Evaluating the Welfare State

Evaluating the Welfare State

Social and Political Perspectives

1st Edition - January 28, 1983

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  • Editors: Shimon E. Spiro, Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258003

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Evaluating the Welfare State: Social and Political Perspectives together with its companion Social Policy Evaluation: An Economic Perspective is the outgrowth of an international and interdisciplinary conference on policy evaluation held at Tel Aviv University in December 1980. The conference brought together scholars from the fields of economics, sociology, political science, social work, and administration. The papers presented at this conference approached the welfare state and social policy evaluation from a number of different theoretical and methodological perspectives. A selection of these papers has been included in this volume. The book is divided into five parts. Part I is devoted to the political antecedents and consequences of the welfare state and to the social and psychological processes that affect the development of social policies and reactions to them. Part II analyzes the discontinuity between policies that are the subject of public debate, and the programs that affect the well-being of populations and the distribution of resources. The chapters in Parts III and IV present current developments in the practice of evaluation and explore the frontiers of this field. Part V focuses on the relationship of evaluation to policymaking. This involves examinations of the culture of political debates, the nature of choices facing policymakers, and the impact of research on policy.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    I The Welfare State: Causes and Consequences

    1 The Political Consequences of the Welfare State

    What is "The Welfare State"?

    Identifying the Welfare State's Political Consequences

    Hopes and Fears

    The Welfare State's Actual Consequences

    An Inference and a Noninference


    2 Class Politics and the Western Welfare State

    Prologue: Socialism and the Welfare State

    Theoretical Perspectives on the Welfare State

    Class Interests and the Welfare State

    The Pro-Social-Democratic Consensus and Its Shortcomings

    Alternatives to the Social Democratic Interpretation

    Epilogue: Socialism and the Welfare State


    3 Political Legitimacy and Consensus: Missing Variables in the Assessment of Social Policy

    Types of Political Economy among Market-Oriented Rich Democracies: Democratic Corporatism or the Mass Society

    Corporatist Democracies Can Tax, Spend, and yet Stay Cool

    Corporatism, Consensus, and the Politics of Evaluation Research



    4 Social Policy Evaluation and the Psychology of Stagnation

    The Rising Expectations Hypothesis

    Economic Sentiment and Changes in the National Economy

    The Maldistribution Hypothesis

    The Malallocation Hypothesis



    5 Expectancies, Entitlements, and Subjective Welfare


    Conceptual Considerations

    Expectancies and Entitlements with Respect to Pay


    Empirical Model


    Summary and Some Implications


    II Boundaries of the Welfare State and the Foci of Policy Evaluation

    6 The Growing Complexity of Economic Claims in Welfare Societies

    The Welfare Economy

    Employer-Provided Welfare Benefits

    The Redefinition of the Territory of Social Policy

    The Development of Employee Benefits and Government Transfers in the United States since 1929



    7 Systematic Confusions in the Evaluation of Implementing Decisions

    Publicized Governmental Actions with Little Effect on Value Allocations

    Implementation That Maintains Established Inequalities

    The Free Market in Creating Regulatory Agencies

    The Symbolic Uses of Formal Goals

    Issue Networks as Masked Regulators

    Governmental Organizations as Political Reinforcements


    8 The Welfare State: Issues of Rationing and Allocation of Resources

    9 Charting the Iceberg: Visible and Invisible Aspects of Government


    The Growth of the Public Sector

    Indirect Spending by the Government

    The Invisible Government

    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Forms of Government Control



    III Evaluation Research: Concepts and Issues

    10 The Scope of Evaluation Activities in the United States

    Policy Issues and Evaluation Research

    Policy Issues and Corresponding Evaluation Strategies


    11 Equity Criteria for the Evaluation of Social Welfare Programs: Mothers' Summer Recreation

    Summer Recreation for Mothers

    Criteria and Procedures for Selecting Participants: The Theoretical Target Efficiency of the Program

    Implementation of the Selection Process

    The Outcome of the Recruitment and Selection Processes in One Community

    The Distribution of Resources among Communities



    12 Community Mental Health in Israel: an Interim Policy Assessment


    Community Mental Health in the United States and Israel

    Data Sources





    13 Reward Structures and the Organizational Design of Institutions for the Elderly


    Reimbursement Policy and Nursing Home Adaptations

    Interactions between Staff and Patients

    Organizational Design

    Implications for Policy


    14 Evaluating Slack in Public Programs by the Experience Curves Method

    The Meanings and Definition of Slack in Public Programs

    The Experience Curves Technique

    The Use of Experience Curves in Calculating Slack in Public Programs

    Conclusion and Further Policy Implications


    IV Policy Evaluation in Selected Fields

    15 Predicting the Consequences of Policy Changes: the Case of Public and Private Schools

    Segregation and Private Schooling

    The Current Status: Segregation between and within Public and Private Sectors

    Internal Segregation in Public, Catholic, and Other Private Sectors

    The Predicted Impact of a Policy Change Facilitating Private Schools

    Discipline, Order, and Private Schooling

    The Current Status: Discipline and Order in Public and Private Schools



    16 The Evaluation of Social Outcomes in Education


    Two Social Interventions

    Data and Measurement

    Concluding Remarks


    17 The Impact of Employment Programs on Offenders, Addicts, and Problem Youth: Implications from Supported Work


    Impacts of Early Programs

    Supported Work: Program and Demonstration Design




    18 Changes in Helping Networks with Changes in the Health of Older People: Social Policy and Social Theory


    Kinds of Helping Patterns

    Sequencing of Primary Groups with Stages of Health

    The Analysis of Empirical Data

    The Sequence of Primary Groups for "Regular" Nonhousehold Functions

    Research and Social Policy


    V Debate, Choices, and the Impact of Evaluation

    19 Policy Evaluation as Societal Learning

    The Nature of Policy Decision Making

    Alternative Routes to Policy

    The Place of Research



    20 Fluctuations in the Political Demand for Policy Analysis

    Fluctuations in the Political Demand for Analysis over the Policy Cycle

    Fluctuations in the Political Demand for Analysis over the Economic Cycle



    21 Hardness of Choice


    The Hardness of Hard Choices

    The Evaluation and Judgment of Hard Choices


    22 The Political Culture of Social Welfare Policy

    The Nature of Issue Cultures

    The Culture of Welfare Policy

    Resonances with Cultural Themes

    Welfare Resonances



    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 440
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258003

About the Editors

Shimon E. Spiro

Ephraim Yuchtman-Yaar

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