Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook

Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook

Principles, Process Design and Equipment

2nd Edition - December 31, 1996

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  • Authors: Henry C. Vogel, Celeste M. Todaro
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815517139

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Description

This is a well-rounded handbook of fermentation and biochemical engineering presenting techniques for the commercial production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals via fermentation. Emphasis is given to unit operations fermentation, separation, purification, and recovery. Principles, process design, and equipment are detailed. Environment aspects are covered. The practical aspects of development, design, and operation are stressed. Theory is included to provide the necessary insight for a particular operation. Problems addressed are the collection of pilot data, choice of scale-up parameters, selection of the right piece of equipment, pinpointing of likely trouble spots, and methods of troubleshooting. The text, written from a practical and operating viewpoint, will assist development, design, engineering and production personnel in the fermentation industry. Contributors were selected based on their industrial background and orientation. The book is illustrated with numerous figures, photographs and schematic diagrams.

Readership

Engineers and scientists in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries who use fermentation techniques in production. Development, design, engineering and production personnel in the fermentation industry

Table of Contents

  • 1. Fermentation Pilot Plant
    1.1 Microbial Fermentation
    1.2 Mammalian Cell Culture System
    1.3 Bioreactors for Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cultures
    2. Fermentation Design
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Fermentation Department, Equipment and Space Requirements
    2.3 General Design Data
    2.4 Continuous Sterilizers
    2.5 Fermenter Cooling
    2.6 The Design of Large Fermenters (Based on Aeration)
    2.7 Trouble Shooting in a Fermentation Plant
    3. Nutritional Requirements in Fermentation Processes
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Nutritional Requirements of the Cell
    3.3 The Carbon Source
    3.4 The Nitrogen and Sulfur Source
    3.5 The Source of Trace and Essential Elements
    3.6 The Vitamin Source and Other Growth Factors
    3.7 Physical and Ionic Requirements
    3.8 Media Development
    3.9 Effect of Nutrient Concentration on Growth Rate
    4. Statistical Methods for Fermentation Optimization
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Traditional One-Variable-at-a-Time Method
    4.3 Evolutionary Optimization
    4.4 Response Surface Methodology
    4.5 Advantages of RSM
    4.6 Disadvantages of RSM
    4.7 Potential Difficulties with RSM
    4.8 Methods to Improve the RSM Model
    4.9 Summary
    5. Agitation
    5.1 Theory and Concepts
    5.2 Pumping Capacity and Fluid Shear Rates
    5.3 Mixers and Impellers
    5.4 Baffles
    5.5 Fluid Shear Rates
    5.6 Full-Scale Plant Design
    5.7 Full-Scale Process Example
    5.8 The Role of Cell Concentration Mass Transfer Rate
    5.9 Some Other Mass Transfer Considerations
    5.10 Design Problems in Biochemical Engineering
    5.11 Solution-Fermentation Problems
    6. Filtration
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Cake Filtration
    6.3 Theory
    6.4 Particle Size Distribution
    6.5 Optimal Cake Thickness
    6.6 Filter Aid
    6.7 Filter Media
    6.8 Equipment Selection
    6.9 Continuous vs. Batch Filtration
    6.10 Rotary Vacuum Drum Filter
    6.11 Nutsches
    6.12 H_-Hybrid Filter Press
    6.13 Manufacturers
    7. Cross-Flow Filtration
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Cross-Flow vs. Dead End Filtration
    7.3 Comparison of Cross-Flow with Other Competing Technologies
    7.4 General Characteristics of Cross-Flow Filters
    7.5 Operating Configurations
    7.6 Process Design Aspects
    7.7 Applications Overview
    8. Solvent Extraction
    8.1 Extraction Concepts
    8.2 Distribution Data
    8.3 Solvent Selection
    8.4 Calculation Procedures
    8.5 Drop Mechanics
    8.6 Types of Extraction Equipment
    8.7 Selection of Equipment
    8.8 Procedure Summary
    8.9 Additional Information
    9. Ion Exchange
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Theory
    9.3 Ion Exchange Materials and Their Properties
    9.4 Laboratory Evaluation of Resin
    9.5 Process Considerations
    9.6 Ion Exchange Operations
    9.7 Industrial Chromatographic Operations
    10. Evaporation
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Evaporators and Evaporation Systems
    10.3 Liquid Characteristics
    10.4 Heat Transfer in Evaporators
    10.5 Evaporator Types
    10.6 Energy Considerations for Evaporation System Design
    10.7 Process Control Systems for Evaporators
    10.8 Evaporator Performance
    10.9 Heat Sensitive Products
    10.10 Installation of Evaporators
    10.11 Troubleshooting Evaporation Systems
    11. Crystallization
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Theory
    11.3 Crystallization Equipment
    11.4 Data Needed for Design
    11.5 Special Considerations for Fermentation Processes
    11.6 Method of Calculation
    11.7 Troubleshooting
    11.8 Summary
    11.9 American Manufacturers
    12. Centrifugation
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Theory
    12.3 Equipment Selection
    12.4 Components of the Centrifuge
    12.5 Sedimentation Centrifuges
    12.6 Tubular-Bowl Centrifuges
    12.7 Continuous Decanter Centrifuges (with Conveyor)
    12.8 Disk Centrifuges
    12.9 Filtering Centrifuges vs. Sedimentation Centrifuge
    12.10 Filtering Centrifuges
    12.11 Vertical Basket Centrifuges
    12.12 Horizontal Peeler Centrifuges
    12.13 Inverting Filter Centrifuge
    12.14 Maintenance: Centrifuge
    12.15 Safety
    13. Water Systems for Pharmaceutical Facilities
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Scope
    13.3 Source of Water
    13.4 Potable Water
    13.5 Water Pretreatment
    13.6 Multimedia Filtration
    13.7 Water Softening
    13.8 Activated Carbon
    13.9 Ultraviolet Purification
    13.10 Deionization
    13.11 Purified Water
    13.12 Reverse Osmosis
    13.13 Water for Injection
    13.14 Water System Documentation
    14. Sterile Formulations
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Sterile Bulk Preparation
    14.3 Isolation of Sterile Bulk Product
    14.4 Crystallization
    14.5 Filtering/Drying
    14.6 Milling/Blending
    14.7 Bulk Freeze Drying
    14.8 Spray Drying
    14.9 Equipment Preparation
    14.10 Validation
    14.11 Filling Vials with Sterile Bulk Materials
    14.12 Environment
    14.13 Equipment List
    15. Environmental Concerns
    15.1 Environmental Regulations and Technology
    15.2 Laws, Regulations and Permits
    15.3 Technology (Waste Water)
    15.4 Waste Water Treatment Strategy
    15.5 Air (Emission of Concern)
    15.6 Selecting a Control Technology
    15.7 Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control
    15.8 Particulate Control
    15.9 Inorganics
    16. Instrumentation and Control Systems
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Measurement Technology
    16.3 Biosensors
    16.4 Cell Mass Measurement
    16.5 Chemical Composition
    16.6 Dissolved Oxygen
    16.7 Exhaust Gas Analysis
    16.8 Measurement of pH
    16.9 Water Purity
    16.10 Temperature
    16.11 Pressure
    16.12 Mass
    16.13 Mass Flow Rate
    16.14 Volumetric Flow Rate
    16.15 Broth Level
    16.16 Regulatory Control
    16.17 Dynamic Modeling
    16.18 Multivariable Control
    16.19 Artificial Intelligence
    16.20 Distributed Control
    17. Drying
    17.1 Indirect Drying
    17.2 Direct Drying
    18. Plant Design and Cost
    18.1 Introduction to the Capital Project Life Cycle
    18.2 Conceptual Phase
    18.3 Preliminary Design Phase
    18.4 Detail Design Phase
    18.5 Construction Phase
    18.6 Start-up Phase
    18.7 The Fast Track Concept
    18.8 The Impact of Validation
    18.9 Introduction to the Costing of a Capital Project
    18.10 Order of Magnitude Estimate
    18.11 Approval Grade Estimate
    18.12 Control Estimate
    18.13 Dynamics of an Estimate

Product details

  • No. of pages: 828
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2007
  • Published: December 31, 1996
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815517139

About the Authors

Henry C. Vogel

Celeste M. Todaro

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