Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals

1st Edition

Print ISBN: 9780080974781
eBook ISBN: 9780080968100
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 5th August 2011
Page Count: 622
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This book describes and explains the methods by which three related ores and recyclables are made into high purity metals and chemicals, for materials processing. It focuses on present day processes and future developments rather than historical processes.

Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage.

The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author’s previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore – e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plants
  • Discusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one book
  • Reviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic ore
  • Industrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources


Graduate students within extractive metallurgy and metallurgical engineering. Working professionals, including metallurgists and mining, chemical, plant or environmental engineers and researchers within industry. Stainless steel producers and Turbine experts.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Overview

1.1. Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt

1.2. Extraction of Cobalt From Copper–COBALT Ores

1.3. Extraction of Platinum-Group Metals From Sulfide Ores

1.4. Recovering Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum-Group Metals From End-of-Use Scrap

1.5. Organization of Major Themes and Topics

1.6. Summary

Chapter 2. Nickel Production, Price, and Extraction Costs

2.1. Applications of Nickel

2.2. Location of Nickel Mines and Extraction Plants

2.3. Price of Nickel

2.4. Costs of Nickel Extraction

2.5. Summary

Chapter 3. Upgrading of Laterite Ores

3.1. Laterite Ores

3.2. Upgrading of Laterite Ores

3.3. Extent of Upgrading

3.4. Economic Justification for Upgrading Laterites

3.5. Principles and Methods of Upgrading Laterites

3.6. Evaluation

3.7. Summary

Chapter 4. Overview of the Smelting of Nickel Laterite to Ferronickel

4.1. Feed to Ferronickel Smelting

4.2. Ferronickel Product

4.3. Principles of Ferronickel Smelting

4.4. Brief Process Description

Chapter 5. Dewatering and Calcination of Laterite Ores

5.1. Dewatering of the Upgraded Laterite Ore

5.2. Control of the Dewatering Kiln

5.3. Calcination and Reduction of Dewatered Laterite

5.4. Chemistry

5.5. Products

5.6. Appraisal

5.7. Summary

Chapter 6. Smelting of Laterite Ores to Ferronickel

6.1. reactions in the Electric Furnace

6.2. Nickel Recovery

6.3. Melting Temperatures

6.4. Industrial Smelting Furnaces

6.5. Method of Heating the Furnace

6.6. Electrodes

6.7. Furnace Operation

6.8. Control

6.9. Appraisal and Future Trends

6.10. Summary

Chapter 7. Refining Molten Ferronickel

7.1. Phospho


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"The strength of the book lies in the number of Tables comparing production details in different smelters and refineries around the world and the list of references at the end of each chapter. The book also includes many operating details for furnaces and other equipment as well as analyses of materials handled. This information must be considered as authoritative since the authors mention that they visited many plants and collected data on site... The book is a welcome addition to the metallurgical library and any one involved in the nickel industry must be aware of this book."--MEIBlog
"A team of specialists from various companies and universities trace the extraction and processing of the three metals from ore in the ground to high-purity metals and chemicals. Nickel, cobalt, and platinum-group metals often occur together, are extracted together, and have similar properties. The topics discussed include smelting laterite concentrates to sulfide matte, extracting nickel and cobalt from sulfide ores, the slow cooling and solidification of converter matte, extracting cobalt from nickel laterite and sulfide ores, and smelting and converting sulfide concentrates containing platinum-group metals."--Reference and Research News, October 2012