Food And Energy Resources - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125565608, 9780323157643

Food And Energy Resources

1st Edition

Editors: David Pimentel
eBook ISBN: 9780323157643
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th June 1984
Page Count: 286
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Description

Food and Energy Resources provides an understanding of the influence of energy, land, and water resources on food production. Future supplies of energy resources will have a major impact on the ability of humans to provide themselves with food. A better understanding of these issues will help society make sound choices and enable government leaders to develop and organize the necessary programs for the effective use of energy and food resources.
The book begins with a discussion of the energy flow in the food system. This is followed by chapters that examine alternatives for the use of the external solar energy; the role of energy in world agriculture and food supply; the energy, land, and labor inputs in several major crop systems in northeastern China; and energy and food relationships in developing countries. Subsequent chapters deal with issues such as the use of renewable energy sources and the extent to which agricultural resources are used to produce food or fuel.
This book will provide engineers, economists, agriculturists, geographers, ecologists, nutritionists, sociologists, and natural resource specialists a perspective that will help solve the problem of providing food for people while protecting natural resources.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

1 Energy Flow in the Food System

I. Introduction

II. Solar Energy

III. Energy Flow in Hunter-Gatherer Societies

IV. Human-Powered Crop Production

V. Draft Animal-Powered Crop Production

VI. Mechanized Crop Production

VII. Alternatives for Reducing Energy Inputs in Crop Production

VIII. Livestock Production

IX. Alternative Diets

X. Food Processing and Packaging

XI. Food Transport

XII. Preparing Food for Consumption

References

2 Energy Sources and Conversions Relating to Food

I. Introduction

II. Energy Sources

III. Changes over the Earth

IV. Photosynthesis

V. Carbon Dioxide

VI. Hydrocarbon and Carbohydrate Production

VII. Biomass

VIII. Combustion Characteristics

IX. The Methanol Approach

X. National and International Networks

XI. Conversion Efficiency

XII. Entropy and Negentropy

XIII. Secondary Effects

XIV. Summary

References

3 The Role of Energy in World Agriculture and Food Availability

I. Introduction

II. Objectives

III. Procedure

IV. Production Characteristics

V. Food Systems

VI. Energy Relationships: Developed versus Developing Economies

VII. Efficiency of Systems in Agricultural Production

VIII. Commercial Energy

IX. Looking Ahead: Future Energy Demands and Sources

X. Principles Used in Considering Energy and Food Relationships

XI. Summary

References

4 Food for People

I. Securing Food

II. Nutrients and Food

III. Malnutrition

IV. Current World Food Production

V. Population Explosion

VI. Constraints on Agricultural Production

VII. Food Needs of the Future

VIII. Solutions?

References

5 Energy Use in Crop Systems in Northeastern China

I. Introduction

II. Crop Region of Northeastern China

III. Energy Inputs in Crop Systems of Northeastern China

IV. Discussion of Energy Utilization in Cropping Systems in Northeastern China

References

6 Energy and Food Relationships in Developing Countries: A Perspective from the Social Sciences

I. Introduction

II. Farm Family Ecosystem

III. Energy Transformation and Social Differentiation

IV. Development and Change

V. Materials Flow and Energy Transformation in a Farm Family Ecosystem

VI. Farm Family Ecosystems—Three Major Components

VII. The Family as an Ecosystem

VIII. The Human Component

IX. The Plant Component

X. The Animal Component

XI. Components Linked in Farm Family Ecosystem

XII. Types of Farming Systems

XIII. The Recycling Ratio

XIV. Implications of Energy Analysis for Food and Nutrition

XV. Implications of Energy Analysis for Fuel for the Family

XVI. Implications of Energy Analysis for Rural Development Strategies and International Assistance

References

7 Ethics, Economics, Energy, and Food Conversion Systems

I. Philosophic Value Theory, Ethics, and Economics

II. The Meanings of Some Terms

III. Problem-Solving Processes and Decision Making

IV. Contributions of Ethics and Economics to Solutions of Problems Involving Energy Use in Food Conversion Systems

V. Information Needed to Solve Problems Involving the Use of Energy in Food Conversion Systems

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

8 Solar Energy Applications in Agriculture

I. Introduction

II. Active and Passive Solar Energy Systems: Basic Principles and Components

III. Active and Passive Solar Energy Systems: Applications

IV. Management of Organic Matter for Crop Fertilization

References

9 Biomass Energy and Food—Conflicts?

I. The Morality of Food versus Fuel

II. "Cheap Food" Is Surviving the Grain Export Boom

III. Preserving Food Exports to the World's Starving

IV. The Energy Balance versus the Economic Balance in Converting Food to Fuel

V. Relation of Gasoline Price to Corn Price Depends on International Politics and Weather

VI. Gasoline Market Size versus Corn Market Size

VII. Prospects for Exporting Corn By-Products

VIII. Domestic Market for Corn By-Products

IX. Potential Magnitude of Acreage Changes from a Major Gasohol Program

X. Agronomic Impact of Acreage Changes from a Major Gasohol Program

XI. Corn-Soybean Price Impact of a Major Gasohol Program

XII. Inferences about Fertilizer, Pesticides, and Erosion

XIII. Potential and Problems of Energy from Crop Residues and Other Biomass Sources

XIV. Main Job of the Farmer: Crop—Not Crop Residue

XV. Conclusion

References

10 Potentials in Producing Alcohol from Corn Grain and Residue in Relation to Prices, Land Use, and Conservation

I. Introduction

II. Food or Fuel from Agriculture

III. Nature of This Analysis

IV. Programming

V. Scenarios Examined

VI. Other Research

References

Index






Details

No. of pages:
286
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323157643

About the Editor

David Pimentel