Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128172001

Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium

1st Edition

Conventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal

Editors: Zhigang Zak Fang Francis Froes Ying Zhang
Paperback ISBN: 9780128172001
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st November 2019
Page Count: 450
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Extractive Metallurgy of Titanium: Conventional and Recent Advances in Extraction and Production of Titanium Metal contains information on current and developing processes for the production of titanium. The methods for producing Ti metal are grouped into two categories, including the reduction of TiCl4 and the reduction of TiO2, with their processes classified as either electrochemical or thermochemical. Descriptions of each method or process include both the fundamental principles of the method and the engineering challenges in their practice. In addition, a review of the chemical and physical characteristics of the product produced by each method is included.

Sections cover the purity of titanium metal produced based on ASTM and other industry standards, energy consumption, cost and the potential environmental impacts of the processes.

Key Features

  • Provides information on new and developing low cost, high integrity methods for titanium metal production
  • Discusses new markets for titanium due to the decreased cost of newly developed processes
  • Covers specific information on new methods, including the chemical and physical characteristics produced


Researchers from universities, institutes, and companies in the fields of materials and manufacturing; undergraduate and higher degree research students

Table of Contents

1. Overview and Introduction
Francis Herbert Froes, Zhigang Zak Fang and Ying Zhang

Extractive chemical metallurgy processes
2. Extractive Processes for productions of Ti slag, synthetic rutile
Dimitrios Filipou
3. Chemical processes for production of precursors of Ti metal production - TiCl4 and TiO2
Michael Free

Thermochemical Reduction of TiCl4 using Mg
4. Fundamentals of thermochemical reduction of TiCl4
Toru H. Okabe
5. Industrial Production of Ti sponge (Kroll Process)
Mathew Robert Earlam
6. A modified Kroll process via production of TiH2
Mykhailo Matviychuk
7. The CSIRO process - continuos Kroll process
Christian Doblin
8. The Armstrong process
Francis Herbert Froes

Thermochemical Reduction of TiO2
9. Calciothermic reduction of TiO2
Toru H. Okabe
10. HAMR Process
Yang Xia and Ying Zhang
11. Deoxygenation of Ti powder
Ying Zhang

Electrochemical Reduction of TiO2 and Ti-O-C
12. FFC/Cambridge Process - Fundamentals
Derek Fray and George Zheng Chen
13. FFC Process - Engineering
Ian Mellor
14. The OS (Ca reduction of TiO2 plus elecrtrolysis )
Ryosuke O. Suzuki
15. Electroliy reduction of Titanium oxycarbide
Shuqiang Jiao and Hongmin Zhu
16. Electrolysis of Carbothermic Treated Titanium Oxides to Produce Ti Metal
James C. Withers
17. A Perspective on the Electrolytic Production of Titanium
Marco V. Ginatta

Other processes, recycling, and energy consumptions of Ti production
18. Other processes
Ying Zhang
19. Recycling of Ti
Toru H. Okabe
20. Energy consumption of Ti metal production
Yang Xia


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2020
1st November 2019
Paperback ISBN:

About the Editor

Zhigang Zak Fang

Dr Zhigang Zak Fang is a Professor in the Powder Metallurgy Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Utah, USA

Francis Froes

Francis H Froes, Ph.D. has been involved in the Titanium field with an emphasis on Powder Metallurgy (P/M) for more than 40 years. He was employed by a primary Titanium producer-Crucible Steel Company-where he was leader of the Titanium group. He was the program manager on a multi-million dollar US Air Force (USAF) contract on Titanium P/M. He then spent time at the USAF Materials Lab where he was supervisor of the Light Metals group (which included Titanium). This was followed by 17 years at the University of Idaho where he was a Director and Department Head of the Materials Science and Engineering Department. He has over 800 publications, in excess of 60 patents, and has edited almost 30 books-the majority on various aspects of Titanium again with an emphasis on P/M. He gave the key-note presentation at the first TDA (ITA) Conference. In recent years he has co-sponsored four TMS Symposia on Cost Effective Titanium featuring numerous papers on P/M. He is a Fellow of ASM, is a member of the Russian Academy of Science, and was awarded the Service to Powder Metallurgy by the Metal Powder Association. Recently he has been a co-author of three comprehensive papers on the Additive Manufacturing of Titanium.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department Chair, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Idaho (retired), Director, Institute for Materials and Advanced Processes (IMAP) (retired)

Ying Zhang

Dr. Ying Zhang is an associate professor in the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IPE, CAS), who joined the faculty in 2011 after the graduation. She graduated from Central South University of China with BS degree in 2006, and received her Ph.D degree from the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2011 in the research field of metallurgy. From February 2014 to November 2016, Dr. Zhang joined Prof. Zak Fang’s research group in the University of Utah as a Post-doctor, working on the project of titanium metal powder production under the financial support from the DOE of US. Prior to that, Dr. Zhang was in charge of and participated in a few projects supported by either the Chinese government or industries, including NSFC, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Hunan Provincial Science & Technology Department, etc., focusing on the cleaner production of nonferrous metals (including Al, Cr, Zn and Cd). Now she continues her interests in the production of titanium-group metals under the financial support from NSFC as PI. Dr. Zhang has authored/co-authored over 30 publications and over 20 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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