Catalyst production for the transformation of crudes into gasoline and other fuel products is a billion dollar/year business and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) represent almost half of the refinery catalyst market.
During the cracking reactions, the FCC surface is contaminated by metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and by coke deposition. As a result, the catalyst activity and product selectivity is reduced to unacceptable levels thus forcing refiners to replace part of the recirculating equilibrium FCC inventory with fresh FCC to compensate for losses in catalyst performance. About 1,100 tons/day of FCC are used worldwide in over 200 fluid cracking catalyst units (FCCUs).
It is for these reasons that refiners' interest in FCC research has remained high through the years almost independantly, of crude oil prices. However, recent oil company mergers and the dissolution of research laboratories, have drastically decreased the number of researchers involved in petroleum refining research projects; as a result the emphasis of research has shifted from new materials to process improvements and this trend is clearly reflected in the type of papers contained in this volume.
Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential in the understanding of catalyst performance and several chapters in the book describe the use of 27Al, 29Si and 13C NMR to study variation in FCC acidity during aging and coke deposition. In addition several chapters have been dedicated to the modeling of FCC deactivation, and to the understanding of contact times on FCC performance. Refiners efforts to conform with environmental regulations are reflected in chapters dealing with sulfur removal, metals contaminants and olefin generation.


For industrialists and technologists in the field of fluid cracking catalysts.

Table of Contents

Defect structure and acid catalysis of high silica, FAU-framework zeolites: effects of aluminum removal and of basic metal oxide addition (R.A. Beyerlein, G.B. McVicker). The use of microcalorimetry and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study the effects of post-synthesis treatments on the acidity and framework composition of several HY-type zeolites (M.L. Occelli et al.). The effects of steam aging temperature on the properties of an HY zeolite of the type used in FCC preparations (M.L. Occelli et al.). Effect of catalyst properties and feedstock composition on the evaluation of cracking catalysts (A.A. Lappas et al.). Study on the deactivation-aging patterns of fluid cracking catalysts in industrial units (F. Hernández-Beltrán et al.). The improvement of catalytic cracking process through the utilization of new catalytic materials (M.I. Levinbuk et al.). NExCCTM - Novel short contact time catalytic cracking technology (J. Hiltunen et al.). Effect of vanadium on light olefins selectivity (C.-Y. Li et al.). Reduction of olefins in FCC gasoline (S. Katoh et al.). Gasoline sulfur removal: kinetics of S compounds in FCC conditions (A. Corma et al.). Development of a kinetic model for FCC valid from ultra-short residence times (M.A. den Hollander et al.). Deactivation of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts: a modelling approach (F. López-Isunza). Catalyst design for resin cracking operation: benefits of m


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© 2001
Elsevier Science
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About the authors

M.L. Occelli

Affiliations and Expertise

MLO Consulting, Atlanta, GA, USA

P. O'Connor

Affiliations and Expertise

Akzo Nobel Catalysts, Amersfoort, The Netherlands