Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis

Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis

Statistical Methods and Applications

2nd Edition - February 13, 2014

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  • Authors: Suresh Babu, Shailendra Gajanan, Prabuddha Sanyal
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124059092

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Description

Food insecurity, the lack of access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life, continues to be a growing problem as populations increase while the world economy struggles. Formulating effective policies for addressing these issues requires thorough understanding of the empirical data and application of appropriate measurement and analysis of that information. Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis, Second Edition has been revised and updated to include hands-on examples and real-world case studies using the latest datasets, tools and methods. Providing a proven framework for developing applied policy analysis skills, this book is based on over 30 years of food and nutrition policy research at the International Food Policy Research Institute and has been used worldwide to impart the combined skills of statistical data analysis, computer literacy and their use in developing policy alternatives.This book provides core information in a format that provides not only the concept behind the method, but real-world applications giving the reader valuable, practical knowledge.

Key Features

  • Updated to address the latest datasets and tools, including STATA software, the future of policy analysis
  • Includes a new chapter on program evaluation taking the reader from data analysis to policy development to post-implementation measurement
  • Identifies the proper analysis method, its application to available data and its importance in policy development using real-world scenarios
  • Over 30% new content and fully revised throughout

Readership

Food scientists and nutritionists, consultants, professionals and advanced students involved in the development and implementation of successful policies and programs for addressing the concerns of adequate food supply to the world

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Introduction

    I: Food Security Policy Analysis

    Section I: Food Security Policy Analysis

    Introduction

    Why Study Food Security Policy Analysis?

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 2

    Chapter 3

    Chapter 4

    Chapter 5

    Chapter 6

    1: Introduction to Food Security: Concepts and Measurement

    Introduction

    Conceptual Framework of Food Security

    Food Security in the Developed World

    Other Policy Issues in the US

    Food Security Concerns in Other Countries

    Measurement of the Determinants of Food Security

    Food Availability

    Food Utilization

    Stability of Availability

    Conclusions

    A Natural Question is Why is Measuring Food Insecurity Important for Better Program Design in Developing Countries?

    Exercises

    2: Implications of Technological Change, Post-Harvest Technology, and Technology Adoption for Improved Food Security—Application of t-Statistic

    Introduction

    Review of Selected Studies

    Food Security Issues and Technology in the United States

    Biofuels—The Chinese Experience

    US Farm Policy and Food Security—Background and Current Issues

    GEO-5 and Coping Mechanisms for the Future

    Empirical Analysis—A Basic Univariate Approach

    Data Description and Analysis

    Two Measures of Household Food Security are Computed:

    Student’s t-test for Testing the Equality of Means

    Policy Implications

    Technical Appendices

    Using Stata for t-tests

    Exercises

    Problem

    3: Effects of Commercialization of Agriculture (Shift from Traditional Crop to Cash Crop) on Food Consumption and Nutrition—Application of Chi-Square Statistic

    Introduction

    A Few Concepts

    Review of Selected Studies

    Organic Farms and Commercialization in the United States

    Organic Farming in a Global Context

    Empirical Analysis

    Data Description and Analysis

    Descriptive Analysis: Cross-Tabulation Results

    Conclusion and Policy Implications

    Technical Appendices

    Limitations of the Chi-Square Procedure

    Exercises

    4: Effects of Technology Adoption and Gender of Household Head: The Issue, Its Importance in Food Security—Application of Cramer’s V and Phi Coefficient

    Introduction

    Review of Selected Studies

    Female Farm Operators in Kenya and Ethiopia: Recent Evidence

    Female Farm Operators in the United States

    Women in Agriculture: The Global Scene

    Uganda’s Coffee Market: A Case Study

    Empirical Analysis

    Data Description and Analysis

    Descriptive Analysis: Cross-Tabulation Results

    Cramer’s V and Phi Tests

    Conclusion and Policy Implications

    Cramer’s V in STATA

    Technical Appendices

    Exercises

    5: Changes in Food Consumption Patterns: Its Importance to Food Security—Application of One-Way ANOVA

    Introduction

    Determinants of Food Consumption Patterns and Its Importance to Food Security and Nutritional Status

    Impact on Food Security

    Review of Selected Studies

    Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

    Data Description

    Analysis Method

    Results

    One-Way ANOVA in STATA

    Conclusion and Policy Implications

    One-Way ANOVA

    Underlying Assumptions in the ANOVA Procedure

    Decomposition of Total Variation

    Number of Degrees of Freedom

    F-Test and Distribution

    Relation of F to T-Distribution

    Exercises

    6: Impact of Market Access on Food Security—Application of Factor Analysis

    Introduction

    Assessing the Linkages of Market Reforms on Food Security and Productivity

    Empirical Analysis

    Technical Concepts

    Data Description and Methodology

    Factor Analysis by Principal Components

    Examining Eigenvalues

    Principal Components Analysis in STATA

    Conclusion and Policy Implications

    Technical Appendices

    Exercises

    II: Nutrition Policy Analysis

    Section II: Nutrition Policy Analysis

    Introduction

    Why Study Nutrition Security?

    What is Nutrition Security and Why Study It?

    What Interventions are Desirable to Improve Nutrition Security?

    Chapter 7

    Chapter 8

    Chapter 9

    Chapter 10

    7: Impact of Maternal Education and Care on Preschoolers’ Nutrition—Application of Two-Way ANOVA

    Introduction

    Conceptual Framework: Linkages Between Maternal Education, Child-Care, and Nutritional Status of Children

    Maternal Education and Nutrition Status in the United States

    Children’s Nutrition and Maternal Education in Kenya

    Cross-Tabulation of Weight for Height with Mothers’ Educational Levels

    Interpreting the Interaction Effect and Post-hoc Tests

    Conclusion

    Technical Appendices

    Post-hoc Procedures

    Exercises

    8: Indicators and Causal Factors of Nutrition—Application of Correlation Analysis

    Introduction

    Review of Selected Studies

    Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the United States

    Food Insecurity in Brazil

    Global Monitoring Report on Nutrition and Millennium Development Goals

    The Impact of the Food Price Spike on Rural Bangladesh

    Malnutrition and Chronic Disease in India

    Malnutrition in Guatemala

    Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

    Data Description and Methodology

    Concepts in Correlation Analysis

    Inference About Population Parameters in Correlation

    Descriptive Analysis

    Main Results

    Correlation Analysis of the Outcome Variables

    Estimating Correlation Using STATA

    Conclusion and Policy Implications

    Exercises

    9: Effects of Individual, Household, and Community Indicators on Child’s Nutritional Status—Application of Simple Linear Regression

    Introduction

    Conceptual Framework and Indicators of Nutritional Status

    Review of Studies on the Determinants of Child Nutritional Status

    Child’s Nutritional Status in the United States

    AIDS and Double Burden in Africa

    Malnutrition and Mortality in Pakistan and INDIA

    Social Participation as Social Capital, Women Empowerment, and Nutrition in Peru

    Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

    Data Description

    Incidence of Stunting and Wasting

    Normality Tests and Transformation of Variables

    Regression Results

    Conclusion

    Exercises

    10: Maternal Education and Community Characteristics as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Children—Application of Multivariate Regression

    Introduction

    Selected Studies on the Role of Maternal Education and Community Characteristics on Child Nutritional Status

    Community Characteristics and Children’s Nutrition in the United States

    Community Characteristics and Child Nutrition in Kenya

    Financial Crisis and Child Nutrition in East Asia

    Double Burden within Mother-Child Pairs: Asian Case

    Empirical Analysis

    Data Description and Methodology

    Descriptive Summary of Independent Variables

    Main Results

    Conclusions

    Exercises

    III: Special Topics on Poverty, Nutrition and Food Policy Analysis

    Section III: Special Topics on Poverty, Nutrition, and Food Policy Analysis

    Introduction

    Chapter 11

    Chapter 12

    Chapter 13

    Chapter 14

    Chapter 15

    Chapter 16

    11: Predicting Child Nutritional Status Using Related Socioeconomic Variables—Application of Discriminant Function Analysis

    Introduction

    Conceptual Framework: Linkages Between Women’s Status and Child Nutrition

    Review of Selected Studies

    Indirect Linkages Between Women’s Status and Child’s Nutritional Status

    USDA Nutrition Assistance Programs: A Case Study from the US

    Case Studies of Women’s Status and Child Nutritional Status from Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Can Garden Plots Save Russia?

    Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

    Data Description and Analysis

    Descriptive Statistics

    Testing the Assumptions Underlying DA Model

    Summary of Main Findings

    Classification Statistics

    Canonical Discriminant Analysis Using STATA

    Conclusions

    Technical Appendix: Discriminant Analysis

    Exercises

    12: Measurement and Determinants of Poverty—Application of Logistic Regression Models

    Introduction

    Dimensions and Rationale for Measuring Poverty

    Construction of Poverty Lines Using Food Energy Intake (FEI) and Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) Approaches

    New Measures of Poverty Based on the Engel Curve

    Selected Review of Studies on Determinants of Poverty

    Poverty and Welfare in the United States

    Agriculture and Poverty in Laos and Cambodia

    Financial Crisis and Poverty in the Russian Federation

    Poverty in Europe

    Poverty in Developing Countries: China and India

    Determinants of Poverty—Binary Logistic Regression Analysis

    Dichotomous Logistic Regression Model

    An Example with the Malawi Dataset

    Expected Determinants of Household Welfare

    Empirical Results

    Measuring model fit

    Interpreting the Logistic Coefficients and Discussion of Results

    Estimating Logistic Regression Models in STATA

    Conclusions and Implications

    Technical appendices

    Exercises

    13: Classifying Households On Food Security and Poverty Dimensions—Application of K-Mean Cluster Analysis

    Introduction

    Food Hardships and Economic Status in the United States

    Food Security, Economic Crisis, and Poverty in India

    Cluster Analysis: Various Approaches

    Hierarchical Clustering Method

    K-Means Method

    Review of Selected Studies Using Cluster Analysis

    Empirical Analysis: K-Means Clustering

    Data Description

    Initial Partitions and Optimum Number of Clusters

    Descriptive Characteristics of the Cluster of Households

    Cluster Centers

    Cluster Analysis in Stata

    Conclusion and Implications

    Exercises

    14: Household Care as a Determinant of Nutritional Status—Application of Instrumental Variable Estimation

    Introduction

    Review of Selected Studies

    Federal Nutrition Programs and Children’s Health in US

    Parental Unemployment and Children’s Health in Germany

    Food Security Using the Gallup World Poll

    Empirical Analysis

    Conclusions

    Exercises

    15: Achieving an Ideal Diet—Modeling with Linear Programming

    Introduction

    Review of the Literature

    Linear Programming Model

    Solution Procedures

    Graphical Solution Approach

    Summary

    Exercises

    16: Food and Nutrition Program Evaluation

    Introduction

    Recent Developments

    Summary and Conclusions

    Section IV: Technical Appendix

    Appendix 1-Introduction to Software Access and Use

    Appendix 2-Software Information

    Appendix 3-SPSS/PC+ Environment and Commands

    Appendix 4-Data Handling

    Appendix 5-SPSS Programming Basics

    Appendix 6-STATA--A Basic Tutorial

    Appendix 7-Anthropometric Indicators--Computation and Use

    Appendix 8-Elements of Matrix Algebra

    Appendix 9-Some Preliminary Statistical Concepts

    Appendix 10-Instrumental Variable Estimation

    Statistical Tables

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 648
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: February 13, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124059092

About the Authors

Suresh Babu

Suresh C Babu is a Senior Research Fellow and Head of Capacity Strengthening at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington D.C. Before joining IFPRI in 1992 as a Research Fellow, Dr. Babu was a Research Economist at the Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Between 1989 and 1994 he spent 5 years in Malawi, Southern Africa on various capacities. He was Senior Food Policy Advisor to the Malawi Ministry of Agriculture on developing a national level Food and Nutrition Information System; an Evaluation Economist for the UNICEF-Malawi working on designing food and nutrition intervention programs; Coordinator of UNICEF/IFPRI food security program in Malawi; and a Senior Lecturer at the Bunda College of Agriculture, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANR). He has been coordinator of IFPRI’s South Asia Initiative and Central Asia Program. His past research covers a range of developmental issues including nutrition economics and policy, economics of soil fertility, famine prevention, market integration, migration, pesticide pollution, groundwater depletion, and gender bias in development. He has published more than 18 books and monographs and 80 peer reviewed journal papers. He has been on the advisory board of World Agricultural Forum and a Coordinating Lead Author of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. He currently conducts research on Capacity Development including Economic Analysis of Extension and Advisory Services; Reforming of National agricultural Research Systems; Understanding Policy Process; and Institutional Innovations for Agricultural Transformation. He is or has been a Visiting as Honorary Professor of Indira Gandhi National Open University, India, American University, Washington DC, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, and Zhejiang University, China. He currently serves or has served on the editorial boards of the following journals – Food Security, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Agricultural Economics Research Review, African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Journal of Management, and African Journal of Food, Nutrition, and Development. Dr. Babu was educated at Agricultural Universities in Tamil Nadu, India (B.S. Agriculture; M.S. Agriculture) and at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (M.S. Economics and PhD Economics).

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Research Fellow and Head of Capacity Strengthening, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA

Shailendra Gajanan

Shailendra Gajanan is a Professor in the Department of Economics, and is the Chair of the Department of Business Management and Education at the University of Pittsburgh, Bradford. He received his BA and MA in Economics from the Presidency College and the Loyola College, University of Madras, India. He received and MA (1985) from the University of Akron, Ohio and PhD (1991) in Economics from the University of Pittsburgh. He joined the faculty of the Social Sciences Division at the University of Pittsburgh in 1991. He served previously as the Chair of the Social Sciences Division. Dr. Gajanan has served as the Program Director for Economics and has taught lower and upper level theory and policy classes in economic theory, econometrics, game theory, as well as applied classes in global hunger and environmental economics. He has also taught courses in India and West Germany. He supervises and directs International Study Abroad Programs and is slated to coordinate the Pitt-in-Himalayas in the summer of 2016. He has also served as an external evaluator on several thesis committees from universities in India and Malaysia. Dr. Gajanan’s research focuses on applied microeconomics dealing with water depletion within the commons, capacity utilization in manufacturing, the premium in the labor market for skills with English, and the impact of Category Management on product assortment in retail. He is the co-author of Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis: Statistical Methods and Applications (Elsevier 2014).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Economics, Department of Business Management and Education, University of Pittsburgh, Bradford, USA

Prabuddha Sanyal

Affiliations and Expertise

Int'l Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA

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