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Experimental Fluid Mechanics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080069791, 9781483136110

Experimental Fluid Mechanics

2nd Edition

Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Division

Author: P Bradshaw
Editors: J. R. Horlock W. A. Woods
eBook ISBN: 9781483136110
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 236
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Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Second Edition, discusses the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics. The book begins with a discussion of the use of dimensional analysis, in particular the way in which it can be used to relate the results of model tests to flows at full scale. A chapter on wind tunnels follows; because tunnels and other test rigs with similar features are the basic test facilities of laboratory fluid mechanics, and because most of the physical and mathematical features of the subject are well illustrated by the flow in wind tunnels. Subsequent chapters discuss techniques of measurements—fluid velocity and shear stress measurements, pressure measurements, force and position measurements, and flow visualization; the conduct of experiments and the writing of reports; and the last chapter is a survey of specialized branches of fluid mechanics. This book is intended for students of the theory of fluid mechanics, who must also learn about the physical situations which the theory represents, and especially for those who contemplate specializing in the experimental side of the subject rather than the theoretical side.

Table of Contents

Editorial Introduction

Preface to Second Edition


Chapter One Introduction

Theory and Experiment in Fluid Mechanics

Aeronautics and other Branches of the Subject

Relative Motion

Historical Development of Fluid Mechanics

Dimensional Analysis


The Equations of Motion

The Navier-Stokes Equations

Incompressible Flow

"Inviscid" Flow and Bernoulli's Equation

Shock Waves

The Boundary-layer Approximation

The Momentum Integral Equation

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

The Reynolds Stresses

Duct Flow

Compressible Flow Outside Shear Layers

Departures from Perfect-gas Behavior

The Different Flow Regimes

Categories of Experimental Work


Chapter Two Tunnels and Test Rigs

Wind Tunnel Layouts

Closed-circuit Tunnels

Open-circuit Tunnels

Pressure Tunnels

Power Requirements and Circuit Arrangements

Transonic and Supersonic Tunnels


Subsonic Diffusers

Fans and Compressors

Fan Design Methods

Drive Arrangements

Intermittent-running Tunnels


Contractions and Nozzles

Boundary-layer Behavior

Effect of a Contraction on Velocity Variations

Nozzles for High Speed Tunnels

Design of Supersonic Divergent Nozzles


Pressure-drop Coefficients of Screens


Acceptable Values of Stream Turbulence

Condensation in High-speed Tunnels

Shock Tubes

Shock Tunnels

Reflected-shock Tunnels

"Tailored" Operation

Low-density Tunnels


Chapter Three Fluid Velocity and Shear Stress Measurements

Pitot Tubes

Corrections to the Readings of Pitot Tubes in Non-uniform Flow

Static Pressure Measurements

Fluctuating Pressure Measurements

Flow Direction Measurements

Flow Quantity Measurements

Fluctuating Velocity Measurements―The Hot Wire Anemometer

Hot Wire Probes

Compensation for Thermal Inertia of Hot Wires

Constant-temperature Hot-wire Operation

The Doppler Anemometer

Recording Techniques

Measurement of Very Low Velocities

Shear Stress Measurement

Surface Pitot Tubes

"Floating" Surface Elements

Determination of Surface Friction from Overall Drag Measurements

Use of the Momentum Integral Equation


Chapter Four Pressure Measurements and Manometers

Surface Pressure Measurements

Lag in Connecting Leads Containing Gases

Manometers and Pressure Gauges

U-tube Manometers

Betz Manometer

Reservoir U-tubes

Multi-tube Manometers

Null-displacement Manometers

Chattock Gauge

Pressure Transducers

Measurement of Low Absolute Pressures

Pressure Fluctuation Measurements


Chapter Five Force and Position Measurements

The Null-displacement Method

The Strain Method

Forces on Tunnel Models

Permanent Wind Tunnel Balances

Resolution of Forces

Balance Linkages


Model Supports

Strain Balances

Resistance Strain Gauges

Resolution of Forces

Temperature Sensitivity

Frequency Response

Tunnel Interference

Solid Blockage

Wake Blockage

Tunnel Wall Boundary-layer Blockage

Lift Interference

Aspect Ratio Corrections

Corrections to Surface Pressure Distributions

Permissible Model Size for a Given Tunnel

Position Measurements

Automatic Data Recording and Digital Processing


Chapter Six Flow Visualization

Streamlines of the External Stream

Streamlines of the Surface Flow

Surface Friction

Extent of Turbulent Mixing Regions

Shock Wave or Expansion Fan Position

Flow Visualization Techniques and Interpretation


"Smoke" or Dye

Line Tracers

Oil Films

China Clay

Shadow-graph or Direct-shadow Method

Schlieren Method



Chapter Seven The Planning and Reporting of Experiments

Planning of Experiments

The Experimental Program

Experimental Errors

Overall Accuracy

Report Writing

Curve Fitting


Chapter Eight Specialized Branches of Fluid Mechanics


Chemical Engineering



Civil Engineering

Heat Transfer and Combustion

Hydraulics and Naval Architecture


Turbo-machinery and Duct Flows



Answers to Examples




No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1970
1st January 1970
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

P Bradshaw

About the Editors

J. R. Horlock

W. A. Woods

Ratings and Reviews