidence Intervals
      • Controversies and Issues
      • See also
    • Statistical Interpretation of Evidence: Bayesian Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Bayes' Rule
      • The Value of Evidence
      • Categorical Data and Discrete Hypotheses
      • Continuous Data and Discrete Hypotheses
      • Principles of Evidence Evaluation
      • Interpretation
      • Pitfalls of Intuition
      • See also
    • Chemometrics
      • Introduction
      • Preprocessing Techniques
      • Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering
      • Principal Component Analysis
      • Discriminant Analysis
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 7. Other Methods
    • Introduction
    • Ink Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Composition of Major Types of Writing Inks
      • Ink Comparisons and Identifications
      • Dating of Inks
      • Accelerated Aging
      • See also
    • Chemistry of Print Residue
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Sources of Fingerprint Residue
      • Factors Affecting Fingerprint Composition
      • Future Directions and Conclusions
      • See also
    • Field-Deployable Devices
      • Introduction
      • Hazardous Material Identification
      • Explosives Detection and Identification
      • Clandestine Laboratories
      • The Challenge of “In-Field” Monitoring, Detection, and Identification
      • Principles of Operation of Field-Deployable Devices
      • Spectroscopic Techniques
      • Flame Ionization Techniques
      • Photoionization Detection
      • Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
      • MS and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
      • Other Detection Technologies
      • Discussion
      • See also
    • Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation of Environmental Forensic Evidence
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Dating the Release of Contaminants from Underground Storage Tanks
      • Additives for Age Dating TCE
      • Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis for Source Identification of TCE
      • Surrogate Analysis
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Decomposition Chemistry: Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Decomposition Stages
      • Lipid Degradation
      • Protein Degradation
      • Carbohydrate Degradation
      • Volatile Organic Compounds
      • Preservation of Soft Tissue
      • Vitreous Humor
      • Bone Degradation
      • Analytical Methods
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 8. Professional Issues
    • Introduction
    • Crime Scene to Court
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Task
      • Models
      • Forensic Strategies
      • Integrated Case Management
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Forensic Laboratory Reports
      • Contents of a Report—A “Science” Standard
      • Contents of Report: Legal Standards
      • Reports: Standalone Evidence or Support for a Testifying Expert
      • Ethical Considerations and Forensic Reports
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Health and Safety
      • Glossary
      • Occupational Health and Safety Policy
      • Specific Laboratory Hazards
      • Hazards in the Field
      • See also
    • Measurement Uncertainty
      • Glossary
      • Measurement
      • Measurement to Meaning
      • Measurement Uncertainty
      • Meaning Requires Uncertainty
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Index

Description

Forensic Chemistry is the first publication to provide coordinated expert content from world-renowned leading authorities in forensic chemistry. Covering the range of forensic chemistry, this volume in the Advanced Forensic Science Series provides up-to-date scientific learning on drugs, fire debris, explosives, instrumental methods, interpretation, and more. Technical information, written with the degreed professional in mind, brings established methods together with newer approaches to build a comprehensive knowledge base for the student and practitioner alike. 

Like each volume in the Advanced Forensic Science Series, review and discussion questions allow the text to be used in classrooms, training programs, and numerous other applications. Sections on fundamentals of forensic science, history, safety, and professional issues provide context and consistency in support of the forensic enterprise. Forensic Chemistry sets a new standard for reference and learning texts in modern forensic science. 

Key Features

  • Advanced articles written by international forensic chemistry experts
  • Covers the range of forensic chemistry, including methods and interpretation
  • Includes entries on history, safety, and professional issues
  • Useful as a professional reference, advanced textbook, or training review

Readership

Graduate level students and educators, as well as entry level professionals


Details

No. of pages:
492
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128006245
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128006061

Reviews

"I would certainly recommend this text for those who wish to have a basic grounding in forensic chemistry..it is not to be read as a novel but referred to as a series of academic papers." --Interfaces, Forensic Chemistry


About the Editors

Max Houck Editor

Dr. Max M. Houck is an international forensic expert with over 25 years of experience. Houck has experience in the private sector, academia, local government, and worked at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division. He has worked as a forensic anthropologist, a trace evidence analyst, a researcher, and has managed millions of dollars in grants and awards. Most recently, he was the inaugural Director of the Department of Forensic Sciences in Washington, D.C., overseeing 150 employees and managing the forensic science laboratory, the public health laboratory, and crime scene sciences for the nation’s capital. Houck has worked on a number of mass casualty scenes, including the Branch Davidian Investigation and the September 11, 2001 attack on the Pentagon. Widely published, Houck has dozens of peer-reviewed journal articles and is the author and editor of numerous books. He is co-author of the best-selling Fundamentals of Forensic Science, Science of Crime Scenes, and Success with Expert Testimony, among others. He is the editor of the Advanced Forensic Science series of books. Houck is also founding co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management (the official journal of ASCLD), the only journal that addresses the management, policy, and administration of forensic science. Houck has served on numerous committees, including for the National Academies of Science, NIST, Interpol, The Royal Society, the Director of the FBI, and the White House. He is a popular public speaker and has given presentations at NASA, the Max Planck Institute, an Oxford Roundtable, as well as keynote talks at numerous international conferences. Houck has taught at several universities, including West Virginia University and University of Tampa. His research topics include management, leadership, and policy implications for forensic organizations. Houck has a Bachelors and Masters degree in anthropology from Michigan State University. He received his Ph.D. in Applied Chemistry Summa Cum Laude from Curtin University in Perth, Australia. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Forensic and Intelligence Services, LLC, Virginia, USA