Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444530813, 9780080554617

Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants, Volume 8

1st Edition

Authors: Joaquim Casal
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444530813
eBook ISBN: 9780080554617
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 30th October 2007
Page Count: 378
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Table of Contents

Preface v

  1. Introduction 1
  2. Risk 1
  3. Risk analysis 2
  4. Major accidents 5 3.1 Types 5 3.2 Damage 9
  5. Domino effect 12 4.1 Classification of domino effects 4.2 An example case
  6. Mathematical modelling of accidents 14 Nomenclature 16 References 16

  7. Source term 19

  8. Introduction 19
  9. Liquid release 21 2.1 Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank 21 2.2 Flow of liquid through a pipe 24 2.2.1 Liquid flow rate 24 2.2.2 Friction factor 27
  10. Gas/vapour release 30 3.1 Flow of gas/vapour through a hole 30 3.1.1 Critical velocity 30 3.1.2 Mass flow rate 33 3.1.3 Discharge coefficient 33 3.2 Flow of gas/vapour through a pipe 35 3.3 Time-dependent gas release 40
  11. Two-phase flow 42 4.1 Flashing liquids 42 4.2 Two-phase discharge 43
  12. Safety relief valves 44 5.1 Discharge from a safety relief valve 45
  13. Relief discharges 47 6.1 Relief flow rate for vessels subject to external fire 48 6.2 Relief flow rate for vessels undergoing a runaway reaction 49
  14. Evaporation of a liquid from a pool 53 7.1 Evaporation of liquids 53 7.2 Pool size 53 7.2.1 Pool on ground 53 7.2.2 Pool on water 53 7.3 Evaporation of boiling liquids 53 7.4 Evaporation of non-boiling liquids 54
  15. General outflow guidelines for quantitative risk analysis 55 8.1 Loss-of-containment events in pressurized tanks and vessels 56 8.2 Loss-of-containment events in atmospheric tanks 56 8.3 Loss-of-containment events in pipes 56 8.4 Loss-of-containment events in pumps 56 8.5 Loss-of-containment events in relief devices 56 8.6 Loss-of-containment events for storage in warehouses 57 8.7 Loss-of-containment events in transport units in an establishment 57 8.8 Pool evaporation 57 8.9 Outfllow and atmospheric dispersion 58 Nomenclature 58 References 59

  16. Fire accidents 61

  17. Introduction 61
  18. Combustion 61 2.1 Combustion reaction and combustion heat 62 2.2 Premixed flames and diffusion flames 63
  19. Types of fire 63 3.1 Pool fires 64 3.2 Jet fires 65 3.3 Flash fires 65 3.4 Fireballs 66
  20. Flammability 66 4.1 Flammability limits 66 4.1.1 Estimation of flammability limits 67 4.1.2 Flammability limits of gas mixtures 69 4.1.3 Flammability limits as a function of pressure 70 4.1.4 Flammability limits as a function of temperature 70 4.1.5 Inerting and flammability diagrams 71 4.2 Flash point temperature 72 4.3 Autoignition temperature 73
  21. Estimation of thermal radiation from fires 74 5.1 Point source model 74 5.2 Solid flame model 77 5.2.1 View factor 78 5.2.2 Emissive power 80
  22. Flame size 83 6.1 Pool fire size 84 6.1.1 Pool diameter 84 6.1.2 Burning rate 86 6.1.3 Height and length of the flames 87 6.1.4 Influence of wind 87 6.2 Size of a jet fire 90 6.2.1 Jet flow 90 6.2.2 Shape and size of the jet fire 92 6.2.3 Influence of wind 94 6.3 Flash fire 99
  23. Boilover 100 7.1 Tendency of hydrocarbons to boilover 102 7.2 Boilover effects 103
  24. Fireball 104 8.1 Fireball geometry 104 8.1.1 Ground diameter 104 8.1.2 Fireball duration and diameter 104 8.1.3 Height reached by the centre of the fireball 105 8.2 Thermal features 106 8.2.1 Radiant heat fraction 106 8.2.2 Emissive power 107 8.2.3 View factor 108 8.3 Constant or variable D, H and E 108
  25. Example case 109 Nomenclature 113 References 115

  26. Vapour cloud explosions 119

  27. Introduction 119
  28. Vapour clouds 120
  29. Blast and blast wave 121 3.1 Blast wave 121 3.2 Detonations 122 3.3 Deflagrations 123 3.4 Blast scaling 123 3.5 Free-air and ground explosions 124
  30. Estimation of blast: TNT equivalency method 125
  31. Estimation of blast: multi-energy method 127
  32. Estimation of blast: Baker-Strehlow-Tang method 133
  33. Comparison of the three methods 136
  34. A statistical approach to the estimation of the probable number of fatalities in accidental explosions 138
  35. Example case 140 Nomenclature 144 References 144

  36. BLEVEs and vessel explosions 147

  37. Introduction 147
  38. Mechanism of BLEVE 149 2.1 Liquid superheating 151 2.2 Superheat limit temperature 153 2.3 Superheat limit temperature from energy balance 156 2.4 When is an explosion a BLEVE? 159
  39. Vessel failure 163 3.1 Mechanism 163 3.2 Pressure required for vessel failure 164
  40. Estimation of explosion effects 165 4.1 Thermal radiation 165 4.2 Mechanical energy released by the explosions 165 4.2.1 Ideal gas behaviour and isentropic expansion 166 4.2.2 Real gas behaviour and irreversible expansion 168 4.3 Pressure wave 169 4.4 Using liquid superheating energy for a quick estimation of ƒ´P 173 4.5 Estimation of ƒ´P from characteristic curves 176 4.6 Missiles 178 4.6.1 Range 181 4.6.2 Velocity 182
  41. Preventive measures 183
  42. Example cases 186 Nomenclature 190 References 192

  43. Atmospheric dispersion of toxic or flammable clouds 195

  44. Introduction 195
  45. Atmospheric variables 195 2.1 Wind 196 2.2 Lapse rates 199 2.3 Atmospheric stability 200 2.4 Relative humidity 204 2.5 Units of measurement 204
  46. Dispersion models 205 3.1 Continuous and instantaneous releases 205 3.2 Effective height of emission 207
  47. Dispersion models for neutral gases (Gaussian models) 208 4.1 Continuous emission 209 4.2 Instantaneous emission 215 4.3 Short-term releases 218
  48. Dispersion models for heavier-than-air gases 219 5.1 Britter and McQuaid model 221 5.1.1 Continuous release 221 5.1.2 Instantaneous release 223 5.1.3 Finite duration release 225
  49. Calculating concentration contour coordinates 227 6.1 The Ooms integral plume model 227 6.2 determining concentration contour coordinates 227
  50. Dispersion of dust 230
  51. Atmospheric dispersion of infectious agents 231 8.1 Emission source 231 8.2 Dispersion of airborne pathogenic agents 232 8.3 Epidemics: dispersion of airborne viruses 232
  52. Escaping 236
  53. Sheltering 236 10.1 Concentration indoors 236 10.1.1 Continuous release 236 10.1.2 Temporary release 237 10.1.3 Instantaneous release 239 10.1.4 A simplified approach 241
  54. Example case 242 Nomenclature 244 Annex 6-1 246 References 247

  55. Vulnerability 249

  56. Introduction 249
  57. Population response to an accident 249
  58. Probit analysis 250
  59. Vulnerability to thermal radiation 254 4.1 Damage to people 254 4.1.1 Probit equations 257 4.1.2 Clothing 258 4.1.3 Escape 258 4.1.4 Effect of hot air 261 4.2 Material damages 261
  60. Vulnerability to explosions 263 5.1 Damage to human beings 263 5.1.1 Direct consequences 263 5.1.2 Indirect consequences 265 5.1.3 Collapse of buildings 268 5.2 Consequences of an explosion for buildings and structures 269
  61. Vulnerability to toxic substances 271 6.1 Dose and probit equations 273 6.2 Substances released from a fire 275
  62. Inert gases 277
  63. Influence of sheltering 279 8.1 Thermal radiation 279 8.2 Blast 8.3 Toxic exposure
  64. Relationship between the number of people killed and the number of people injured in major accidents 280
  65. Zoning according to vulnerability 281
  66. Example case 283 Nomenclature 288 Annex 7-1 287 References 288

  67. Quantitative risk analysis 291

  68. Introduction 291
  69. Quantitative risk analysis steps 292
  70. Individual and societal risks 294 3.1 Individual and societal risks definition 294 4 Risk mapping 296 4.1 Individual risk contours 296 4.2 Procedure 296 4.3 Societal risk 298
  71. Introductory examples of risk calculation 299
  72. Frequencies and probabilities 306 6.1 Frequencies of most common loss-of-containment events 306 6.2 Failure of repression systems 306 6.3 Human error 306 6.4 Probabilities for ignition and explosion of flammable spills 306 6.5 Meteorological data 309
  73. Example case 309 7.1 Estimation of the frequencies of initiating events 311 7.2 Event trees of the diverse initiating events 312 7.3 Effects of the different accidental scenarios 319 7.4 Calculation of the individual risk 327 Nomenclature 329 References 331

Annex 1 Constants in the Antoine equation 333 Annex 2 Flammability levels, flash temperature and heat of combustion (higher value) for different substances 335 Annex 3 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) 337 Annex 4 Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health concentrations (IDLH) 345 Annex 5 Determining the damage to humans from explosions using characteristic curves 347 Index 353


Description

The book analyzes the different major accidents which can occur in process plants and during the transportation of hazardous materials. The main features of fires, explosions and toxic releases are discussed, and a set of mathematical models allowing the prediction of their effects and consequences are explained. With a practical approach, the models are applied to simple illustrative examples, as well as to more complex real cases. The use of these calculations in the frame of Quantitative Risk Analysis is also treated.

Evaluation of the effects of major accidents in industrial installations covers the following topics: general introduction, source term, fire accidents, vapour cloud explosions, BLEVEs and vessel explosions, atmospheric dispersion of toxic or flammable clouds, vulnerability, and quantitative risk analysis.

This book is a useful tool for engineering professionals, as well as an interesting reference for teaching at graduate and post-graduate levels.

Key Features

Both the essential aspects and the calculations related to the diverse accidents are discussed The prediction of effects and consequences is performed with a practical approach Recent contributions from literature have been included Subjects of increasing importance have been included: an extense analysis of BLEVEs, for example, or the atmospheric dispersion of pathogenic agents.

Readership

Engineers from the industry, consultants Engineers from the administration University students and professors


Details

No. of pages:
378
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2008
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080554617
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444530813

About the Authors

Joaquim Casal Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain