Flexible Robotics in Medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128175958

Flexible Robotics in Medicine

1st Edition

A Design Journey of Motion Generation Mechanisms and Biorobotic System Development

Authors: Hongliang Ren
Paperback ISBN: 9780128175958
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st May 2020
Page Count: 320
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Flexible Robotics in Medicine: A Design Journey of Motion Generation Mechanisms and Biorobotic System Development provides a resource of knowledge and successful prototypes regarding flexible robots in medicine. With specialists in the medical field increasingly utilizing robotics in medical procedures, it is vital to improve current knowledge regarding technologies available. This book covers the background, medical requirements, biomedical engineering principles, and new research on soft robots, including general flexible robotic systems, design specifications, design rationale, fabrication, verification experiments, actuators and sensors in flexible medical robotic systems.

Presenting several projects as examples, the authors also discuss the pipeline to develop a medical robotic system, including important milestones such as involved regulations, device classifications and medical standards.

Key Features

  • Covers realistic prototypes, experimental protocols and design procedures for engineering flexible medical robotics
  • Covers the full product development pipeline for engineering new flexible robots for medical applications, including design principles and design verifications
  • Includes detailed information for application and development of several types of robots, including Handheld Concentric-Tube Flexible Robot for Intraocular Procedures, a Preliminary Robotic Surgery Platform with Multiple Section Tendon-Driven Mechanism, a Flexible Drill for Minimally Invasive Transoral Surgical Robotic System, Four-Tendon-Driven Flexible Manipulators, Slim Single-port Surgical Manipulator with Spring Backbones and Catheter-size Channels, and much more


Biomedical Engineers, undergrad, postgrad, and postdoc researchers in robotic engineering, as well as surgeons and clinicians who consult with engineers in the design of surgical/medical robots

Table of Contents

PART 1: Flexible Robot Prototype Designs and Applications in Medicine
Chapter 1: Handheld Concentric-Tube Flexible Robot for Intraocular Procedures
Ben Tan, H Ren
1.1 Abstract
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Literature Survey
1.4 Review of Concentric-Tube Robot Actuation Design
1.5 Concentric Tube Design
1.6 Challenges in Robot Design
1.7 Tube Design
1.8 Actuation Design
1.9 Prototype Design
1.10 Actuation Control
1.11 Materials
1.12 Evaluation of Prototype System
1.13 Conclusion
1.14 Future Possibilities
1.15 Acknowledgements
1.16 References
Chapter 2: Development of a Preliminary Robotic Surgery Platform with Multiple Section Tendon-Driven Mechanism
2.1 Robot-Assisted Surgery – an Introduction
2.2 Design Rationale
2.3 Design Principles and Qualifications
2.4 Prototype Fabrication
2.5 Prototype Analysis and Characteristic Study
2.6 Discussion
2.7 Conclusion
Chapter 3: Design of a Flexible Drill for Minimally Invasive Transoral Surgical Robotic System
Michelle, Chiu Ping, Ren
3.1 Abstract
3.2 Introduction and Clinical Motivation
3.3 Design Requirements and Preliminary Ideas
3.4 Final Design and Experimental Setup
3.5 Experimental Results
3.6 Discussion and Future Works
Chapter 4: Designs and Analysis for Different Four-Tendon-Driven Flexible Manipulators
Deren Meng, H Ren
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Related Work
4.3 Overview of the Mechanism of 4-Tendon-Driven Manipulator
4.4 Simulation of different designs using FEM method
4.5 Discussion
4.6 Conclusion and Recommendation for the future study
Chapter 5: Slim Single-port Surgical Manipulator with Spring Backbones and Catheter-size Channels
DCP Team
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Explored Concepts for Actuation
5.3 Constructing the Flexible Backbone
5.4 Integrating with surgical tools
5.5 Prototyping
5.6 Conclusion
PART 2: New Motion Generation Mechanisms with Smart Actuators and Sensors in Robotic Endoscopy Systems for Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery
Chapter 6: Next Generation of Soft & Flexible Robots for Medicine
LJ Zhou, H Ren
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Literature Survey
6.3 Design Constraints and Requirements
6.4 Experimental Procedure and Results
6.5 Discussion
6.6 Conclusions
6.7 Recommendations
Chapter 7: Flexible inchworms with SMA actuators for endoscopic navigations
Siva, Bok Seng, Ren
7.1 Background and Objective
7.2 Methods
7.3 Experiments
Chapter 8: Flexible origami prototypes: a proof-of-concept exploration
Jasmine, Bok Seng, Ren
8.1 Overview
8.2 Evaluation and Limitations
Chapter 9: Flexible needle robot in Minimally invasive surgery
Zhipeng, Ren
 Robotic System
 Joint Types for Bending
 Manipulators
 Platform
 Electronics
 Manipulator and Flexible Needle
 Nitinol Tube Cutting Design 1
 Stainless Steel Sections
 Prototype experiments on Silicone Rubber
 On Pig’s ear
 Problems faced during experiment
 Experiment
 Conclusion
Chapter 10: Flexible needle robot in Minimally Invasive Biopsy
Xiao, YF, Ren
 Prostate biopsy
Chapter 11: Flexible snake-like robot motion planning and pattern generation: Theoretical Model and Simulation
Yu Shumei, Ren or Kim Ren
Part 3: Flexible robots in medicine: A Medical Device Development Journey
Example I: 3D Printed Soft Nasopharyngeal Explorer
Bok Seng, Ren
Chapter 12: Background, Market Survey
Chapter 13: Design Specification and Rationale
Chapter 14: Design Verification and Validation
Chapter 15: Regulatory and patents
Part 4: Flexible robots in medicine: A Medical Device Development Journey
Example II: J.A.N.E.: Futuristic Home-based Self-administered Nasopharyngeal Explorer
Chapter 16: JANE Overview
16.1 Executive Summary
16.2 Purpose of our product
16.3 The Market
16.4 The Product
16.5 The Plan
16.6 Competitive Landscape
16.7 Other Devices Available
16.8 Comparison
16.9 Price Analysis
16.10 Our Shortfalls
16.11 Future considerations
16.12 Marketing Strategy
Chapter 17: JANE Regulatory Affairs
17.1 Overview
17.2 U.S. Market: Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
17.3 Singapore Market: Health Sciences Authority (HSA)
Chapter 18: JANE Design Specification
18.1 Unmet Need
18.2 Indication of Use
18.3 Purpose of User Specification Document
18.4 Scope
18.5 Responsibility
18.6 Target Market
18.7 Benchmarking
18.8 Acceptance Criteria
18.9 Future Development
Chapter 19: JANE Design Verification and Validation
19.1 Introduction
19.2 User Needs and Intended Use
19.3 Responsibility
19.4 Product Description and Scope
19.5 Design Verification
19.6 Design Review
19.7 Conclusion
19.8 Declaration


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2020
1st May 2020
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:

About the Author

Hongliang Ren

Hongliang Ren is currently an assistant professor and leading a research group on medical mechatronics in the Biomedical Engineering Department of National University of Singapore (NUS). He is an affiliated Principal Investigator for the Singapore Institute of Neurotechnology (SINAPSE) and Advanced Robotics Center at National University of Singapore. Dr. Ren received his PhD in Electronic Engineering (Specialized in Biomedical Engineering) from The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in 2008. After his graduation, he worked as a Research Fellow in the Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics (LCSR) and the Engineering Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (ERC-CISST), Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, from 2008 to 2010. In 2010, he joined the Pediatric Cardiac Biorobotics Lab, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston & Harvard Medical School, USA, for investigating the beating heart robotic surgery system. Prior to joining NUS, he also worked in 2012 on a collaborative computer integrated surgery project, at the Surgical Innovation Institute of Children's National Medical Center, USA. His main areas of interest include Biomedical Mechatronics, Computer-Integrated Surgery, and Robotics in Medicine. Dr. Ren’s expertise includes Biorobotics & Intelligent Control, particularly the key challenges of flexible continuum compliant cooperative and cognitive robotics, haptics, and sensing and control in constrained human-interactive environments such as in surgeries. Representing a major paradigm shift from open surgery, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) assisted by robotics and sensing is emerging by accessing the surgical targets via either keyholes or natural orifices. It is challenging to accomplish delicate manipulations due to the constraints imposed by the mode of access, confined workspace, complicated surgical structures and the limited available technologies, particularly in terms of endoluminal curvilinear targeting and curvilinear guidance. Addressing the aforementioned challenges and aiming at the next generation of intelligent and flexible minimally invasive robots, he focuses on key biorobotics research in compliant robotic system development, modeling & control, flexible sensing, human-robot interaction and intelligent navigation, tackling fundamental and technical challenges mainly in the context of medical applications. Dr. Ren has published more than 80 peer-reviewed papers in high-ranking journals and 80 top-tier international conference papers and won a number of awards in his area including the NUS Young Investigator Award, EMedic Global Gold Medal, Best Paper Awards in IEEE RCAR 2016, IEEE CCECE 2015, IEEE ROBIO 2013, IEEE Cyber 2014, and best paper finalists for ICVS2017, CSCWD 2016, ICMA 2016, IEEE ROBIO 2012 and 2013 among others. His supervised FYP students won the BES 2016 design gold award, IEEE RCAR 2016 best student paper award, and NUS FoE 28th Innovation and Research Award and Gold awards from Biomedical engineering Society. The H-index (Google Scholar) of Dr Ren’s publication profile is 22 with 1736 citations and is expected to further increase in the future.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore

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