Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results

Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results

1st Edition - January 1, 1961

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  • Author: W. Weibull
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483154169

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Description

Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Results discusses fundamental concepts of fatigue testing and results analysis. The book begins with a description of the symbols and nomenclature selected for the present book, mainly those proposed by the ASTM Committee E-9 on Fatigue. Fatigue testing methods are then discussed including routine tests, short-life and long-life tests, cumulative-damage tests, and abbreviated and accelerated tests. Separate chapters cover fatigue testing machines and equipment; instruments and measuring devices; and test pieces used in fatigue testing. The factors affecting test results are considered, including material, types of stressing, test machine, environment, and testing technique. The final two chapters cover the planning of test programs and the presentation of results. Test program planning involves the statistical design of a test series; specification and sampling of test pieces; and choice of test pieces, testing machines, and test conditions. The chief purpose of most fatigue tests is the experimental determination of the relation between the endurance and the magnitude of the applied stress range for the material and the specimen under consideration, and final results can be condensed into a table, graph, or analytical expression.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Chapter I. Symbols and Nomenclature

    10. General

    11. Applied Stress Cycles

    12. Strengths and Fatigue Limits

    13. Fatigue Life and Numbers of Cycles

    14. Statistical Quantities and Mathematical Signs

    15. Types of Applied Load Cycle

    16. Variable-Stress Level Tests

    Chapter II. Fatigue Testing Methods

    20. General

    21. Routine Tests

    21.1. All-Failed Tests

    21.2. Fraction-Failed Tests

    22. Short-Life Tests

    22.1. Constant-Stress Amplitude Tests

    22.2. Constant-Strain Amplitude Tests

    23. Long-Life Tests

    23.1. Response Tests

    23.2. Increasing-Amplitude Tests

    24. Cumulative-Damage Tests

    24.1. Preloading Tests

    24.2. Prestressing Tests

    25. Service-Simulating Tests

    25.1. Program Tests

    25.2. Spectrum Tests

    26. Abbreviated and Accelerated Tests

    27. Methods for Determining Crack Initiation and Crack Propagation

    27.1. Non-destructive Tests

    27.2. Destructive Tests

    Chapter III. Fatigue Testing Machines and Equipments

    30. General

    31. Machines for General Purposes

    31.1. Axial Loading

    31.2. Repeated Bending

    31.3. Rotating Bending

    31.4. Torsion

    31.5. Combined Bending and Torsion

    31.6. Biaxial and Triaxial Loading

    32. Machines for Special Purposes

    32.1. High Frequencies

    32.2. Elevated or Low Temperatures and Cyclic Thermal Stresses

    32.3. Corroding Environments and Fretting Corrosion

    32.4. Multi-Stress Level Tests

    32.5. Contact Stresses

    32.6. Repeated Impact

    32.7. Combined Creep and Fatigue Tests

    33. Equipments for Testing Parts and Assemblies

    33.0. General

    33.1. Wires, Tires and Ropes

    33.2. Coil and Leaf Springs

    33.3. Turbine and Propeller Blades

    33.4. Large Specimens, Structures, Beams, Rails

    33.5. Aircraft Structures

    34. Components of Fatigue Testing Machines

    34.0. General

    34.1. Load-Producing Mechanisms

    34.2. Load-Transmitting Members

    34.3. Measuring Devices

    34.4. Control Devices and Shut-off Apparatuses

    34.5. Counters

    34.6. Frameworks

    35. Calibration and Checking of Testing Machines

    35.0. General

    35.1. Static Calibration and Checking

    35.2. Dynamic Calibration and Checking

    36. Accuracies of Actual Testing Machines and Equipments

    Chapter IV. Instruments and Measuring Devices

    40. General

    41. Displacement-Measuring Instruments and Devices

    41.0. General

    41.1. Mechanical Instruments and Devices

    41.2. Electrical Instruments and Devices Based on Measurement of Resistance, Inductance, or Capacitance

    41.3. Photo-Electric Instruments and Devices

    41.4. Optical Instruments and Devices

    41.5. Pneumatic Instruments and Devices

    42. Strain-Measuring Instruments and Devices

    42.0. General

    42.1. Mechanical Instruments and Devices

    42.2. Electrical Instruments and Devices Based on Measurement of Resistance

    42.3. Optical Instruments and Devices

    43. Load-Measuring Instruments and Devices

    43.0. General

    43.1. Mechanical Instruments and Devices

    43.2. Electrical Instruments and Devices

    43.3. Piezo-Electric Instruments and Devices

    43.4. Optical Instruments and Devices

    44. Stress-Measuring Instruments and Devices

    44.0. General

    44.1. Optical Instruments and Devices

    44.2. X-Ray Instruments and Devices

    45. Instruments and Devices for Determining Surface Conditions

    45.0. General

    45.1. Stylus Methods

    45.2. Taper Sectioning Methods

    45.3. Optical Interference Methods

    45.4. Optical Reflection Methods

    45.5. Reflection Electron Microscopy

    46. Instruments and Devices for Detecting Cracks, Flaws and Inhomogeneities

    46.0. General

    46.1. Microscopic Methods

    46.2. Electrical-Resistance Methods

    46.3. Eddy-Current Methods

    46.4. Magnaflux Methods

    46.5. Ultrasonic Methods

    47. Instruments and Devices for Counting Numbers of Stress Cycles

    47.0. General

    47.1. Counters

    47.2. Frequency-Measuring Instruments and Devices

    Chapter V. Test Pieces: Design, Preparation, Measurement and Protection

    50. General

    51. Unnotched Specimens

    51.0. General

    51.1. Tension-Compression Specimens

    51.2. Repeated-Bending Specimens

    51.3. Rotating-Bending Specimens

    51.4. Torsion Specimens

    52. Notched Specimens

    52.0. General

    52.1. Circular Specimens

    52.2. Flat Specimens

    53. Simulated Components and Scaled Models

    54. Actual Components

    54.0. General

    54.1. Bolted and Riveted Joints

    54.2. Welded and Bonded Joints

    54.3. Screw Connexions, Aircraft Joints, Attach Angles

    54.4. Loaded Holes, Lugs

    54.5. Structural Components, Beams, Sandwich Constructions

    54.6. Aircraft Wings, Tail Planes

    54.7. Fuselages

    55. Preparation of Test Pieces

    55.0. General

    55.1. Mechanical Treatment

    55.2. Heat Treatment

    56. Measurements of Test Pieces

    56.0. General

    56.1. Measurement of Dimensions

    56.2. Measurement of Surface Geometry

    56.3. Measurement of Stress Distributions

    57. Protection of Test Pieces

    57.0. General

    57.1. Protection against Mechanical Damage

    57.2. Protection against Chemical Aggression

    Chapter VI. Factors Affecting Test Results

    60. General

    61. Material

    61.1. Composition and Heat Treatment

    61.2. Structure in General—Grain Size

    61.3. Inclusions and Inhomogeneities

    61.4. Structural Surface Conditions Produced by Heat Treatment

    61.5. Structural Surface Conditions Produced by Mechanical Treatment

    61.6. Structural Changes Relating to Size of Test Piece

    61.7. Structural Changes Caused by Preloading and Prestressing

    61.8. Anisotropy

    61.9. Origin

    62. Type of Stressing

    62.0. General

    62.1. Tension-Compression

    62.2. Repeated Bending

    62.3. Rotating Bending

    62.4. Torsion

    62.5. Combined Bending and Torsion

    62.6. Biaxial and Triaxial Stresses

    62.7. Surface-Contact Stresses

    62.8. Failure Criteria for Multi-Axial Stresses

    63. Test Piece

    63.0. General

    63.1. Size

    63.2. Shape

    63.3. Stress Concentrations

    63.4. Surface Condition

    63.5. Residual Stresses

    64. Testing Machine

    64.0. General

    64.1. Type of Loading

    64.2. Design of Testing Machine

    64.3. Speed

    64.4. Accuracy of Individual Machines

    64.5. Variations of Similar Machines

    65. Environment

    65.0. General

    65.1. Temperature

    65.2. Vacuum and Air

    65 3. Non-corroding Environment

    65.4. Corroding Environment

    65.5. Fretting Corrosion

    65.6. Sunlight and Heat Radiation

    65.7. Nuclear Radiation

    66. Testing Technique

    66.1. Definition of Fatigue Life

    66.2. Runout Number of Cycles

    66.3. Rest Interval

    Chapter VII. Planning of Test Programs

    70. General

    71. Design of Test Series

    72. Specification and Sampling of Test Pieces

    73. Choice of Test Piece

    74. Choice of Testing Machine

    Chapter VIII. Presentation of Results

    80. General

    81. Specification of Test Conditions

    81.1. Material

    81.2. Type of Applied Load

    81.3. Test Piece

    81.4. Testing Machine

    81.5. Environment

    81.6. Testing Technique

    82. S-N and S-S Diagrams

    82.1. The S-N Diagrams

    82.2. The S-S Diagrams

    83. Graphical and Analytical Representation of Strength and Life Distributions

    84. P-S-N Diagrams

    85. Analytical Representation of Load and Life Relations

    85.1. Relations between Load and Life (S-N Equations)

    85.2. Relations between Two Load Components (S1-S2 Equations)

    86. Analytical Representation of Probability, Load and Life Relations

    Chapter IX. Analysis of Results

    90. General Statistical Concepts and Methods

    90.0. General

    90.1. Random Variables, Probability, Distribution and Frequency Functions Transformation of Random Variables

    90.2. General Properties of Means, Variances and Covariances

    90.3. Order Statistics. Principle of Probability Papers. Plotting Positions Random Sampling Numbers

    90.4. Fitting of Curves to Observations

    90.5. Estimates of Various Statistics

    90.6. Significance Tests

    90.7. Confidence and Tolerance Intervals

    91. Determination of Average Load-Life Relations

    91.1. Graphical Methods

    91.2. Analytical Methods

    92. Determination of Fatigue-Life Distributions

    92.0. General

    92.1. Graphical Methods

    92.2. Analytical Methods

    93. Determination of Fatigue-Strength Distributions

    93.0. General

    93.1. Graphical Methods

    93.2. Analytical Methods

    94. Determination of Probability-Load-Life Relations

    94.0. General

    94.1. Combination of Average S-N Curve and Deviations from It

    94.2. Fitting P-S-N Diagrams to Observations, Shape of Distribution Unknown

    94.3. Fitting P-S-N Diagrams to Observations, Shape of Distribution Assumed

    95. Evaluation of Data from Response Tests

    95.0. General

    95.1. Probit Methods

    95.2. Staircase Methods

    96. Evaluation of Data from Increasing-Amplitude Tests

    96.0. General

    96.1. Step Tests

    96.2. Prot Tests

    Bibliography


Product details

  • No. of pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1961
  • Published: January 1, 1961
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483154169

About the Author

W. Weibull

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