Erosion and Environment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080244662, 9781483150345

Erosion and Environment

1st Edition

Environmental Sciences and Applications

Authors: Miloš Holý
Editors: Asit K. Biswas Margaret R. Biswas
eBook ISBN: 9781483150345
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 236
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Description

Erosion and Environment focuses on the disturbance of the natural soil cover that exposes the soil surface to the action of erosion agents such as the destructive effects of water and wind. The topics discussed in this book include the effects of erosion on the national economy; classification of erosion; mechanism of erosion processes; theory of water erosion; and predicting intensity of water erosion and modeling erosion processes. The theory of wind erosion; intensity of wind erosion and predicting wind erosion; erosion and environmental control; and economics of erosion control are also elaborated in this text. This publication is beneficial to students and researchers conducting work on erosion and its processes.

Table of Contents


Acknowledgment

1. Introduction

1.1 Effects of Erosion on the National Economy

1.1.1 Consequences of Soil Loss

1.1.2 Consequences of Soil Removal and Sedimentation

1.1.3 Consequences of the Transportation of Chemical Substances

1.2 Geographical Distribution of Erosion on a World Scale

1.2.1 The History of Erosion

2. Classification of Erosion

2.1 Classification of Erosion by Erosion Agents

2.2 Classification of Erosion by Form

2.2.1 Surface Water Erosion

2.2.2 Subsurface Water Erosion

2.2.3 Wind Erosion

2.3 Classification of Erosion by Intensity

3. Mechanism of Erosion Processes

3.1 Climatic and Hydrological Agents

3.1.1 Precipitation and Its Physical Characteristics

3.1.2 Erosivity of Rainfall

3.1.3 Solid Precipitation

3.1.4 Runoff

3.2 Morphological Factors

3.2.1 The Effect of Slope Gradient

3.2.2 The Effect of Slope Length

3.2.3. Combined Effects of Slope Gradient and Slope Length

3.2.4 Shape of Slope

3.2.5 Slope Exposure

3.3 Geological and Soil Factor

3.3.1 Geological Factor

3.3.2 Soil Factor

3.4 Vegetative Cover

3.5 Technical Factor

3.6 Socio-economic Factor

4. Theory of Water Erosion

4.1 Sheet Surface Runoff

4.2 Concentrated Surface Runoff

4.3 Surface Runoff Modeling

4.3.1 Models of Surface Runoff from Catchment Area

4.3.2 Model of Surface Runoff from Slope

4.4 Transportation Processes

4.4.1 Fundamental Principles of the Mechanism of Transportation Processes

4.4.2 Transportation Processes in Surface Waters

4.4.3 Transportation Processes in Soil

5. Predicting Intensity of Water Erosion and Modeling Erosion Processes

5.1 Erosion Intensity in Dependence on Surface Runoff Velocity and Its Tangential Stress

5.2 Empirical Models of Erosion Processes

5.2.1 W. H. Wischmeier and D. D. Smith's Empirical Model of Erosion

5.3 Conceptual Models of Erosion

5.4 Predicting Erosion Intensity in the Catchment

6. Theory of Wind. Erosion

6.1 Erosive Action of Wind

6.2 Movement of Soil Particles by the Action of Wind

6.2.1 Movement of Soil Particles in the Form of Suspension

6.2.2 Movement of Soil Particles by Saltation

6.2.3 Movement of Soil Particles by Creep

6.2.4 Distance to Which Soil Particles are Transported by Wind Erosion

7. Intensity of Wind Erosion and Predicting Wind Erosion

7.1 Relation between Wind Erosion Intensity and Erosion Agents

7.2 Determination and Prediction of Wind Erosion

8. Erosion and Environmental Control

8.1 Pollution Sources

8.1.1 Mineral Fertilizers

8.1.2 Pesticides

8.1.3 Wastes and Sludges

8.2 Transportation of Pollutants

8.3 Consequences of Water Pollution by Erosion

8.4 Water and Soil Pollution Control

9. Erosion Control

9.1 Theoretical Analysis of Permissible Slope Length

9.2 Agricultural and Forestry Measures

9.2.1 Location of Cultures

9.2.2 Shape, Area and Location of Agricultural Plots

9.2.3 Communications

9.2.4 Soil Cultivation

9.2.5 Use of Vegetation for Soil Conservation

9.3 Technical Control of Sheet Runoff

9.3.1 Infiltration Strips

9.3.2 Cultivated Broad-base Terraces

9.3.3 Interception Ditches

9.3.4 Erosion Control Ridges

9.3.5 Bench Terraces

9.3.6 Drainage Structures

9.4 Technical Control of Concentrated Surface Runoff

9.4.1 Erosion Control Reservoirs

9.4.2 Control of Gullies and Ravines

9.4.3 Torrent Control

9.5 Chemical Erosion Control

10. Economics of Erosion Control

Details

No. of pages:
236
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483150345

About the Author

Miloš Holý

About the Editor

Asit K. Biswas

Margaret R. Biswas