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Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080093970, 9781483154169

Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results

1st Edition

Author: W. Weibull
eBook ISBN: 9781483154169
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 320
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Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results discusses fundamental concepts of fatigue testing and results analysis. The book begins with a description of the symbols and nomenclature selected for the present book, mainly those proposed by the ASTM Committee E-9 on Fatigue. Fatigue testing methods are then discussed including routine tests, short-life and long-life tests, cumulative-damage tests, and abbreviated and accelerated tests. Separate chapters cover fatigue testing machines and equipment; instruments and measuring devices; and test pieces used in fatigue testing. The factors affecting test results are considered, including material, types of stressing, test machine, environment, and testing technique. The final two chapters cover the planning of test programs and the presentation of results. Test program planning involves the statistical design of a test series; specification and sampling of test pieces; and choice of test pieces, testing machines, and test conditions. The chief purpose of most fatigue tests is the experimental determination of the relation between the endurance and the magnitude of the applied stress range for the material and the specimen under consideration, and final results can be condensed into a table, graph, or analytical expression.

Table of Contents


Chapter I. Symbols and Nomenclature

10. General

11. Applied Stress Cycles

12. Strengths and Fatigue Limits

13. Fatigue Life and Numbers of Cycles

14. Statistical Quantities and Mathematical Signs

15. Types of Applied Load Cycle

16. Variable-Stress Level Tests

Chapter II. Fatigue Testing Methods

20. General

21. Routine Tests

21.1. All-Failed Tests

21.2. Fraction-Failed Tests

22. Short-Life Tests

22.1. Constant-Stress Amplitude Tests

22.2. Constant-Strain Amplitude Tests

23. Long-Life Tests

23.1. Response Tests

23.2. Increasing-Amplitude Tests

24. Cumulative-Damage Tests

24.1. Preloading Tests

24.2. Prestressing Tests

25. Service-Simulating Tests

25.1. Program Tests

25.2. Spectrum Tests

26. Abbreviated and Accelerated Tests

27. Methods for Determining Crack Initiation and Crack Propagation

27.1. Non-destructive Tests

27.2. Destructive Tests

Chapter III. Fatigue Testing Machines and Equipments

30. General

31. Machines for General Purposes

31.1. Axial Loading

31.2. Repeated Bending

31.3. Rotating Bending

31.4. Torsion

31.5. Combined Bending and Torsion

31.6. Biaxial and Triaxial Loading

32. Machines for Special Purposes

32.1. High Frequencies

32.2. Elevated or Low Temperatures and Cyclic Thermal Stresses

32.3. Corroding Environments and Fretting Corrosion

32.4. Multi-Stress Level Tests

32.5. Contact Stresses

32.6. Repeated Impact

32.7. Combined Creep and Fatigue Tests

33. Equipments for Testing Parts and Assemblies

33.0. General

33.1. Wires, Tires and Ropes

33.2. Coil and Leaf Springs

33.3. Turbine and Propeller Blades

33.4. Large Specimens, Structures, Beams, Rails

33.5. Aircraft Structures

34. Components of Fatigue Testing Machines

34.0. General

34.1. Load-Producing Mechanisms

34.2. Load-Transmitting Members

34.3. Measuring Devices

34.4. Control Devices and Shut-off Apparatuses

34.5. Counters

34.6. Frameworks

35. Calibration and Checking of Testing Machines

35.0. General

35.1. Static Calibration and Checking

35.2. Dynamic Calibration and Checking

36. Accuracies of Actual Testing Machines and Equipments

Chapter IV. Instruments and Measuring Devices

40. General

41. Displacement-Measuring Instruments and Devices

41.0. General

41.1. Mechanical Instruments and Devices

41.2. Electrical Instruments and Devices Based on Measurement of Resistance, Inductance, or Capacitance

41.3. Photo-Electric Instruments and Devices

41.4. Optical Instruments and Devices

41.5. Pneumatic Instruments and Devices

42. Strain-Measuring Instruments and Devices

42.0. General

42.1. Mechanical Instruments and Devices

42.2. Electrical Instruments and Devices Based on Measurement of Resistance

42.3. Optical Instruments and Devices

43. Load-Measuring Instruments and Devices

43.0. General

43.1. Mechanical Instruments and Devices

43.2. Electrical Instruments and Devices

43.3. Piezo-Electric Instruments and Devices

43.4. Optical Instruments and Devices

44. Stress-Measuring Instruments and Devices

44.0. General

44.1. Optical Instruments and Devices

44.2. X-Ray Instruments and Devices

45. Instruments and Devices for Determining Surface Conditions

45.0. General

45.1. Stylus Methods

45.2. Taper Sectioning Methods

45.3. Optical Interference Methods

45.4. Optical Reflection Methods

45.5. Reflection Electron Microscopy

46. Instruments and Devices for Detecting Cracks, Flaws and Inhomogeneities

46.0. General

46.1. Microscopic Methods

46.2. Electrical-Resistance Methods

46.3. Eddy-Current Methods

46.4. Magnaflux Methods

46.5. Ultrasonic Methods

47. Instruments and Devices for Counting Numbers of Stress Cycles

47.0. General

47.1. Counters

47.2. Frequency-Measuring Instruments and Devices

Chapter V. Test Pieces: Design, Preparation, Measurement and Protection

50. General

51. Unnotched Specimens

51.0. General

51.1. Tension-Compression Specimens

51.2. Repeated-Bending Specimens

51.3. Rotating-Bending Specimens

51.4. Torsion Specimens

52. Notched Specimens

52.0. General

52.1. Circular Specimens

52.2. Flat Specimens

53. Simulated Components and Scaled Models

54. Actual Components

54.0. General

54.1. Bolted and Riveted Joints

54.2. Welded and Bonded Joints

54.3. Screw Connexions, Aircraft Joints, Attach Angles

54.4. Loaded Holes, Lugs

54.5. Structural Components, Beams, Sandwich Constructions

54.6. Aircraft Wings, Tail Planes

54.7. Fuselages

55. Preparation of Test Pieces

55.0. General

55.1. Mechanical Treatment

55.2. Heat Treatment

56. Measurements of Test Pieces

56.0. General

56.1. Measurement of Dimensions

56.2. Measurement of Surface Geometry

56.3. Measurement of Stress Distributions

57. Protection of Test Pieces

57.0. General

57.1. Protection against Mechanical Damage

57.2. Protection against Chemical Aggression

Chapter VI. Factors Affecting Test Results

60. General

61. Material

61.1. Composition and Heat Treatment

61.2. Structure in General—Grain Size

61.3. Inclusions and Inhomogeneities

61.4. Structural Surface Conditions Produced by Heat Treatment

61.5. Structural Surface Conditions Produced by Mechanical Treatment

61.6. Structural Changes Relating to Size of Test Piece

61.7. Structural Changes Caused by Preloading and Prestressing

61.8. Anisotropy

61.9. Origin

62. Type of Stressing

62.0. General

62.1. Tension-Compression

62.2. Repeated Bending

62.3. Rotating Bending

62.4. Torsion

62.5. Combined Bending and Torsion

62.6. Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses

62.7. Surface-Contact Stresses

62.8. Failure Criteria for Multi-Axial Stresses

63. Test Piece

63.0. General

63.1. Size

63.2. Shape

63.3. Stress Concentrations

63.4. Surface Condition

63.5. Residual Stresses

64. Testing Machine

64.0. General

64.1. Type of Loading

64.2. Design of Testing Machine

64.3. Speed

64.4. Accuracy of Individual Machines

64.5. Variations of Similar Machines

65. Environment

65.0. General

65.1. Temperature

65.2. Vacuum and Air

65 3. Non-corroding Environment

65.4. Corroding Environment

65.5. Fretting Corrosion

65.6. Sunlight and Heat Radiation

65.7. Nuclear Radiation

66. Testing Technique

66.1. Definition of Fatigue Life

66.2. Runout Number of Cycles

66.3. Rest Interval

Chapter VII. Planning of Test Programs

70. General

71. Design of Test Series

72. Specification and Sampling of Test Pieces

73. Choice of Test Piece

74. Choice of Testing Machine

Chapter VIII. Presentation of Results

80. General

81. Specification of Test Conditions

81.1. Material

81.2. Type of Applied Load

81.3. Test Piece

81.4. Testing Machine

81.5. Environment

81.6. Testing Technique

82. S-N and S-S Diagrams

82.1. The S-N Diagrams

82.2. The S-S Diagrams

83. Graphical and Analytical Representation of Strength and Life Distributions

84. P-S-N Diagrams

85. Analytical Representation of Load and Life Relations

85.1. Relations between Load and Life (S-N Equations)

85.2. Relations between Two Load Components (S1-S2 Equations)

86. Analytical Representation of Probability, Load and Life Relations

Chapter IX. Analysis of Results

90. General Statistical Concepts and Methods

90.0. General

90.1. Random Variables, Probability, Distribution and Frequency Functions Transformation of Random Variables

90.2. General Properties of Means, Variances and Covariances

90.3. Order Statistics. Principle of Probability Papers. Plotting Positions Random Sampling Numbers

90.4. Fitting of Curves to Observations

90.5. Estimates of Various Statistics

90.6. Significance Tests

90.7. Confidence and Tolerance Intervals

91. Determination of Average Load-Life Relations

91.1. Graphical Methods

91.2. Analytical Methods

92. Determination of Fatigue-Life Distributions

92.0. General

92.1. Graphical Methods

92.2. Analytical Methods

93. Determination of Fatigue-Strength Distributions

93.0. General

93.1. Graphical Methods

93.2. Analytical Methods

94. Determination of Probability-Load-Life Relations

94.0. General

94.1. Combination of Average S-N Curve and Deviations from It

94.2. Fitting P-S-N Diagrams to Observations, Shape of Distribution Unknown

94.3. Fitting P-S-N Diagrams to Observations, Shape of Distribution Assumed

95. Evaluation of Data from Response Tests

95.0. General

95.1. Probit Methods

95.2. Staircase Methods

96. Evaluation of Data from Increasing-Amplitude Tests

96.0. General

96.1. Step Tests

96.2. Prot Tests



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© Pergamon 1961
1st January 1961
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About the Author

W. Weibull

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