Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium

Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium

Conventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal

1st Edition - November 8, 2019

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  • Editors: Zhigang Zak Fang, Francis Froes, Ying Zhang
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128172001
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128172018

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Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium: Conventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal contains information on current and developing processes for the production of titanium. The methods for producing Ti metal are grouped into two categories, including the reduction of TiCl4 and the reduction of TiO2, with their processes classified as either electrochemical or thermochemical. Descriptions of each method or process include both the fundamental principles of the method and the engineering challenges in their practice. In addition, a review of the chemical and physical characteristics of the product produced by each method is included. Sections cover the purity of titanium metal produced based on ASTM and other industry standards, energy consumption, cost and the potential environmental impacts of the processes.

Key Features

  • Provides information on new and developing low cost, high integrity methods for titanium metal production
  • Discusses new markets for titanium due to the decreased cost of newly developed processes
  • Covers specific information on new methods, including the chemical and physical characteristics produced


Researchers from universities, institutes, and companies in the fields of materials and manufacturing; undergraduate and higher degree research students

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    Contributors xi

    1. Introduction to the development of processes for primary

    Ti metal production 1

    Zhigang Zak Fang, Hyrum D. Lefler, F.H. Froes, and Ying Zhang

    References 8

    Part 1 Extractive chemical metallurgy processes 11

    2. A brief introduction to production of titanium dioxide

    and titanium tetrachloride 13

    Michael L. Free

    1. Background 13

    2. Ore sources 13

    3. Processing methods 14

    References 17

    3. Minerals, slags, and other feedstock for the production

    of titanium metal 19

    Dimitrios Filippou and Guillaume Hudon

    1. Introduction 19

    2. Ilmenite, rutile, and other natural titanium minerals 21

    3. Ilmenite smelting to titania slag 26

    4. Ilmenite conversion to synthetic rutile 32

    5. Titania slag upgrading to UGS 36

    6. Production of titanium carbide feedstock 37

    7. Conclusions 38

    Acknowledgments 41

    References 41

    4. Chemical processes for the production of titanium tetrachloride

    as precursor of titanium metal 47

    Guillaume Hudon and Dimitrios Filippou

    1. Introduction 47

    2. Titanium tetrachloride 47

    3. Production of titanium tetrachloride 49

    4. Titanium tetrachloride purification 55

    5. Production of pure titanium dioxide 56

    6. Other precursors 59

    Acknowledgments 60

    References 60

    Part 2 Thermochemical reduction of TiCl4 63

    5. Fundamentals of thermochemical reduction of TiCl4 65

    Toru H. Okabe and Osamu Takeda

    1. Historical developments in titanium metal production 65

    2. Kroll process 66

    3. Hunter process 71

    4. Fundamentals of titanium reduction process 75

    5. Electrochemical reactions during thermochemical reduction 78

    6. Reduction mechanism of TiCl4 during the Kroll process 81

    7. Past research for new titanium production processes 83

    8. Summary 90

    References 92

    6. The Kroll process and production of titanium sponge 97

    Matthew R. Earlam

    1. Introduction 97

    2. Source of ore 99

    3. Production of TiCl4 100

    4. Purification of TiCl4 101

    5. The Hunter process 102

    6. Armstrong process 103

    7. Kroll process 103

    8. Magnesium reduced acid leach (MRAL) (no longer practiced) 104

    9. Vacuum distillation process TOHO timet 107

    10. Preparation for melting 110

    References 111

    7. A modified Kroll process via production of TiH2 - thermochemical

    reductions of TiCl4 using hydrogen and Mg 113

    Mykhailo Matviychuk, Andrey Klevtsov, and Vladimir S. Moxson

    1. Introduction 113

    2. Process description 114

    3. Experimental results 120

    4. Role of hydrogen for ADMA process 122

    References 127

    Further reading 128

    Part 3 Thermochemical reduction of TiO2 129

    8. Metallothermic reduction of TiO2 131

    Toru H. Okabe

    1. Introduction 131

    2. Studies on reduction of titanium oxide before 2000 134

    3. Studies on reduction of titanium oxide after 2000 143

    4. Future prospects of metallothermic reduction processes for direct

    production of titanium from oxides 155

    5. Summary 159

    References 160

    9. Hydrogen assisted magnesiothermic reduction (HAMR) of

    TiO2 to produce titanium metal powder 165

    Yang Xia, Hyrum D. Lefler, Ying Zhang, Pei Sun, and Zhigang Zak Fang

    1. Introduction 165

    2. Fundamentals of the HAMR process 167

    3. HAMR process description 172

    4. HAMR product characterization 173

    5. Summary 176

    Acknowledgments 176

    References 177

    10. Deoxygenation of Ti metal 181

    Ying Zhang, Zhigang Zak Fang, Pei Sun, Yang Xia, Hyrum D. Lefler,

    and Shili Zheng

    1. Introduction 181

    2. Thermodynamic properties of the TieO solid solutions 182

    3. Methods of deoxygenation 186

    4. Concluding remarks 206

    A. Appendix 207

    Acknowledgments 220

    References 220

    Part 4 Electrochemical reduction of TiO2 and TiOC 225

    11. Invention and fundamentals of the FFC Cambridge Process 227

    George Z. Chen and Derek J. Fray

    1. Background: how the concept of electro-deoxidation came about 227

    2. Understanding of electro-deoxidation: interactions of the oxide cathode

    with molten salts 230

    3. Understanding of electro-deoxidation: metal/insulator/electrolyte 3PI

    models 235

    4. Understanding of electro-deoxidation: the metal-to-oxide molar volume

    ratio 236

    5. Development of an inert anode for electro-deoxidation in calcium

    chloride based melts 241

    6. Electro-deoxidation of other metal oxides 246

    7. Electro-desulfidation of metal sulfides 257

    8. Electro-deoxidation of mixed metal oxides 261

    9. Titanium based medical implant materials 273

    10. Cathodic protection of titanium 276

    11. Outlook and Prospective 278

    12. Conclusions 279

    References 280

    12. OS process: calciothermic reduction of TiO2 via CaO electrolysis

    in molten CaCl2 287

    Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Shungo Natsui, and Tatsuya Kikuchi

    1. Introduction 287

    2. Cell design 296

    3. Thermodynamics of desired salt 298

    4. Validity of Ca reduction during electrolysis 303

    5. Conclusion 308

    References 309

    13. Titanium production through electrolysis of titanium oxycarbide

    consumable anodedthe USTB process 315

    Hongmin Zhu, Shuqiang Jiao, Jiusan Xiao, and Jun Zhu

    1. Introduction 315

    2. Crystalline structure of titanium oxycarbide and titanium

    oxycarbonitride 316

    3. Thermodynamic properties and preparation of titanium oxycarbide from

    TiO2 by carbon thermal reduction 317

    4. Electrochemical dissolution of consumable anode 320

    5. Electrochemical deposition on the cathode 325

    6. Scaling up and practices of USTB process 326

    References 328

    14. Electrolysis of carbothermic treated titanium oxides to produce

    Ti metal 331

    James C. Withers

    References 343

    Further reading 347

    Part 5 Other processes 349

    15. Selected processes for Ti production e a cursory review 351

    Pei Sun, Ying Zhang, and Zhigang Zak Fang

    1. Introduction 351

    2. Continuous processes using Mg or Na as the reductant 352

    3. Processes using low-cost alternatives as reductants 356

    4. Summary 360

    Acknowledgments 360

    References 360

    16. Recycling of Ti 363

    Osamu Takeda, Toru H. Okabe

    1. Introduction 363

    2. Ti scraps generated in the smelting process 364

    3. Ti scraps generated in the aircraft industry 367

    4. Material flow of Ti scraps 373

    5. Recycling technologies for Ti scraps 374

    6. Future perspective of recycling technologies 377

    7. Conclusions and future remarks 382

    Acknowledgments 383

    References 383

    17. Energy consumption of the Kroll and HAMR processes for

    titanium production 389

    Yang Xia, Hyrum D. Lefler, Zhigang Zak Fang, Ying Zhang, and Pei Sun

    1. Introduction 389

    2. Review of energy consumption in the Kroll process 390

    3. Modeling and analysis of energy consumption in the HAMR process 398

    4. Energy consumption in other emerging processes 404

    5. Summary and comparison of Kroll and HAMR processes 405

    Acknowledgments 406

    References 407

    Index 411

Product details

  • No. of pages: 436
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: November 8, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128172001
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128172018

About the Editors

Zhigang Zak Fang

Dr Zhigang Zak Fang is a Professor in the Powder Metallurgy Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Utah, USA

Francis Froes

Francis H Froes, Ph.D. has been involved in the Titanium field with an emphasis on Powder Metallurgy (P/M) for more than 40 years. He was employed by a primary Titanium producer-Crucible Steel Company-where he was leader of the Titanium group. He was the program manager on a multi-million dollar US Air Force (USAF) contract on Titanium P/M. He then spent time at the USAF Materials Lab where he was supervisor of the Light Metals group (which included Titanium). This was followed by 17 years at the University of Idaho where he was a Director and Department Head of the Materials Science and Engineering Department. He has over 800 publications, in excess of 60 patents, and has edited almost 30 books-the majority on various aspects of Titanium again with an emphasis on P/M. He gave the key-note presentation at the first TDA (ITA) Conference. In recent years he has co-sponsored four TMS Symposia on Cost Effective Titanium featuring numerous papers on P/M. He is a Fellow of ASM, is a member of the Russian Academy of Science, and was awarded the Service to Powder Metallurgy by the Metal Powder Association. Recently he has been a co-author of three comprehensive papers on the Additive Manufacturing of Titanium.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department Chair, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Idaho (retired), Director, Institute for Materials and Advanced Processes (IMAP) (retired)

Ying Zhang

Dr. Ying Zhang is an associate professor in the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IPE, CAS), who joined the faculty in 2011 after the graduation. She graduated from Central South University of China with BS degree in 2006, and received her Ph.D degree from the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2011 in the research field of metallurgy. From February 2014 to November 2016, Dr. Zhang joined Prof. Zak Fang’s research group in the University of Utah as a Post-doctor, working on the project of titanium metal powder production under the financial support from the DOE of US. Prior to that, Dr. Zhang was in charge of and participated in a few projects supported by either the Chinese government or industries, including NSFC, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Hunan Provincial Science & Technology Department, etc., focusing on the cleaner production of nonferrous metals (including Al, Cr, Zn and Cd). Now she continues her interests in the production of titanium-group metals under the financial support from NSFC as PI. Dr. Zhang has authored/co-authored over 30 publications and over 20 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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