Essentials of Stem Cell Biology

Essentials of Stem Cell Biology

3rd Edition - August 31, 2013

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  • Editors: Robert Lanza, Anthony Atala
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124095038
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124104273

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First developed as an accessible abridgement of the successful Handbook of Stem Cells, Essentials of Stem Cell Biology serves the needs of the evolving population of scientists, researchers, practitioners, and students embracing the latest advances in stem cells. Representing the combined effort of 7 editors and more than 200 scholars and scientists whose pioneering work has defined our understanding of stem cells, this book combines the prerequisites for a general understanding of adult and embryonic stem cells with a presentation by the world's experts of the latest research information about specific organ systems. From basic biology/mechanisms, early development, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm, and methods to the application of stem cells to specific human diseases, regulation and ethics, and patient perspectives, no topic in the field of stem cells is left uncovered.

Key Features

  • Contributions by Nobel Laureates and leading international investigators
  • Includes two entirely new chapters devoted exclusively to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells written by the scientists who made the breakthrough
  • Edited by a world-renowned author and researcher to present a complete story of stem cells in research, in application, and as the subject of political debate
  • Presented in full color with a glossary, highlighted terms, and bibliographic entries replacing references


researchers, grad students, and professionals working with human stem cells in biology, tissue engineering, genetics, cancer research, virology, immunology, and biotechnology

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    List of Contributors

    Part I: Introduction to Stem Cells

    Chapter 1. Why Stem Cell Research? Advances in the Field

    1.1 The Origins of Stem Cell Technology

    1.2 Organizations that Advocate and Support the Growth of the Stem Cell Sector

    1.3 Applications of Stem Cells in Medicine

    1.4 Challenges to the Use of Stem Cells

    For Further Study

    Chapter 2. ‘Stemness’: Definitions, Criteria, and Standards

    2.1 What is a Stem Cell?

    2.2 Self-Renewal

    2.3 Potency

    2.4 Clonality

    2.5 Definition

    2.6 Where do Stem Cells Come from?

    2.7 Stem Cells of the Early Embryo

    2.8 Ontogeny of Adult Stem Cells

    2.9 How are Stem Cells Identified, Isolated, and Characterized?

    2.10 Embryonic Stem Cells

    2.11 Adult Stem Cells

    2.12 Stemness: Progress Toward a Molecular Definition of Stem Cells


    For Further Study

    Chapter 3. Pluripotent Stem Cells from Vertebrate Embryos: Present Perspective and Future Challenges

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Biology of ES and ESL Cells

    3.3 Stem Cell Therapy

    3.4 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 4. Embryonic Stem Cells in Perspective

    4.1 Embryonic Stem Cells in Perspective

    For Further Study

    Chapter 5. The Development of Epithelial Stem Cell Concepts

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 A Definition of Stem Cells

    5.3 Hierarchically Organized Stem Cell Populations

    5.4 Skin Stem Cells

    5.5 The Intestinal Stem Cell System

    5.6 Stem Cell Organization on the Tongue

    5.7 Generalized Scheme

    5.8 Summary

    For Further Study

    Part II: Basic Biology and Mechanisms

    Chapter 6. Stem Cell Niches

    6.1 Stem Cell Niche Hypothesis

    6.2 Stem Cell Niches in the Drosophila Germ-Line

    6.3 The Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Ovary

    6.4 Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Testis

    6.5 Coordinate Control of Germ-Line Stem Cell and Somatic Stem Cell Maintenance and Proliferation

    6.6 Structural Components of the Niche

    6.7 Stem Cell Niches Within Mammalian Tissues

    6.8 Summary


    For Further Study

    Chapter 7. Mechanisms of Stem Cell Self-Renewal

    7.1 Self-Renewal of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    7.2 Prevention of Differentiation

    7.3 Maintenance of Stem Cell Proliferation

    7.4 Maintenance of Telomere Length

    7.5 X Chromosome Inactivation

    7.6 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 8. Cell Cycle Regulators in Stem Cells

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Cell Cycle Kinetics of Stem Cells In Vivo

    8.3 Stem Cell Expansion Ex Vivo

    8.4 Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulation and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors

    8.5 Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Stem Cell Regulation

    8.6 Roles of p21 in Stem Cell Regulation

    8.7 Roles of p27 in Stem Cell Regulation

    8.8 Other Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and the Retinoblastoma Pathway in Stem Cell Regulation

    8.9 Relation Between Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and Transforming Growth Factor β-1

    8.10 CKIs and Notch

    8.11 Summary and Future Directions


    For Further Study

    Chapter 9. How Cells Change Their Phenotype

    9.1 Metaplasia and Transdifferentiation

    9.2 Examples of Transdifferentiation

    9.3 Barrett’s Metaplasia

    9.4 Regeneration

    9.5 Bone Marrow to Other Cell Types

    9.6 Dedifferentiation as a Prerequisite for Transdifferentiation

    9.7 How to Change a Cell’s Phenotype Experimentally

    9.8 Summary


    For Further Study

    Part III: Tissue and Organ Development

    Chapter 10. Differentiation in Early Development

    10.1 Preimplantation Development

    10.2 Cell Polarization Occurs During Compaction

    10.3 Axis Specification During Preimplantation in the Mouse

    10.4 Developmental Potency of the Early Mouse Embryo

    10.5 Genes Important During Preimplantation Mouse Development

    10.6 From Implantation to Gastrulation

    10.7 The Mouse Trophectoderm and Primitive Endoderm Cells

    10.8 Development of the Mouse Inner Cell Mass to the Epiblast

    10.9 The Human Embryo

    10.10 Implantation: Maternal Versus Embryonic Factors

    10.11 The Role of Extra-Embryonic Tissues in Patterning the Mouse Embryo

    For Further Study

    Chapter 11. Stem Cells Derived from Amniotic Fluid

    11.1 Amniotic Fluid – Function, Origin, and Composition

    11.2 Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    11.3 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    11.4 Conclusions

    For Further Study

    Chapter 12. Stem and Progenitor Cells Isolated from Cord Blood

    12.1 Addressing Delayed Time to Engraftment and Graft Failure With CB

    12.2 Cryopreservation of CB Cells

    12.3 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from CB

    12.4 Concluding Comments

    For Further Study

    Chapter 13. The Nervous System

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Neural Development

    13.3 Neural Stem Cells

    13.4 Neural Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells

    13.5 Neural Differentiation of Human and Nonhuman Primate ES Cells

    13.6 Developmental Perspectives

    13.7 Therapeutic Perspectives

    13.8 Parkinson’s Disease

    13.9 Huntington’s Disease

    13.10 Stroke

    13.11 Demyelination

    13.12 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 14. Sensory Epithelium of the Eye and Ear

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Introduction to Progenitor and Stem Cells in the Retina

    14.3 The Optic Vesicle Generates Diverse Cell Types that can Undergo Transdifferentiation

    14.4 In Vivo Neurogenesis in the Posthatch Chicken

    14.5 Growth of Retinal Neurospheres from the Ciliary Margin of Mammals

    14.6 Prospects for Stem Cell Therapy in the Retina

    14.7 Development and Regeneration of Tissues Derived from the Inner Ear

    14.8 In Vivo Neurogenesis in Postembryonic Animals

    14.9 In Vitro Expansion of Otic Progenitors

    14.10 Prospects for Therapy


    For Further Study

    Chapter 15. Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

    15.1 A Brief Introduction to Mouse Skin Organization

    15.2 The Bulge as a Residence of Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

    15.3 Models of Epithelial Stem Cell Activation

    15.4 Molecular Fingerprint of the Bulge – Putative Stem Cell Markers

    15.5 Cell Signaling in Multipotent Epithelial Skin Stem Cells

    15.6 Commentary and Future Directions

    For Further Study

    Chapter 16. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    16.1 Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Hematopoiesis

    16.2 Blood Formation in Embryoid Bodies

    16.3 Transformation of an EB-Derived HSC by BCR/ABL

    16.4 Promoting Hematopoietic Engraftment with STAT5 and HOXB4

    16.5 Promoting Blood Formation In Vitro with Embryonic Morphogens

    For Further Study

    Chapter 17. Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Types and Source of Stem Cells in the Peripheral Blood

    17.3 Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    17.4 Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    17.5 Therapeutic Applications of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    17.6 Conclusions and Future Directions

    For Further Study

    Chapter 18. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells

    18.1 Pluripotent Stem Cells – Embryonic Stem Cells

    18.2 Postnatal Tissue-Specific Stem Cells – Are Some More than Multipotent?

    18.3 Can Pluripotency Be Acquired?

    18.4 Isolation of Rodent MAPCs

    18.5 Isolation of Human MAPCs

    18.6 Recent Developments


    For Further Study

    Chapter 19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    19.1 The Definition of MSCs

    19.2 The Stem Cell Nature of MSCs

    19.3 Which Tissues Contain MSCS?

    19.4 MSC Isolation Techniques

    19.5 Immunomodulatory Effects of MSCS

    19.6 Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS

    19.7 Non-Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS

    19.8 Conclusions


    For Further Study

    Chapter 20. Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 The Original Muscle Stem Cell: The Satellite Cell

    20.3 Functional and Biochemical Heterogeneity Among Muscle Stem Cells

    20.4 Unorthodox Origins of Skeletal Muscle

    20.5 The Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    20.6 Conclusion


    For Further Study

    Chapter 21. Stem Cells and the Regenerating Heart

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Recruiting Circulating Stem Cell Reserves

    21.3 The Elusive Cardiac Stem Cell

    21.4 Evolving Concepts of Regeneration

    For Further Study

    Chapter 22. Cell Lineages and Stem Cells in the Embryonic Kidney

    22.1 The Anatomy of Kidney Development

    22.2 Genes that Control Early Kidney Development

    22.3 The Establishment of Additional Cell Lineages

    22.4 What Constitutes a Renal Stem Cell?


    For Further Study

    Chapter 23. Adult Liver Stem Cells

    23.1 Organization and Functions of Adult Mammalian Liver

    23.2 Liver Stem Cells

    For Further Study

    Chapter 24. Pancreatic Stem Cells

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Definition of Stem Cells and of Progenitor Cells

    24.3 Progenitor Cells During Embryonic Development of the Pancreas

    24.4 Progenitor Cells in the Adult Pancreas

    24.5 Forcing Other Tissues to Adopt a Pancreatic Phenotype

    24.6 In Vitro Studies

    24.7 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 25. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Gastrointestinal Mucosa Contains Multiple Lineages

    25.3 Epithelial Cell Lineages Originate from a Common Precursor Cell

    25.4 Single Intestinal Stem Cells Regenerate Whole Crypts Containing all Epithelial Lineages

    25.5 Mouse Aggregation Chimeras Show that Intestinal Crypts are Clonal Populations

    25.6 Somatic Mutations in Stem Cells Reveal Stem Cell Hierarchy and Clonal Succession

    25.7 Human Intestinal Crypts Contain Multiple Epithelial Cell Lineages Derived from a Single Stem Cell

    25.8 Bone Marrow Stem Cells Contribute to Gut Repopulation After Damage

    25.9 Gastrointestinal Stem Cells Occupy a Niche Maintained by ISEMFs in the Lamina Propria

    25.10 Multiple Molecules Regulate Gastrointestinal Development, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    25.11 Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Function

    25.12 Transcription Factors Define Regional Gut Specification and Intestinal Stem Cell Fate

    25.13 Gastrointestinal Neoplasms Originate in Stem Cell Populations

    25.14 Summary

    For Further Study

    Part IV: Methods

    Chapter 26. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    26.1 Generation of iPS Cells

    26.2 Molecular Mechanisms in iPS Cell Induction

    26.3 Recapitulation of Disease Ontology and Drug Screening

    26.4 iPS Cell Banking

    26.5 Safety Concerns for Medical Application

    26.6 Medical Application

    26.7 Direct Fate Switch

    26.8 Conclusion

    For Further Study

    Chapter 27. Embryonic Stem Cells: Derivation and Properties

    27.1 Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    27.2 Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells

    27.3 Developmental Potential of Embryonic Stem Cells

    27.4 Conclusion

    For Further Study

    Chapter 28. Isolation and Maintenance of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cells

    28.3 Media

    28.4 Sera

    28.5 Colony-Forming Assay for Testing Culture Conditions

    28.6 Embryonic Stem Cell Passage Culture

    28.7 Isolation of New Embryonic STEM Cell Lines

    28.8 Method for Deriving Embryonic Stem Cells

    28.9 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 29. Approaches for Derivation and Maintenance of Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Detailed Procedures and Alternatives

    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 Setting Up the Lab

    29.3 Preparing and Screening Reagents

    29.4 Mechanical Passaging of hES Cell Colonies

    29.5 Derivation of hES Cells

    29.6 Maintenance of Established hES Cell Cultures

    29.7 Freezing hES Cells

    29.8 Thawing hES Cells

    29.9 hES Cell Quality Control

    For Further Study

    Chapter 30. Derivation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Germ Cells

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation

    30.3 Embryoid Body-Derived Cells

    For Further Study

    Chapter 31. Genomic Reprogramming

    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Genomic Reprogramming in Germ Cells

    31.3 Reprogramming Somatic Nuclei

    31.4 Conclusions

    For Further Study

    Part V: Applications

    Chapter 32. Neural Stem Cells – Therapeutic Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Definition of Neural Stem Cells

    32.3 Therapeutic Potential of Neural Stem Cells

    32.4 Gene Therapy Using Neural Stem Cells

    32.5 Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells

    32.6 ‘Global’ Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells

    32.7 Neural Stem Cells Display an Inherent Mechanism for Rescuing Dysfunctional Neurons

    32.8 Neural Stem Cells as the Glue That Holds Multiple Therapies Together

    32.9 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 33. Adult Progenitor Cells as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes

    33.1 Importance of β-Cell Replacement Therapy for Diabetes and the Shortage of Insulin-Producing Cells

    33.2 Potential of Adult Stem-Progenitor Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    33.3 Defining β-Cells, Stem Cells, and Progenitor Cells

    33.4 New β-Cells are Formed Throughout Adult Life

    33.5 What is the Cellular Origin of Adult Islet Neogenesis?

    33.6 Transdifferentiation of Nonislet Cells to Islet Cells

    33.7 Pancreatic Acinar Cell Transdifferentiation

    33.8 Bone Marrow Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    33.9 Liver as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    33.10 Engineering Other Non-β-Cells to Produce Insulin

    33.11 Attempts to Deliver Insulin Through Constitutive Rather Than Regulated Secretion

    33.12 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 34. Burns and Skin Ulcers

    34.1 Introduction

    34.2 Burns and Skin Ulcers – The Problem

    34.3 Epidermal Stem Cells

    34.4 Stem Cells in Burns and Skin Ulcers – Current Use

    34.5 Recent and Future Developments


    For Further Study

    Chapter 35. Stem Cells and Heart Disease

    35.1 Heart: A Self-renewing Organ

    35.2 Distribution of CSCS in the Heart

    35.3 Repair of Myocardial Damage by Nonresident Primitive Cells

    35.4 Repair of Myocardial Damage by Resident Primitive Cells

    35.5 Myocardial Regeneration in Humans

    For Further Study

    Chapter 36. Stem Cells for the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy

    36.1 Introduction

    36.2 Myoblast Transplantation – Past Failure and New Hope

    36.3 Unconventional Myogenic Progenitors

    36.4 Pluripotent Stem Cells for Future Cell-Based Therapies

    36.5 Future Perspectives


    For Further Study

    Chapter 37. Cell Therapy for Liver Disease: From Hepatocytes to Stem Cells

    37.1 Introduction

    37.2 Background Studies

    37.3 Integration of Hepatocytes Following Transplantation

    37.4 Clinical Hepatocyte Transplantation

    37.5 Hepatocyte Bridge

    37.6 Hepatocyte Transplantation in Acute Liver Failure

    37.7 Hepatocyte Transplantation for Metabolic Liver Disease

    37.8 Hepatocyte Transplantation – Novel Uses, Challenges, and Future Directions

    37.9 Conclusion

    For Further Study

    Chapter 38. Orthopedic Applications of Stem Cells

    38.1 Introduction

    38.2 Bone

    38.3 Cartilage

    38.4 Meniscus

    38.5 Ligaments and Tendons

    38.6 Spine

    38.7 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 39. Embryonic Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    39.1 Introduction

    39.2 Tissue Engineering Principles and Perspectives

    39.3 Limitations and Hurdles of Using ES Cells in Tissue Engineering

    39.4 Summary

    For Further Study

    Part VI: Regulation and Ethics

    Chapter 40. Ethical Considerations

    40.1 Introduction

    40.2 Is it Morally Permissible to Destroy a Human Embryo?

    40.3 Should we Postpone hES Cell Research?

    40.4 Can We Benefit from Others’ Destruction of Embryos?

    40.5 Can We Create an Embryo to Destroy it?

    40.6 Should We Clone Human Embryos?

    40.7 What Ethical Guidelines Should Govern hES Cell and Therapeutic Cloning Research?

    40.8 Summary

    For Further Study

    Chapter 41. Overview of the FDA Regulatory Process

    41.1 Introduction and Chapter Overview

    41.2 Brief Legislative History of FDA

    41.3 Laws, Regulations, and Guidance

    41.4 FDA Organization and Jurisdictional Issues

    41.5 Approval Mechanisms and Clinical Studies

    41.6 Meetings with Industry, Professional Groups, and Sponsors

    41.7 Regulations and Guidance of Special Interest for Regenerative Medicine

    41.8 FDA’s Standards Development Program

    41.9 Advisory Committee Meetings

    41.10 FDA Research and Critical Path Science

    41.11 Other Communication Efforts

    41.12 Conclusion

    For Further Study

    Chapter 42. It’s Not about Curiosity, It’s about Cures: Stem Cell Research – People Help Drive Progress

    42.1 Choosing Life

    42.2 Size of the Promise

    42.3 Personal Promises Fuel Progress

    42.4 Hope Versus Hype

    42.5 Giving Life

    42.6 People Drive Progress

    42.7 Better Health for All



Product details

  • No. of pages: 712
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: August 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124095038
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124104273

About the Editors

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza
Robert Lanza is an American scientist and author whose research spans the range of natural science, from biology to theoretical physics. TIME magazine recognized him as one of the “100 Most Influential People in the World,” and Prospect magazine named him one of the Top 50 “World Thinkers.” He has hundreds of scientific publications and over 30 books, including definitive references in the fields of stem cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. He’s a former Fulbright Scholar and studied with polio-pioneer Jonas Salk and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (known for his work on the biological basis of consciousness) and Rodney Porter. He also worked closely (and co-authored papers in Science on self-awareness and symbolic communication) with noted Harvard psychologist BF Skinner. Dr. Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world’s first human embryo, the first endangered species, and published the first-ever reports of pluripotent stem cell use in humans.

Affiliations and Expertise

Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Westborough, MA, USA

Anthony Atala

Anthony Atala, MD, is the G. Link Professor and Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the W. Boyce Professor and Chair of Urology. Dr. Atala is a practicing surgeon and a researcher in the area of regenerative medicine. Fifteen applications of technologies developed in Dr. Atala's laboratory have been used clinically. He is Editor of 25 books and 3 journals. Dr. Atala has published over 800 journal articles and has received over 250 national and international patents. Dr. Atala was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, to the National Academy of Inventors as a Charter Fellow, and to the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. Dr. Atala has led or served several national professional and government committees, including the National Institutes of Health working group on Cells and Developmental Biology, the National Institutes of Health Bioengineering Consortium, and the National Cancer Institute’s Advisory Board. He is a founding member of the Tissue Engineering Society, Regenerative Medicine Foundation, Regenerative Medicine Manufacturing Innovation Consortium, Regenerative Medicine Development Organization, and Regenerative Medicine Manufacturing Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine

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  • Eward C. Wed Jan 24 2018

    Could have involved a more

    Could have involved a more detailed and updated section on iPSCs