Essentials of Stem Cell Biology

Essentials of Stem Cell Biology

3rd Edition - August 31, 2013

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  • Editors: Robert Lanza, Anthony Atala
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124095038
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124104273

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Description

First developed as an accessible abridgement of the successful Handbook of Stem Cells, Essentials of Stem Cell Biology serves the needs of the evolving population of scientists, researchers, practitioners, and students embracing the latest advances in stem cells. Representing the combined effort of 7 editors and more than 200 scholars and scientists whose pioneering work has defined our understanding of stem cells, this book combines the prerequisites for a general understanding of adult and embryonic stem cells with a presentation by the world's experts of the latest research information about specific organ systems. From basic biology/mechanisms, early development, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm, and methods to the application of stem cells to specific human diseases, regulation and ethics, and patient perspectives, no topic in the field of stem cells is left uncovered.

Key Features

  • Contributions by Nobel Laureates and leading international investigators
  • Includes two entirely new chapters devoted exclusively to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells written by the scientists who made the breakthrough
  • Edited by a world-renowned author and researcher to present a complete story of stem cells in research, in application, and as the subject of political debate
  • Presented in full color with a glossary, highlighted terms, and bibliographic entries replacing references

Readership

researchers, grad students, and professionals working with human stem cells in biology, tissue engineering, genetics, cancer research, virology, immunology, and biotechnology

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • Part I: Introduction to Stem Cells
  • Chapter 1. Why Stem Cell Research? Advances in the Field
  • 1.1 The Origins of Stem Cell Technology
  • 1.2 Organizations that Advocate and Support the Growth of the Stem Cell Sector
  • 1.3 Applications of Stem Cells in Medicine
  • 1.4 Challenges to the Use of Stem Cells
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 2. ‘Stemness’: Definitions, Criteria, and Standards
  • 2.1 What is a Stem Cell?
  • 2.2 Self-Renewal
  • 2.3 Potency
  • 2.4 Clonality
  • 2.5 Definition
  • 2.6 Where do Stem Cells Come from?
  • 2.7 Stem Cells of the Early Embryo
  • 2.8 Ontogeny of Adult Stem Cells
  • 2.9 How are Stem Cells Identified, Isolated, and Characterized?
  • 2.10 Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 2.11 Adult Stem Cells
  • 2.12 Stemness: Progress Toward a Molecular Definition of Stem Cells
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 3. Pluripotent Stem Cells from Vertebrate Embryos: Present Perspective and Future Challenges
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Biology of ES and ESL Cells
  • 3.3 Stem Cell Therapy
  • 3.4 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 4. Embryonic Stem Cells in Perspective
  • 4.1 Embryonic Stem Cells in Perspective
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 5. The Development of Epithelial Stem Cell Concepts
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 A Definition of Stem Cells
  • 5.3 Hierarchically Organized Stem Cell Populations
  • 5.4 Skin Stem Cells
  • 5.5 The Intestinal Stem Cell System
  • 5.6 Stem Cell Organization on the Tongue
  • 5.7 Generalized Scheme
  • 5.8 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Part II: Basic Biology and Mechanisms
  • Chapter 6. Stem Cell Niches
  • 6.1 Stem Cell Niche Hypothesis
  • 6.2 Stem Cell Niches in the Drosophila Germ-Line
  • 6.3 The Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Ovary
  • 6.4 Germ-Line Stem Cell Niche in the Drosophila Testis
  • 6.5 Coordinate Control of Germ-Line Stem Cell and Somatic Stem Cell Maintenance and Proliferation
  • 6.6 Structural Components of the Niche
  • 6.7 Stem Cell Niches Within Mammalian Tissues
  • 6.8 Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 7. Mechanisms of Stem Cell Self-Renewal
  • 7.1 Self-Renewal of Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • 7.2 Prevention of Differentiation
  • 7.3 Maintenance of Stem Cell Proliferation
  • 7.4 Maintenance of Telomere Length
  • 7.5 X Chromosome Inactivation
  • 7.6 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 8. Cell Cycle Regulators in Stem Cells
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Cell Cycle Kinetics of Stem Cells In Vivo
  • 8.3 Stem Cell Expansion Ex Vivo
  • 8.4 Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulation and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors
  • 8.5 Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors in Stem Cell Regulation
  • 8.6 Roles of p21 in Stem Cell Regulation
  • 8.7 Roles of p27 in Stem Cell Regulation
  • 8.8 Other Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and the Retinoblastoma Pathway in Stem Cell Regulation
  • 8.9 Relation Between Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors and Transforming Growth Factor β-1
  • 8.10 CKIs and Notch
  • 8.11 Summary and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 9. How Cells Change Their Phenotype
  • 9.1 Metaplasia and Transdifferentiation
  • 9.2 Examples of Transdifferentiation
  • 9.3 Barrett’s Metaplasia
  • 9.4 Regeneration
  • 9.5 Bone Marrow to Other Cell Types
  • 9.6 Dedifferentiation as a Prerequisite for Transdifferentiation
  • 9.7 How to Change a Cell’s Phenotype Experimentally
  • 9.8 Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Part III: Tissue and Organ Development
  • Chapter 10. Differentiation in Early Development
  • 10.1 Preimplantation Development
  • 10.2 Cell Polarization Occurs During Compaction
  • 10.3 Axis Specification During Preimplantation in the Mouse
  • 10.4 Developmental Potency of the Early Mouse Embryo
  • 10.5 Genes Important During Preimplantation Mouse Development
  • 10.6 From Implantation to Gastrulation
  • 10.7 The Mouse Trophectoderm and Primitive Endoderm Cells
  • 10.8 Development of the Mouse Inner Cell Mass to the Epiblast
  • 10.9 The Human Embryo
  • 10.10 Implantation: Maternal Versus Embryonic Factors
  • 10.11 The Role of Extra-Embryonic Tissues in Patterning the Mouse Embryo
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 11. Stem Cells Derived from Amniotic Fluid
  • 11.1 Amniotic Fluid – Function, Origin, and Composition
  • 11.2 Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • 11.3 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells
  • 11.4 Conclusions
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 12. Stem and Progenitor Cells Isolated from Cord Blood
  • 12.1 Addressing Delayed Time to Engraftment and Graft Failure With CB
  • 12.2 Cryopreservation of CB Cells
  • 12.3 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from CB
  • 12.4 Concluding Comments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 13. The Nervous System
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Neural Development
  • 13.3 Neural Stem Cells
  • 13.4 Neural Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells
  • 13.5 Neural Differentiation of Human and Nonhuman Primate ES Cells
  • 13.6 Developmental Perspectives
  • 13.7 Therapeutic Perspectives
  • 13.8 Parkinson’s Disease
  • 13.9 Huntington’s Disease
  • 13.10 Stroke
  • 13.11 Demyelination
  • 13.12 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 14. Sensory Epithelium of the Eye and Ear
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Introduction to Progenitor and Stem Cells in the Retina
  • 14.3 The Optic Vesicle Generates Diverse Cell Types that can Undergo Transdifferentiation
  • 14.4 In Vivo Neurogenesis in the Posthatch Chicken
  • 14.5 Growth of Retinal Neurospheres from the Ciliary Margin of Mammals
  • 14.6 Prospects for Stem Cell Therapy in the Retina
  • 14.7 Development and Regeneration of Tissues Derived from the Inner Ear
  • 14.8 In Vivo Neurogenesis in Postembryonic Animals
  • 14.9 In Vitro Expansion of Otic Progenitors
  • 14.10 Prospects for Therapy
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 15. Epithelial Skin Stem Cells
  • 15.1 A Brief Introduction to Mouse Skin Organization
  • 15.2 The Bulge as a Residence of Epithelial Skin Stem Cells
  • 15.3 Models of Epithelial Stem Cell Activation
  • 15.4 Molecular Fingerprint of the Bulge – Putative Stem Cell Markers
  • 15.5 Cell Signaling in Multipotent Epithelial Skin Stem Cells
  • 15.6 Commentary and Future Directions
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 16. Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • 16.1 Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Hematopoiesis
  • 16.2 Blood Formation in Embryoid Bodies
  • 16.3 Transformation of an EB-Derived HSC by BCR/ABL
  • 16.4 Promoting Hematopoietic Engraftment with STAT5 and HOXB4
  • 16.5 Promoting Blood Formation In Vitro with Embryonic Morphogens
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 17. Peripheral Blood Stem Cells
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Types and Source of Stem Cells in the Peripheral Blood
  • 17.3 Endothelial Progenitor Cells
  • 17.4 Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • 17.5 Therapeutic Applications of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells
  • 17.6 Conclusions and Future Directions
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 18. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells
  • 18.1 Pluripotent Stem Cells – Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 18.2 Postnatal Tissue-Specific Stem Cells – Are Some More than Multipotent?
  • 18.3 Can Pluripotency Be Acquired?
  • 18.4 Isolation of Rodent MAPCs
  • 18.5 Isolation of Human MAPCs
  • 18.6 Recent Developments
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • 19.1 The Definition of MSCs
  • 19.2 The Stem Cell Nature of MSCs
  • 19.3 Which Tissues Contain MSCS?
  • 19.4 MSC Isolation Techniques
  • 19.5 Immunomodulatory Effects of MSCS
  • 19.6 Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS
  • 19.7 Non-Skeletal Tissue Regeneration by MSCS
  • 19.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 20. Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 The Original Muscle Stem Cell: The Satellite Cell
  • 20.3 Functional and Biochemical Heterogeneity Among Muscle Stem Cells
  • 20.4 Unorthodox Origins of Skeletal Muscle
  • 20.5 The Muscle Stem Cell NICHE
  • 20.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 21. Cell Lineages and Stem Cells in the Embryonic Kidney
  • 21.1 The Anatomy of Kidney Development
  • 21.2 Genes that Control Early Kidney Development
  • 21.3 The Establishment of Additional Cell Lineages
  • 21.4 What Constitutes a Renal Stem Cell?
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 22. Adult Liver Stem Cells
  • 22.1 Organization and Functions of Adult Mammalian Liver
  • 22.2 Liver Stem Cells
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 23. Pancreatic Stem Cells
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Definition of Stem Cells and of Progenitor Cells
  • 23.3 Progenitor Cells During Embryonic Development of the Pancreas
  • 23.4 Progenitor Cells in the Adult Pancreas
  • 23.5 Forcing Other Tissues to Adopt a Pancreatic Phenotype
  • 23.6 In Vitro Studies
  • 23.7 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 24. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Gastrointestinal Mucosa Contains Multiple Lineages
  • 24.3 Epithelial Cell Lineages Originate from a Common Precursor Cell
  • 24.4 Single Intestinal Stem Cells Regenerate Whole Crypts Containing all Epithelial Lineages
  • 24.5 Mouse Aggregation Chimeras Show that Intestinal Crypts are Clonal Populations
  • 24.6 Somatic Mutations in Stem Cells Reveal Stem Cell Hierarchy and Clonal Succession
  • 24.7 Human Intestinal Crypts Contain Multiple Epithelial Cell Lineages Derived from a Single Stem Cell
  • 24.8 Bone Marrow Stem Cells Contribute to Gut Repopulation After Damage
  • 24.9 Gastrointestinal Stem Cells Occupy a Niche Maintained by ISEMFs in the Lamina Propria
  • 24.10 Multiple Molecules Regulate Gastrointestinal Development, Proliferation, and Differentiation
  • 24.11 Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Function
  • 24.12 Transcription Factors Define Regional Gut Specification and Intestinal Stem Cell Fate
  • 24.13 Gastrointestinal Neoplasms Originate in Stem Cell Populations
  • 24.14 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Part IV: Methods
  • Chapter 25. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • 25.1 Generation of iPS Cells
  • 25.2 Molecular Mechanisms in iPS Cell Induction
  • 25.3 Recapitulation of Disease Ontology and Drug Screening
  • 25.4 iPS Cell Banking
  • 25.5 Safety Concerns for Medical Application
  • 25.6 Medical Application
  • 25.7 Direct Fate Switch
  • 25.8 Conclusion
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 26. Embryonic Stem Cells: Derivation and Properties
  • 26.1 Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 26.2 Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 26.3 Developmental Potential of Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 26.4 Conclusion
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 27. Isolation and Maintenance of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 27.3 Media
  • 27.4 Sera
  • 27.5 Colony-Forming Assay for Testing Culture Conditions
  • 27.6 Embryonic Stem Cell Passage Culture
  • 27.7 Isolation of New Embryonic STEM Cell Lines
  • 27.8 Method for Deriving Embryonic Stem Cells
  • 27.9 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 28. Approaches for Derivation and Maintenance of Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Detailed Procedures and Alternatives
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Setting Up the Lab
  • 28.3 Preparing and Screening Reagents
  • 28.4 Mechanical Passaging of hES Cell Colonies
  • 28.5 Derivation of hES Cells
  • 28.6 Maintenance of Established hES Cell Cultures
  • 28.7 Freezing hES Cells
  • 28.8 Thawing hES Cells
  • 28.9 hES Cell Quality Control
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 29. Derivation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Germ Cells
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation
  • 29.3 Embryoid Body-Derived Cells
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 30. Genomic Reprogramming
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 Genomic Reprogramming in Germ Cells
  • 30.3 Reprogramming Somatic Nuclei
  • 30.4 Conclusions
  • For Further Study
  • Part V: Applications
  • Chapter 31. Neural Stem Cells – Therapeutic Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 Definition of Neural Stem Cells
  • 31.3 Therapeutic Potential of Neural Stem Cells
  • 31.4 Gene Therapy Using Neural Stem Cells
  • 31.5 Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells
  • 31.6 ‘Global’ Cell Replacement Using Neural Stem Cells
  • 31.7 Neural Stem Cells Display an Inherent Mechanism for Rescuing Dysfunctional Neurons
  • 31.8 Neural Stem Cells as the Glue That Holds Multiple Therapies Together
  • 31.9 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 32. Adult Progenitor Cells as a Potential Treatment for Diabetes
  • 32.1 Importance of β-Cell Replacement Therapy for Diabetes and the Shortage of Insulin-Producing Cells
  • 32.2 Potential of Adult Stem-Progenitor Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells
  • 32.3 Defining β-Cells, Stem Cells, and Progenitor Cells
  • 32.4 New β-Cells are Formed Throughout Adult Life
  • 32.5 What is the Cellular Origin of Adult Islet Neogenesis?
  • 32.6 Transdifferentiation of Nonislet Cells to Islet Cells
  • 32.7 Pancreatic Acinar Cell Transdifferentiation
  • 32.8 Bone Marrow Cells as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells
  • 32.9 Liver as a Source of Insulin-Producing Cells
  • 32.10 Engineering Other Non-β-Cells to Produce Insulin
  • 32.11 Attempts to Deliver Insulin Through Constitutive Rather Than Regulated Secretion
  • 32.12 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 33. Burns and Skin Ulcers
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Burns and Skin Ulcers – The Problem
  • 33.3 Epidermal Stem Cells
  • 33.4 Stem Cells in Burns and Skin Ulcers – Current Use
  • 33.5 Recent and Future Developments
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 34. Stem Cells for the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 Myoblast Transplantation – Past Failure and New Hope
  • 34.3 Unconventional Myogenic Progenitors
  • 34.4 Pluripotent Stem Cells for Future Cell-Based Therapies
  • 34.5 Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 35. Cell Therapy for Liver Disease: From Hepatocytes to Stem Cells
  • 35.1 Introduction
  • 35.2 Background Studies
  • 35.3 Integration of Hepatocytes Following Transplantation
  • 35.4 Clinical Hepatocyte Transplantation
  • 35.5 Hepatocyte Bridge
  • 35.6 Hepatocyte Transplantation in Acute Liver Failure
  • 35.7 Hepatocyte Transplantation for Metabolic Liver Disease
  • 35.8 Hepatocyte Transplantation – Novel Uses, Challenges, and Future Directions
  • 35.9 Conclusion
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 36. Orthopedic Applications of Stem Cells
  • 36.1 Introduction
  • 36.2 Bone
  • 36.3 Cartilage
  • 36.4 Meniscus
  • 36.5 Ligaments and Tendons
  • 36.6 Spine
  • 36.7 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 37. Embryonic Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering
  • 37.1 Introduction
  • 37.2 Tissue Engineering Principles and Perspectives
  • 37.3 Limitations and Hurdles of Using ES Cells in Tissue Engineering
  • 37.4 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Part VI: Regulation and Ethics
  • Chapter 38. Ethical Considerations
  • 38.1 Introduction
  • 38.2 Is it Morally Permissible to Destroy a Human Embryo?
  • 38.3 Should we Postpone hES Cell Research?
  • 38.4 Can We Benefit from Others’ Destruction of Embryos?
  • 38.5 Can We Create an Embryo to Destroy it?
  • 38.6 Should We Clone Human Embryos?
  • 38.7 What Ethical Guidelines Should Govern hES Cell and Therapeutic Cloning Research?
  • 38.8 Summary
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 39. Overview of the FDA Regulatory Process
  • 39.1 Introduction and Chapter Overview
  • 39.2 Brief Legislative History of FDA
  • 39.3 Laws, Regulations, and Guidance
  • 39.4 FDA Organization and Jurisdictional Issues
  • 39.5 Approval Mechanisms and Clinical Studies
  • 39.6 Meetings with Industry, Professional Groups, and Sponsors
  • 39.7 Regulations and Guidance of Special Interest for Regenerative Medicine
  • 39.8 FDA’s Standards Development Program
  • 39.9 Advisory Committee Meetings
  • 39.10 FDA Research and Critical Path Science
  • 39.11 Other Communication Efforts
  • 39.12 Conclusion
  • For Further Study
  • Chapter 40. It’s Not about Curiosity, It’s about Cures: Stem Cell Research – People Help Drive Progress
  • 40.1 Choosing Life
  • 40.2 Size of the Promise
  • 40.3 Personal Promises Fuel Progress
  • 40.4 Hope Versus Hype
  • 40.5 Giving Life
  • 40.6 People Drive Progress
  • 40.7 Better Health for All
  • Glossary
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 674
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: August 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124095038
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124104273

About the Editors

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza
Robert Lanza is an American scientist and author whose research spans the range of natural science, from biology to theoretical physics. TIME magazine recognized him as one of the “100 Most Influential People in the World,” and Prospect magazine named him one of the Top 50 “World Thinkers.” He has hundreds of scientific publications and over 30 books, including definitive references in the fields of stem cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. He’s a former Fulbright Scholar and studied with polio-pioneer Jonas Salk and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (known for his work on the biological basis of consciousness) and Rodney Porter. He also worked closely (and co-authored papers in Science on self-awareness and symbolic communication) with noted Harvard psychologist BF Skinner. Dr. Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world’s first human embryo, the first endangered species, and published the first-ever reports of pluripotent stem cell use in humans.

Affiliations and Expertise

Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Westborough, MA, USA

Anthony Atala

Anthony Atala, MD, is the G. Link Professor and Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the W. Boyce Professor and Chair of Urology. Dr. Atala is a practicing surgeon and a researcher in the area of regenerative medicine. Fifteen applications of technologies developed in Dr. Atala's laboratory have been used clinically. He is Editor of 25 books and 3 journals. Dr. Atala has published over 800 journal articles and has received over 250 national and international patents. Dr. Atala was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences, to the National Academy of Inventors as a Charter Fellow, and to the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. Dr. Atala has led or served several national professional and government committees, including the National Institutes of Health working group on Cells and Developmental Biology, the National Institutes of Health Bioengineering Consortium, and the National Cancer Institute’s Advisory Board. He is a founding member of the Tissue Engineering Society, Regenerative Medicine Foundation, Regenerative Medicine Manufacturing Innovation Consortium, Regenerative Medicine Development Organization, and Regenerative Medicine Manufacturing Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine

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  • Eward C. Wed Jan 24 2018

    Could have involved a more

    Could have involved a more detailed and updated section on iPSCs