The book analyzes the different major accidents which can occur in process plants and during the transportation of hazardous materials. The main features of fires, explosions and toxic releases are discussed, and a set of mathematical models allowing the prediction of their effects and consequences are explained. With a practical approach, the models are applied to simple illustrative examples, as well as to more complex real cases. The use of these calculations in the frame of Quantitative Risk Analysis is also treated. Evaluation of the effects of major accidents in industrial installations covers the following topics: general introduction, source term, fire accidents, vapour cloud explosions, BLEVEs and vessel explosions, atmospheric dispersion of toxic or flammable clouds, vulnerability, and quantitative risk analysis. This book is a useful tool for engineering professionals, as well as an interesting reference for teaching at graduate and post-graduate levels.

Key Features

Both the essential aspects and the calculations related to the diverse accidents are discussed The prediction of effects and consequences is performed with a practical approach Recent contributions from literature have been included Subjects of increasing importance have been included: an extense analysis of BLEVEs, for example, or the atmospheric dispersion of pathogenic agents.


Engineers from the industry, consultants Engineers from the administration University students and professors

Table of Contents

Preface v 1. Introduction 1 1. Risk 1 2. Risk analysis 2 3. Major accidents 5 3.1 Types 5 3.2 Damage 9 4. Domino effect 12 4.1 Classification of domino effects 4.2 An example case 5. Mathematical modelling of accidents 14 Nomenclature 16 References 16 2. Source term 19 1. Introduction 19 2. Liquid release 21 2.1 Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank 21 2.2 Flow of liquid through a pipe 24 2.2.1 Liquid flow rate 24 2.2.2 Friction factor 27 3. Gas/vapour release 30 3.1 Flow of gas/vapour through a hole 30 3.1.1 Critical velocity 30 3.1.2 Mass flow rate 33 3.1.3 Discharge coefficient 33 3.2 Flow of gas/vapour through a pipe 35 3.3 Time-dependent gas release 40 4. Two-phase flow 42 4.1 Flashing liquids 42 4.2 Two-phase discharge 43 5. Safety relief valves 44 5.1 Discharge from a safety relief valve 45 6. Relief discharges 47 6.1 Relief flow rate for vessels subject to external fire 48 6.2 Relief flow rate for vessels undergoing a runaway reaction 49 7. Evaporation of a liquid from a pool 53 7.1 Evaporation of liquids 53 7.2 Pool size 53 7.2.1 Pool on ground 53 7.2.2 Pool on water 53 7.3 Evaporation of boiling liquids 53 7.4 Evaporation of non-boiling liquids 54 8. General outflow guidelines for quantitative risk analysis 55 8.1 Loss-of-containment events in pressurized tanks and vessels 56 8.2 Loss-of-containme


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© 2008
Elsevier Science
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About the author

Joaquim Casal

Affiliations and Expertise

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain