Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants

Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants

1st Edition - October 30, 2007

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  • Author: Joaquim Casal
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080554617

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Description

Evaluation of the Effects and Consequences of Major Accidents in Industrial Plants analyzes the different major accidents which can occur in process plants and during the transportation of hazardous materials. The main features of fires, explosions and toxic releases are discussed, and a set of mathematical models allowing the prediction of their effects and consequences are explained. With a practical approach, the models are applied to simple illustrative examples, as well as to more complex real cases. The use of these calculations in the frame of Quantitative Risk Analysis is also treated. Evaluation of the effects of major accidents in industrial installations covers the following topics: general introduction, source term, fire accidents, vapour cloud explosions, BLEVEs and vessel explosions, atmospheric dispersion of toxic or flammable clouds, vulnerability, and quantitative risk analysis. This book is a useful tool for engineering professionals, as well as an interesting reference for teaching at graduate and post-graduate levels.

Key Features

  • Both the essential aspects and the calculations related to the diverse accidents are discussed
  • The prediction of effects and consequences is performed with a practical approach
  • Recent contributions from literature have been included
  • Subjects of increasing importance have been included: an extense analysis of BLEVEs, for example, or the atmospheric dispersion of pathogenic agents

Readership

Engineers from the industry, consultants; Engineers from the administration; University students and professors

Table of Contents

  • Preface v
    1. Introduction 1
    1. Risk 1
    2. Risk analysis 2
    3. Major accidents 5
    3.1 Types 5
    3.2 Damage 9
    4. Domino effect 12
    4.1 Classification of domino effects
    4.2 An example case
    5. Mathematical modelling of accidents 14
    Nomenclature 16
    References 16

    2. Source term 19
    1. Introduction 19
    2. Liquid release 21
    2.1 Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank 21
    2.2 Flow of liquid through a pipe 24
    2.2.1 Liquid flow rate 24
    2.2.2 Friction factor 27
    3. Gas/vapour release 30
    3.1 Flow of gas/vapour through a hole 30
    3.1.1 Critical velocity 30
    3.1.2 Mass flow rate 33
    3.1.3 Discharge coefficient 33
    3.2 Flow of gas/vapour through a pipe 35
    3.3 Time-dependent gas release 40
    4. Two-phase flow 42
    4.1 Flashing liquids 42
    4.2 Two-phase discharge 43
    5. Safety relief valves 44
    5.1 Discharge from a safety relief valve 45
    6. Relief discharges 47
    6.1 Relief flow rate for vessels subject to external fire 48
    6.2 Relief flow rate for vessels undergoing a runaway reaction 49
    7. Evaporation of a liquid from a pool 53
    7.1 Evaporation of liquids 53
    7.2 Pool size 53
    7.2.1 Pool on ground 53
    7.2.2 Pool on water 53
    7.3 Evaporation of boiling liquids 53
    7.4 Evaporation of non-boiling liquids 54
    8. General outflow guidelines for quantitative risk analysis 55
    8.1 Loss-of-containment events in pressurized tanks and vessels 56
    8.2 Loss-of-containment events in atmospheric tanks 56
    8.3 Loss-of-containment events in pipes 56
    8.4 Loss-of-containment events in pumps 56
    8.5 Loss-of-containment events in relief devices 56
    8.6 Loss-of-containment events for storage in warehouses 57
    8.7 Loss-of-containment events in transport units in an establishment 57
    8.8 Pool evaporation 57
    8.9 Outfllow and atmospheric dispersion 58
    Nomenclature 58
    References 59

    3. Fire accidents 61
    1. Introduction 61
    2. Combustion 61
    2.1 Combustion reaction and combustion heat 62
    2.2 Premixed flames and diffusion flames 63
    3. Types of fire 63
    3.1 Pool fires 64
    3.2 Jet fires 65
    3.3 Flash fires 65
    3.4 Fireballs 66
    4. Flammability 66
    4.1 Flammability limits 66
    4.1.1 Estimation of flammability limits 67
    4.1.2 Flammability limits of gas mixtures 69
    4.1.3 Flammability limits as a function of pressure 70
    4.1.4 Flammability limits as a function of temperature 70
    4.1.5 Inerting and flammability diagrams 71
    4.2 Flash point temperature 72
    4.3 Autoignition temperature 73
    5. Estimation of thermal radiation from fires 74
    5.1 Point source model 74
    5.2 Solid flame model 77
    5.2.1 View factor 78
    5.2.2 Emissive power 80
    6. Flame size 83
    6.1 Pool fire size 84
    6.1.1 Pool diameter 84
    6.1.2 Burning rate 86
    6.1.3 Height and length of the flames 87
    6.1.4 Influence of wind 87
    6.2 Size of a jet fire 90
    6.2.1 Jet flow 90
    6.2.2 Shape and size of the jet fire 92
    6.2.3 Influence of wind 94
    6.3 Flash fire 99
    7. Boilover 100
    7.1 Tendency of hydrocarbons to boilover 102
    7.2 Boilover effects 103
    8. Fireball 104
    8.1 Fireball geometry 104
    8.1.1 Ground diameter 104
    8.1.2 Fireball duration and diameter 104
    8.1.3 Height reached by the centre of the fireball 105
    8.2 Thermal features 106
    8.2.1 Radiant heat fraction 106
    8.2.2 Emissive power 107
    8.2.3 View factor 108
    8.3 Constant or variable D, H and E 108
    9. Example case 109
    Nomenclature 113
    References 115

    4. Vapour cloud explosions 119
    1. Introduction 119
    2. Vapour clouds 120
    3. Blast and blast wave 121
    3.1 Blast wave 121
    3.2 Detonations 122
    3.3 Deflagrations 123
    3.4 Blast scaling 123
    3.5 Free-air and ground explosions 124
    4. Estimation of blast: TNT equivalency method 125
    5. Estimation of blast: multi-energy method 127
    6. Estimation of blast: Baker-Strehlow-Tang method 133
    7. Comparison of the three methods 136
    8. A statistical approach to the estimation of the probable number of fatalities in
    accidental explosions 138
    9. Example case 140
    Nomenclature 144
    References 144

    5. BLEVEs and vessel explosions 147
    1. Introduction 147
    2. Mechanism of BLEVE 149
    2.1 Liquid superheating 151
    2.2 Superheat limit temperature 153
    2.3 Superheat limit temperature from energy balance 156
    2.4 When is an explosion a BLEVE? 159
    3. Vessel failure 163
    3.1 Mechanism 163
    3.2 Pressure required for vessel failure 164
    4. Estimation of explosion effects 165
    4.1 Thermal radiation 165
    4.2 Mechanical energy released by the explosions 165
    4.2.1 Ideal gas behaviour and isentropic expansion 166
    4.2.2 Real gas behaviour and irreversible expansion 168
    4.3 Pressure wave 169
    4.4 Using liquid superheating energy for a quick estimation of ƒ´P 173
    4.5 Estimation of ƒ´P from characteristic curves 176
    4.6 Missiles 178
    4.6.1 Range 181
    4.6.2 Velocity 182
    5. Preventive measures 183
    6. Example cases 186
    Nomenclature 190
    References 192

    6. Atmospheric dispersion of toxic or flammable clouds 195
    1. Introduction 195
    2. Atmospheric variables 195
    2.1 Wind 196
    2.2 Lapse rates 199
    2.3 Atmospheric stability 200
    2.4 Relative humidity 204
    2.5 Units of measurement 204
    3. Dispersion models 205
    3.1 Continuous and instantaneous releases 205
    3.2 Effective height of emission 207
    4. Dispersion models for neutral gases (Gaussian models) 208
    4.1 Continuous emission 209
    4.2 Instantaneous emission 215
    4.3 Short-term releases 218
    5. Dispersion models for heavier-than-air gases 219
    5.1 Britter and McQuaid model 221
    5.1.1 Continuous release 221
    5.1.2 Instantaneous release 223
    5.1.3 Finite duration release 225
    6. Calculating concentration contour coordinates 227
    6.1 The Ooms integral plume model 227
    6.2 determining concentration contour coordinates 227
    7. Dispersion of dust 230
    8. Atmospheric dispersion of infectious agents 231
    8.1 Emission source 231
    8.2 Dispersion of airborne pathogenic agents 232
    8.3 Epidemics: dispersion of airborne viruses 232
    9. Escaping 236
    10. Sheltering 236
    10.1 Concentration indoors 236
    10.1.1 Continuous release 236
    10.1.2 Temporary release 237
    10.1.3 Instantaneous release 239
    10.1.4 A simplified approach 241
    11. Example case 242
    Nomenclature 244
    Annex 6-1 246
    References 247

    7. Vulnerability 249
    1. Introduction 249
    2. Population response to an accident 249
    3. Probit analysis 250
    4. Vulnerability to thermal radiation 254
    4.1 Damage to people 254
    4.1.1 Probit equations 257
    4.1.2 Clothing 258
    4.1.3 Escape 258
    4.1.4 Effect of hot air 261
    4.2 Material damages 261
    5. Vulnerability to explosions 263
    5.1 Damage to human beings 263
    5.1.1 Direct consequences 263
    5.1.2 Indirect consequences 265
    5.1.3 Collapse of buildings 268
    5.2 Consequences of an explosion for buildings and structures 269
    6. Vulnerability to toxic substances 271
    6.1 Dose and probit equations 273
    6.2 Substances released from a fire 275
    7. Inert gases 277
    8. Influence of sheltering 279
    8.1 Thermal radiation 279
    8.2 Blast
    8.3 Toxic exposure
    9. Relationship between the number of people killed and the number of people injured in major accidents 280
    10. Zoning according to vulnerability 281
    11. Example case 283
    Nomenclature 288
    Annex 7-1 287
    References 288

    8. Quantitative risk analysis 291
    1. Introduction 291
    2. Quantitative risk analysis steps 292
    3. Individual and societal risks 294
    3.1 Individual and societal risks definition 294
    4 Risk mapping 296
    4.1 Individual risk contours 296
    4.2 Procedure 296
    4.3 Societal risk 298
    5. Introductory examples of risk calculation 299
    6. Frequencies and probabilities 306
    6.1 Frequencies of most common loss-of-containment events 306
    6.2 Failure of repression systems 306
    6.3 Human error 306
    6.4 Probabilities for ignition and explosion of flammable spills 306
    6.5 Meteorological data 309
    7. Example case 309
    7.1 Estimation of the frequencies of initiating events 311
    7.2 Event trees of the diverse initiating events 312
    7.3 Effects of the different accidental scenarios 319
    7.4 Calculation of the individual risk 327
    Nomenclature 329
    References 331

    Annex 1 Constants in the Antoine equation 333
    Annex 2 Flammability levels, flash temperature and heat of combustion (higher value) for different substances 335
    Annex 3 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) 337
    Annex 4 Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health concentrations (IDLH) 345
    Annex 5 Determining the damage to humans from explosions using characteristic curves 347
    Index 353

Product details

  • No. of pages: 378
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2007
  • Published: October 30, 2007
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080554617

About the Author

Joaquim Casal

Joaquim Casal is Professor of chemical engineering at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. He has 30 years of experience in the field of quantitative risk analysis both in research and in industrial assessment. Professor Casal has analyzed a number of accidents for court, performed risk analysis for chemical companies and developed research (both theoretical and experimental) on major accidents. Professor Casal has published approximately 150 papers and two books in this field.

Affiliations and Expertise

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

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