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Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.
Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
*Learn how to use the Human Factors/Ergonomics tools in process industries
*Identify and prioritize Ergonomic issues, develop interventions, and measure their effects
*Apply Ergonomics to the design of new facilities
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Preface Acknowledgements Author Disclaimer
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Chapter review 1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors 1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors 1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors 1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design 1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design 1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors 1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing 1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects 1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors 1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 1.5 References
PERSONAL FACTORS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense184.108.40.206 Accommodation of the Eye 220.127.116.11 Visual Field 18.104.22.168 Process of Adaptation 22.214.171.124 Color Vision 126.96.36.199 Visual Acuity 188.8.131.52 Age
2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities184.108.40.206 Attention 220.127.116.11 Perception 18.104.22.168 Memory 22.214.171.124 Decision Making
2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing 2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance126.96.36.199 Factors Affecting Strength 188.8.131.52 Endurance and Fatigue
2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size184.108.40.206 Sources of Body Size Variability 220.127.116.11 Principles of Body Size Application
2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method18.104.22.168 Participants 22.214.171.124 Equipment 126.96.36.199 Procedure
2.4.2 Data Collected188.8.131.52 Data Analyses
2.4.3 Conclusion184.108.40.206 Recommendations for Existing Operations
2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 2.6 References
PHYSICAL FACTORS 3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders 3.2 Manual Handling Tasks 3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors 3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks 220.127.116.11 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks 18.104.22.168 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks 22.214.171.124 Biomechanical Models 3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks 3.3.1 Risk Factors 3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools 3.3.3 Hand Tools 3.4 Behavior 3.5 Ergonomics Program 3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process 3.5.2 Solutions 3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program 3.6 Case Study 3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 3.8 References
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Illumination4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 126.96.36.199 Lighting Quantity 188.8.131.52 Task Factors 184.108.40.206 Age Factor 220.127.116.11 Lighting Quality 18.104.22.168.1 Lighting Color 22.214.171.124.2 Glare 126.96.36.199.3 Luminance Ratio
4.3 Temperature4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 188.8.131.52 Cognitive Tasks 184.108.40.206 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 220.127.116.11 Cognitive Tasks 18.104.22.168 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 22.214.171.124 Hot Environment 126.96.36.199 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 188.8.131.52 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 184.108.40.206 Guidelines for Cold Conditions
4.4 Noise4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 220.127.116.11 Speech and Communication 18.104.22.168 Cognitive Performance 22.214.171.124 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 126.96.36.199 Aging Hearing Loss 188.8.131.52 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 184.108.40.206 Noise Control at Source 220.127.116.11 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 18.104.22.168 Noise Control at The receiver
4.5 Vibration4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 22.214.171.124 Motor Control 126.96.36.199 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration
4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results 4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter 4.8 References
5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN 5.1 Human System Interface 5.2 Controls 5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls 5.2.2 Types of Controls 5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification 5.2.4 Stereotypes 5.2.5 Access to Operate 5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation 5.2.7 Valves 5.3 Visual Displays 5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays 5.3.2 Mounting Displays 5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays 5.5 Auditory Displays 5.6 Field Control Panels 5.6.1 Field Panel Layout 5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling 5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels 5.7 Process Control Displays 5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface 188.8.131.52 Display Hierarchy 184.108.40.206 Contents of Displays 220.127.116.11 Display Layout 18.104.22.168 Abbreviations and Labels 22.214.171.124 Alarms 126.96.36.199 Text Messages 188.8.131.52 Lines and Arrows 184.108.40.206 Numeric Values 220.127.116.11 Use of Color 18.104.22.168 Display Access 22.214.171.124 Symbols 5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays 126.96.36.199 Initial Survey 188.8.131.52 Scope the Improvements 184.108.40.206 Prepare the Interface Design Team 220.127.116.11 Brief the Board Operators 18.104.22.168 Execute the Interface Design Effort 22.214.171.124 Obtain Operator Feedback 126.96.36.199 Transfer to the New System 188.8.131.52 Summary 5.8 Case Study 5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 5.10 References APPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design
WORKPLACE DESIGN 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Workplace Design Principles 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located 6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible 6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population 184.108.40.206: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace 220.127.116.11: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population 18.104.22.168: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population 6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible 22.214.171.124: Aisleways and corridors 126.96.36.199: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment 188.8.131.52: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms 184.108.40.206.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps 220.127.116.11.2 Walkways and platforms 18.104.22.168 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition 6.2.6 Positioning work 22.214.171.124: Position work within the range of motion of the body 126.96.36.199: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach 188.8.131.52: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures 184.108.40.206: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture 220.127.116.11: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder 18.104.22.168: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted 22.214.171.124: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities 126.96.36.199: Minimize manual handling 188.8.131.52: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress 6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards 184.108.40.206: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace 220.127.116.11.1 Seated workstations 18.104.22.168.2 Standing workstations 22.214.171.124.3 Sit/Stand workstations 126.96.36.199 Selecting the optimal workstation design 188.8.131.52: Workstation design standards 184.108.40.206.1 Seated Workstations 220.127.116.11.2 Standing Workstations 18.104.22.168.3 Sit/Stand Workstations 22.214.171.124 Seating 6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability 126.96.36.199 Design considerations 188.8.131.52 Maintenance considerations 6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles 6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis 6.3.2 Task Analysis 6.3.3 LINK Analysis 6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations 6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant 6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter 6.7 References
JOB FACTORS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders184.108.40.206 Normal Sleep 220.127.116.11 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 18.104.22.168 Fatigue
7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life22.214.171.124 Shift Schedule Worked 126.96.36.199 Individual Differences 188.8.131.52 Personal and Social Life
7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design184.108.40.206 Length of Shift 220.127.116.11 Rotation of Shift 18.104.22.168.1 Direction of Rotation 22.214.171.124.2 Speed of Rotation 126.96.36.199.3 Number of Consecutive Days off
7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork188.8.131.52 Sleep 184.108.40.206 Diet 220.127.116.11 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 18.104.22.168 Personal and Mental Hygiene 22.214.171.124 Strategies for Night Work 126.96.36.199 Organizational Strategies 188.8.131.52.1 Education 184.108.40.206.2 Facilities Design 220.127.116.11.3 Career Opportunities 18.104.22.168.4 Planned Maintenance Napping
7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules 7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies 7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis22.214.171.124 Purpose of Task Analysis 126.96.36.199 When to Use Task Analysis 188.8.131.52 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 184.108.40.206 Process of the Task Analysis
7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology220.127.116.11 Critical Task Identification Process 18.104.22.168 Critical Task Analysis 22.214.171.124 Follow-up Documentation
7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups 7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned126.96.36.199 Implementation 188.8.131.52 During Training 184.108.40.206 Observations 220.127.116.11 Measure 18.104.22.168 Positive Outcomes
7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program22.214.171.124 Recommended Program Elements 126.96.36.199 Practical Considerations for Implementation
7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis 7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 7.9 References
8 INFORMATION PROCESSING
8.1 Human Error
8.1.2 Why humans make errors
8.1.3 Mental errors
8.1.4 Display errors
8.1.5 Environmental causes
8.1.6 System factors that lead to error
8.2 Plant signs and labels
8.2.1 Equipment labeling program
8.2.2 Designing signs and labels
188.8.131.52 Content of the message
184.108.40.206 Message layout 220.127.116.11 Appearance of Characters 18.104.22.168 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 22.214.171.124 Pipe labeling 126.96.36.199 Electrical wire and cables labeling 188.8.131.52 Equipment labels 184.108.40.206 Equipment signs 220.127.116.11 Sampling points 18.104.22.168 Information signs 8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures 8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training 8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis 8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire 8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 8.8 References ATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist
- THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Project management 9.2.1 Management of major projects 9.2.2 Management of Base Projects 9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management 9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase 9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase 9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review 9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team 9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP) 9.3.6 Procedures 9.3.7 Analysis Techniques 9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review 9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel 9.3.11 Post Project Review 9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 9.5 References
- No. of pages:
- © Gulf Professional Publishing 2003
- 19th December 2003
- Gulf Professional Publishing
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Dennis Attwood has over 34 years of experience as a specialist in Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics. He joined Risk, Reliability, Safety (RRS) Engineering USA in 2003 after 21 years with ExxonMobil Corporation as a Human Factors Specialist. Dennis has authored over 100 publications in the field, and holds a Bachelor's of Applied Science in Electrical Engineering and a Masters and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering.
Risk Reliability and Safety Engineering LLC, Texas, USA
Joseph M. Deeb has over twenty years of experience in both University teaching and research and in applying Human Factors and Ergonomics to a wide range of industry businesses. Since joining ExxonMobil company,over 11years ago, Joe has provided Human Factors and Ergonomics global support for its operations. Joe has authored a number of external publications, both in refereed journals and conference proceedings, and internal reports.
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
Mary Danz-Reece, a certified professional ergonomist, currently heads the
business planning section at ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc. and has
previously headed the Human Factors and Chemicals Toxicology Sections.
Since joining ExxonMobil in 1991, Mary has provided human factors expertise
to ExxonMobil operations including on-and offshore production, refining,
chemical manufacturing, fuels marketing and mining operations. Mary has
been recognized for outstanding contributions to the field of ergonomics by
the Ergonomics division of the Institute of Industrial Engineers.
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA