Synopsis. Production Statistics. Concentration of Copper Ores. Matte Smelting. Flash Smelting—Outokumpu Process. Flash Smelting—Inco Process. Reverberatory Furnace Matte Smelting. Electric Furnace Matte Smelting. Noranda and Teniente Processes. Emerging Matte Smelting Technologies—Isamelt, Vanyukov and Contop Processes. Converting of Cu Matte. Copper Loss in Slag. Direct-to-Blister Flash Smelting. Continuous Multi-Furnace Smelting—Mitsubishi Process. Capture and Fixation of Sulphur. Fire Refining and Casting of Anodes: Sulphur and Oxygen Removal. Electrolytic Refining of Copper. Hydrometallurgical Copper Extraction: Introduction and Leaching. Solvent Extraction Transfer of Copper from Leach Solution to Electrolyte. Electrowinning. Recycle of Copper and Copper Alloy Scrap. Melting, Casting and Quality. Costs of Extracting Copper. Appendices.