Failure Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

Failure Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

Criteria, Testing and Industrial Applications

1st Edition - January 19, 2012

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  • Editors: Paul Robinson, Emile Greenhalgh, Silvestre Pinho
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697501
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095329

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Description

Polymer matrix composites are increasingly replacing traditional materials, such as metals, for applications in the aerospace, automotive and marine industries. Because of the relatively recent development of these composites there is extensive on-going research to improve the understanding and modelling of their behaviour – particularly their failure processes. As a consequence there is a strong demand among design engineers for the latest information on this behaviour in order to fully exploit the potential of these materials for a wide range of weight-sensitive applications. Failure mechanisms in polymer matrix composites explores the main types of composite failure and examines their implications in specific applications.Part one discusses various failure mechanisms, including a consideration of manufacturing defects and addressing a variety of loading forms such as impact and the implications for structural integrity. This part also reviews testing techniques and modelling methods for predicting potential failure in composites. Part two investigates the effects of polymer-matrix composite failure in a range of industries including aerospace, automotive and other transport, defence, marine and off-shore applications. Recycling issues and environmental factors affecting the use of composite materials are also considered.With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors Failure mechanisms in polymer matrix composites is a valuable reference for designers, scientists and research and development managers working in the increasing range of industries in which composite materials are extensively used. The book will also be a useful guide for academics studying in the composites field.

Key Features

  • Discusses various failure mechanisms, including manufacturing defects
  • Reviews testing techniques and modelling methods for predicting potential failure
  • Investigates failure in aerospace, automotive, defence, marine and off-shore applications

Readership

Designers, scientists,and R&D managers working in these industries; academics researching in composites; other materials engineers working with composite materials in the sports equipment and power generation industries and the military.

Table of Contents

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    Part I: Failure mechanisms

    Chapter 1: Progress in failure criteria for polymer matrix composites: A view from the first World-Wide Failure Exercise (WWFE)

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Aims of the first World-Wide Failure Exercise (WWFE)

    1.3 Setting up test problems

    1.4 Description of available models

    1.5 Design problems solved

    1.6 Gaps identified

    1.7 Current activities

    1.1 Conclusions

    1.2 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 2: Manufacturing defects as a cause of failure in polymer matrix composites

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction and basic requirements

    2.2 Sources of variability and defects in composite mouldings

    2.3 Impact of residual stresses and geometrical distortions on performance

    2.4 Impact of voidage and delaminations on inplane and out-of-plane properties

    2.5 Impact of misaligned, wavy and wrinkled reinforcements on in-plane and out-of-plane properties

    2.6 Approaches to minimize the impact of manufacturing defects

    2.7 Future trends

    Chapter 3: Low- and medium-velocity impact as a cause of failure in polymer matrix composites

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Impact damage

    3.3 Impact response

    3.4 Strength and stability after impact

    3.5 Computational models

    3.6 Future trends

    3.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 4: Structural integrity of polymer matrix composite panels in fire

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Temperature distribution

    4.3 Material behavior at elevated temperature

    4.4 Global buckling

    4.5 Skin wrinkling of sandwich panels

    4.6 Plastic micro-buckling

    4.7 Other aspects of structural integrity in fire

    Chapter 5: Testing the toughness of polymer matrix composites

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.3 Translaminar fracture toughness testing

    5.4 Ply-Level Fracture Toughness Testing

    5.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 6: Testing the strength and stiffness of polymer matrix composites

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Key issues

    6.3 In-plane testing

    6.4 Out-of-plane testing

    6.5 Biaxial in-plane testing

    6.6 Triaxial testing

    6.7 Concluding comments

    Chapter 7: Fibre-dominated compressive failure in polymer matrix composites

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The physics of fibre kinking in unidirectional plies

    7.3 Compressive failure in two-dimensional woven composites

    7.4 Compressive failure in recycled composites

    7.5 Conclusions

    7.6 Acknowledgement

    Part II: Failure mechanisms in specific applications

    Chapter 8: Considerations of failure mechanisms in polymer matrix composites in the design of aerospace structures

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Design considerations

    8.3 Structural considerations

    8.4 Designing for damage in composites

    8.5 Materials-based approaches

    8.6 Structures-based approaches

    8.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 9: Failure of polymer matrix composites in defence applications

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Ballistic damage of composite structures

    9.3 Implications for preventing failure

    9.4 Trends in modeling composite failures in military applications

    Chapter 10: Failure of polymer matrix composites in marine and off-shore applications

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Material types

    10.3 Failure of composite materials for surface vessels

    10.4 Failure of composite materials for underwater structures

    10.5 Modelling failure

    10.6 Future trends

    Chapter 11: Recycling issues in polymer matrix composites

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 The problems of reuse in polymer composites

    11.3 Plastic waste disposal into other materials

    11.4 Mechanical recycling of polymeric matrix composites

    11.5 Recovery techniques

    11.6 Properties of recovered fibres

    11.7 Future strategies for making polymer matrix composites more recyclable

    11.8 Conclusions

    11.11 Appendix: abbreviations

    Chapter 12: Failure of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) in automotive and transportation applications

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) used in automotive and road transportation applications

    12.3 Scope of the chapter

    12.4 Common in-service conditions causing failure

    12.5 Sheet molding compound (SMC) composites

    12.6 Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) for crashworthy structures

    12.7 Implications of preventing failure

    12.8 Future trends

    Chapter 13: Environmental induced failure in fibre-reinforced plastics

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Chemical agents and degradation mechanisms

    13.3 Environmental conditioning and testing

    13.4 Modelling and predictive analysis

    13.5 Optimising chemical resistance and prevention of failure

    13.6 Conclusions and future trends

    13.7 Sources of further information and advice

    13.8 Acknowledgements

    13.10 Appendix: standards

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 464
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: January 19, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697501
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095329

About the Editors

Paul Robinson

Dr Paul Robinson works in the Department of Aeronautics at Imperial College London, UK. He is widely renowned for his expertise on the failure mechanics of composite materials.

Emile Greenhalgh

Dr Emile Greenhalgh works in the Department of Aeronautics at Imperial College London, UK. He is widely renowned for his expertise on the failure mechanics of composite materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College London, UK

Silvestre Pinho

Dr Silvestre Pinho works in the Department of Aeronautics at Imperial College London, UK. He is widely renowned for his expertise on the failure mechanics of composite materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College London, UK

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