Evidence-Based Climate Science - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128045886, 9780128045893

Evidence-Based Climate Science

2nd Edition

Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming

Editors: Don Easterbrook
eBook ISBN: 9780128045893
Paperback ISBN: 9780128045886
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 29th September 2016
Page Count: 432
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Description

Evidence-Based Climate Science: Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, includes updated data related to the causes of global climate change from experts in meteorology, geology, atmospheric physics, solar physics, geophysics, climatology, and computer modeling. This book objectively gathers and analyzes scientific data concerning patterns of past climate changes, influences of changes in ocean temperatures, the effect of solar variation on global climate, and the effect of CO2 on global climate. This analysis is then presented as counter-evidence to the theory that CO2 is the primary cause behind global warming.

Increasingly, scientists are pointing to data which suggests that climate changes are a result of natural cycles, which have been occurring for thousands of years. Unfortunately, global warming has moved into the political realm without enough peer-reviewed research to fully validate and exclude other, more natural, causes of climate change. For example, there is an absence of any physical evidence that CO2 causes global warming, so the only argument for CO2 as the cause of warming rests entirely in computer modeling. Thus, the question becomes, how accurate are the computer models in predicting climate? What other variables could be missing from the models?

In order to understand modern climate changes, we need to look at the past history of climate changes. Vast amounts of physical evidence of climate change over the past centuries and millennia have been gathered by scientists. Significant climate changes have clearly been going on for many thousands of years, long before the recent rise in atmospheric CO2 Evidence-Based Climate Science, Data Opposing CO2 Emissions as the Primary Source of Global Warming, Second Edition, documents past climate changes and presents physical evidence for possible causes.

Key Features

  • Provides scientific evidence for issues related to global climate change that is not readily available elsewhere
  • Offers detailed analysis of temperature measurements with the goal of helping readers to understand conflicting claims about global warming heard every day in the news media
  • Presents real-time data on polar ice
  • Presents the real-time effect of CO2 on global warming, rather than forecasts based on computer models

Readership

Atmospheric scientists, oceanographers, meteorologists, and climatologists. It is also suitable as a reference for scientists practicing in the fields of environmental science, ecology, geology, and geophysics.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part I. Climatic Perspectives
    • Chapter 1. Climate Perspectives
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The “97%” Myth
      • 3. The Scientific Method Versus Dogma
      • 4. Comparison of Computer Modeling of Climate With Measured Temperatures
      • 5. No Global Warming for 18 Years and 8 Months
      • 6. Hottest-Year-Ever Claims
      • 7. Data Corruption
      • 8. The Past Is the Key to the Future
  • Part II. Temperature Measurements
    • Chapter 2. A Critical Look at Surface Temperature Records
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Global Data Centers
      • 3. The Golden Age of Surface Observation
      • 4. Vanishing Stations
      • 5. See for Yourself: The Data Are a Mess
      • 6. Station Dropout Was Not Totally Random
      • 7. Instrument Changes and Siting
      • 8. Along Comes “Modernization”
      • 9. Adjustments Not Made, or Made Badly
      • 10. Heat From Population Growth and Land-Use Changes
      • 11. U.S. Climate Data
      • 12. U.S. State Heat Records Suggest Recent Decades Are Not the Warmest
      • 13. Major Changes to USHCN in 2007
      • 14. Hadley and NOAA
      • 15. Final Adjustments: Homogenization
      • 16. Problems With Sea Surface Temperature Measurements
      • 17. Long-Term Trends
      • 18. Summary
    • Chapter 3. Is the NASA Surface Temperature Record an Accurate Representation?
    • Chapter 4. In the Climate Debate, Hear Both Sides
      • 1. Are Today's Temperature Changes Unprecedented?
      • 2. Was the Glacial-to-Interglacial Global Warming as Little as 3°C?
      • 3. Was 2014 “The Warmest Year on Record”? and Does It Matter?
      • 4. What Is the Ideal United Kingdom and Global Temperature?
      • 5. Stretching the Vertical Axis of the Temperature Graph
      • 6. Imagined Effects of Global Warming
      • 7. Is Sea Ice Really Declining Rapidly?
      • 8. Rising CO2 Concentration and Its Effect on Global Temperature
      • 9. Are the Computer Models of Climate Reliable?
      • 10. Has Climate Science Become Dishonest?
      • 11. Are Floods and Droughts Worsening and Crops Failing as Predicted?
      • 12. Conclusions
    • Chapter 5. Southeast Australian Maximum Temperature Trends, 1887–2013: An Evidence-Based Reappraisal
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Materials and Methods
      • 3. Results and Discussion
      • 4. Conclusions
  • Part III. Extreme Weather Events
    • Chapter 6. Weather Extremes
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Extreme Weather Events and the Earth's Climate
      • 3. Heat Extremes
      • 4. Cold Extremes
      • 5. Floods and Droughts
      • 6. Tropical Cyclones and Tornadoes
      • 7. Economic Losses Due to Extreme Weather
      • 8. Human Fatalities and Heat and Cold Extremes
      • 9. Summary and Conclusions
  • Part IV. Polar Ice
    • Chapter 7. Evidence That Antarctica Is Cooling, Not Warming
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Are Antarctic Glaciers Melting at an Accelerating Rate?
      • 3. Is Antarctica Warming or Cooling?
      • 4. Physical Data Show Lack of Antarctic Warming
      • 5. Cooling of the Southern Ocean Around Antarctica
      • 6. West Antarctic Ice Sheet
      • 7. Conclusions
      • 8. Evidence of Stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
      • 9. Credibility of the “Unstoppable Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet”
      • 10. Isostatic Rebound
      • 11. Conclusions
    • Chapter 8. Temperature Fluctuations in Greenland and the Arctic
      • 1. Greenland
      • 2. The Arctic
  • Part V. Carbon Dioxide
    • Chapter 9. Greenhouse Gases
      • 1. Role of Water Vapor
      • 2. Carbon Dioxide
      • 3. Global Warming and CO2 During the Past Century
      • 4. Geologic Evidence That Global Warming Causes Increased Atmospheric CO2—CO2 Does Not Cause Global Warming
      • 5. CO2 Lags Warming Over Short Time Spans
    • Chapter 10. Is CO2 Mitigation Cost Effective?
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Projected 21st-Century CO2-Driven Warming
      • 3. Method
      • 4. Other Greenhouse Gases
      • 5. The Intertemporal Discount Rate
      • 6. Welfare Loss From Inaction
      • 7. The Cost–Benefit Ratio
      • 8. Illustrative Case Studies
      • 9. Results
      • 10. Discussion
      • 11. Conclusions
  • Part VI. Oceans
    • Chapter 11. Relationship of Multidecadal Global Temperatures to Multidecadal Oceanic Oscillations
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Southern Oscillation Index
      • 3. Multivariate ENSO Index
      • 4. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation
      • 5. Frequency and Strength of ENSO and the PDO
      • 6. Correlation of the PDO and Glacial Fluctuations in the Pacific Northwest
      • 7. ENSO Versus Temperatures
      • 8. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)
      • 9. The North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, and the AMO
      • 10. Synchronized Dance of the Teleconnections
      • 11. Using Warm and Cold Pools in Operational Seasonal Forecasting
      • 12. Short-Term Warm/Cool Cycles From the Greenland Ice Core
      • 13. Where Are We Headed During the Coming Century?
    • Chapter 12. Sea Level Changes as Observed in Nature
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. “Poster Sites” for Lobbyists
      • 3. Test Areas of Eustatic Changes in Sea Level
      • 4. Satellite Altimetry Before “Corrections”
      • 5. Discussion
      • 6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 13. Ocean “Acidification” Alarmism in Perspective
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Historical Record of CO2 and Temperature in the Atmosphere
      • 3. The Adaptation of Species to Changing Environmental Conditions
      • 4. The Buffering Capacity of Seawater
      • 5. The Ability of Calcifying Species to Control the Biochemistry at the Site of Calcification
      • 6. A Warmer Ocean May Emit CO2 Back Into the Atmosphere
      • 7. Summary of Experimental Results on Effect of Reduced pH on Calcifying Species
      • 8. Conclusions
  • Part VII. Solar Influences on Climate
    • Chapter 14. Cause of Global Climate Changes: Correlation of Global Temperature, Sunspots, Solar Irradiance, Cosmic Rays, and Radiocarbon and Berylium Production Rates
      • 1. Solar Variation—Grand Minima
      • 2. Radiocarbon (14C6) Production Rates
      • 3. Berylium-10 (10Be4) Production Rates
      • 4. Cosmic Ray Incidence and Climate
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 15. Solar Changes and the Climate
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Earth–Sun Connection
      • 3. Warming Due to Ultraviolet Effects Through Ozone Chemistry
      • 4. The “Pause” and Climate Projections
      • 5. Summary
    • Chapter 16. The Sun's Role in Climate
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Solar Activity Changes Over the Last 10,000 Years
      • 3. Medieval Warm Period
      • 4. Is Something Missing in the Climate Models?
      • 5. Solar-Forced Millennial Climate Cycles
      • 6. Coverage of Millennial Climate Cycles in the Fifth IPCC Climate Report
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 17. The New Little Ice Age Has Started
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Milankovitch Cycles and Interrelated Variations in Climate and Abundance of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere
      • 3. Interrelated Variations in the Climate, Total Solar Irradiance, and Solar Activity
      • 4. Quasi-bicentennial Variations in Total Solar Irradiance and Mechanisms of Its Secondary Additional Influences
      • 5. The Quasi-bicentennial Solar Cycle Determines Variations in Both the Duration and the Power of the 11-Year Solar Cycle
      • 6. The Average Annual Energy Balance of the Earth
      • 7. Quasi-bicentennial Variation in the Total Solar Irradiance Leads to an Energy Imbalance of the Surface–Atmosphere System
      • 8. Current Total Solar Irradiance Decrease in the Quasi-bicentennial Cycle Has Led to a Long-Term Deficit in the Earth's Energy Balance and the Beginning of a New Little Ice Age
      • 9. Sensitivity of Climate to Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide
      • 10. Convection, Evaporation, and Condensation in Transfer of Thermal Flow at the Earth's Surface
      • 11. Powerful Volcanic Eruptions Lead Only to Short-Term Cooling Periods
      • 12. Future Deep Cooling Can Become a Major Problem for the Development of Petroleum in the Arctic
      • 13. Increasing Global Temperature on the Earth Has Stopped Since 1997
      • 14. Conclusion
    • Chapter 18. Aspects of Solar Variability and Climate Response
      • 1. Solar Activity in the Little Ice Age and Modern Warm Period
    • Chapter 19. The Notch-Delay Solar Hypothesis
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Notch in the Empirical Transfer Function
      • 3. The Delay
      • 4. The Force-X Hypothesis
      • 5. The Force-ND Hypothesis
      • 6. Mechanisms
      • 7. A Prediction
      • 8. The Notch-Delay Solar Model
      • 9. Conclusions
      • Appendix A: Acronyms
  • Part VIII. Climate Models
    • Chapter 20. Correcting Problems With the Conventional Basic Calculation of Climate Sensitivity
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Conventional Calculation of Climate Sensitivity
      • 3. Problems With the Conventional Basic Climate Model
      • 4. Proposed Feedback: “Rerouting”
      • 5. Externally Driven Albedo Could Be Significant
      • 6. Alternative Model
      • 7. The “Hotspot”
      • 8. Calculating the ECS Using the Alternative Model
      • 9. Conclusions
      • Appendix: Acronyms
  • Part IX. Climate Predictions
    • Chapter 21. Using Patterns of Recurring Climate Cycles to Predict Future Climate Changes
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Past is the Key to the Future: Lessons From Past Global Climate Changes
      • 3. Significance of Past Global Climate Changes
      • 4. Correlation of Temperature Cycles and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation
      • 5. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation
      • 6. Where Is Climate Headed During the Coming Century?
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
432
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128045893
Paperback ISBN:
9780128045886

About the Editor

Don Easterbrook

Dr. Don Easterbrook has done extensive research into the of global climate changes, global warming and cooling, as well as the cause of abrupt global climate changes at the end of the last Ice Age. He studies the relationship of 25-30 year glacial and ocean warming and cooling cycles to solar variation and global warming and cooling. Additionally, he has analyzed the correlation of Quaternary inter-hemispheric climate changes, the of radiocarbon marine reservoir values, Holocene glaciation of the Cascade Range, and the Holocene climate changes, otherwise known as The Little Ice Age. He has analyzed the tephra and lahar chronology of Mt. Baker, and has extensively used shorelines to determine isostatic uplift rates in the Puget Lowland.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, USA