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Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.
Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
*Learn how to use the Human Factors/Ergonomics tools in process industries
*Identify and prioritize Ergonomic issues, develop interventions, and measure their effects
*Apply Ergonomics to the design of new facilities
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Preface Acknowledgements Author Disclaimer
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Chapter review 1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors 1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors 1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors 1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design 1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design 1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors 1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing 1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects 1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors 1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 1.5 References
PERSONAL FACTORS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense18.104.22.168 Accommodation of the Eye 22.214.171.124 Visual Field 126.96.36.199 Process of Adaptation 188.8.131.52 Color Vision 184.108.40.206 Visual Acuity 220.127.116.11 Age
2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities18.104.22.168 Attention 22.214.171.124 Perception 126.96.36.199 Memory 188.8.131.52 Decision Making
2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing 2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance184.108.40.206 Factors Affecting Strength 220.127.116.11 Endurance and Fatigue
2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size18.104.22.168 Sources of Body Size Variability 22.214.171.124 Principles of Body Size Application
2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method126.96.36.199 Participants 188.8.131.52 Equipment 184.108.40.206 Procedure
2.4.2 Data Collected220.127.116.11 Data Analyses
2.4.3 Conclusion18.104.22.168 Recommendations for Existing Operations
2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 2.6 References
PHYSICAL FACTORS 3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders 3.2 Manual Handling Tasks 3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors 3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks 22.214.171.124 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks 126.96.36.199 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks 188.8.131.52 Biomechanical Models 3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks 3.3.1 Risk Factors 3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools 3.3.3 Hand Tools 3.4 Behavior 3.5 Ergonomics Program 3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process 3.5.2 Solutions 3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program 3.6 Case Study 3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 3.8 References
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Illumination4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 184.108.40.206 Lighting Quantity 220.127.116.11 Task Factors 18.104.22.168 Age Factor 22.214.171.124 Lighting Quality 126.96.36.199.1 Lighting Color 188.8.131.52.2 Glare 184.108.40.206.3 Luminance Ratio
4.3 Temperature4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 220.127.116.11 Cognitive Tasks 18.104.22.168 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 22.214.171.124 Cognitive Tasks 126.96.36.199 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 188.8.131.52 Hot Environment 184.108.40.206 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 220.127.116.11 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 18.104.22.168 Guidelines for Cold Conditions
4.4 Noise4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 22.214.171.124 Speech and Communication 126.96.36.199 Cognitive Performance 188.8.131.52 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 184.108.40.206 Aging Hearing Loss 220.127.116.11 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 18.104.22.168 Noise Control at Source 22.214.171.124 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 126.96.36.199 Noise Control at The receiver
4.5 Vibration4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 188.8.131.52 Motor Control 184.108.40.206 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration
4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results 4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter 4.8 References
5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN 5.1 Human System Interface 5.2 Controls 5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls 5.2.2 Types of Controls 5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification 5.2.4 Stereotypes 5.2.5 Access to Operate 5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation 5.2.7 Valves 5.3 Visual Displays 5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays 5.3.2 Mounting Displays 5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays 5.5 Auditory Displays 5.6 Field Control Panels 5.6.1 Field Panel Layout 5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling 5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels 5.7 Process Control Displays 5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface 220.127.116.11 Display Hierarchy 18.104.22.168 Contents of Displays 22.214.171.124 Display Layout 126.96.36.199 Abbreviations and Labels 188.8.131.52 Alarms 184.108.40.206 Text Messages 220.127.116.11 Lines and Arrows 18.104.22.168 Numeric Values 22.214.171.124 Use of Color 126.96.36.199 Display Access 188.8.131.52 Symbols 5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays 184.108.40.206 Initial Survey 220.127.116.11 Scope the Improvements 18.104.22.168 Prepare the Interface Design Team 22.214.171.124 Brief the Board Operators 126.96.36.199 Execute the Interface Design Effort 188.8.131.52 Obtain Operator Feedback 184.108.40.206 Transfer to the New System 220.127.116.11 Summary 5.8 Case Study 5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 5.10 References APPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design
WORKPLACE DESIGN 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Workplace Design Principles 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located 6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible 6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population 18.104.22.168: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace 22.214.171.124: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population 126.96.36.199: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population 6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible 188.8.131.52: Aisleways and corridors 184.108.40.206: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment 220.127.116.11: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms 18.104.22.168.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps 22.214.171.124.2 Walkways and platforms 126.96.36.199 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition 6.2.6 Positioning work 188.8.131.52: Position work within the range of motion of the body 184.108.40.206: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach 220.127.116.11: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures 18.104.22.168: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture 22.214.171.124: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder 126.96.36.199: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted 188.8.131.52: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities 184.108.40.206: Minimize manual handling 220.127.116.11: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress 6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards 18.104.22.168: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace 22.214.171.124.1 Seated workstations 126.96.36.199.2 Standing workstations 188.8.131.52.3 Sit/Stand workstations 184.108.40.206 Selecting the optimal workstation design 220.127.116.11: Workstation design standards 18.104.22.168.1 Seated Workstations 22.214.171.124.2 Standing Workstations 126.96.36.199.3 Sit/Stand Workstations 188.8.131.52 Seating 6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability 184.108.40.206 Design considerations 220.127.116.11 Maintenance considerations 6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles 6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis 6.3.2 Task Analysis 6.3.3 LINK Analysis 6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations 6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant 6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter 6.7 References
JOB FACTORS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders18.104.22.168 Normal Sleep 22.214.171.124 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 126.96.36.199 Fatigue
7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life188.8.131.52 Shift Schedule Worked 184.108.40.206 Individual Differences 220.127.116.11 Personal and Social Life
7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design18.104.22.168 Length of Shift 22.214.171.124 Rotation of Shift 126.96.36.199.1 Direction of Rotation 188.8.131.52.2 Speed of Rotation 184.108.40.206.3 Number of Consecutive Days off
7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork220.127.116.11 Sleep 18.104.22.168 Diet 22.214.171.124 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 126.96.36.199 Personal and Mental Hygiene 188.8.131.52 Strategies for Night Work 184.108.40.206 Organizational Strategies 220.127.116.11.1 Education 18.104.22.168.2 Facilities Design 22.214.171.124.3 Career Opportunities 126.96.36.199.4 Planned Maintenance Napping
7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules 7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies 7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis188.8.131.52 Purpose of Task Analysis 184.108.40.206 When to Use Task Analysis 220.127.116.11 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 18.104.22.168 Process of the Task Analysis
7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology22.214.171.124 Critical Task Identification Process 126.96.36.199 Critical Task Analysis 188.8.131.52 Follow-up Documentation
7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups 7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned184.108.40.206 Implementation 220.127.116.11 During Training 18.104.22.168 Observations 22.214.171.124 Measure 126.96.36.199 Positive Outcomes
7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program188.8.131.52 Recommended Program Elements 184.108.40.206 Practical Considerations for Implementation
7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis 7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 7.9 References
8 INFORMATION PROCESSING
8.1 Human Error
8.1.2 Why humans make errors
8.1.3 Mental errors
8.1.4 Display errors
8.1.5 Environmental causes
8.1.6 System factors that lead to error
8.2 Plant signs and labels
8.2.1 Equipment labeling program
8.2.2 Designing signs and labels
220.127.116.11 Content of the message
18.104.22.168 Message layout 22.214.171.124 Appearance of Characters 126.96.36.199 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 188.8.131.52 Pipe labeling 184.108.40.206 Electrical wire and cables labeling 220.127.116.11 Equipment labels 18.104.22.168 Equipment signs 22.214.171.124 Sampling points 126.96.36.199 Information signs 8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures 8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training 8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis 8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire 8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 8.8 References ATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist
- THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Project management 9.2.1 Management of major projects 9.2.2 Management of Base Projects 9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management 9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase 9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase 9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review 9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team 9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP) 9.3.6 Procedures 9.3.7 Analysis Techniques 9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review 9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel 9.3.11 Post Project Review 9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 9.5 References
- No. of pages:
- © Gulf Professional Publishing 2003
- 19th December 2003
- Gulf Professional Publishing
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Dennis Attwood has over 34 years of experience as a specialist in Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics. He joined Risk, Reliability, Safety (RRS) Engineering USA in 2003 after 21 years with ExxonMobil Corporation as a Human Factors Specialist. Dennis has authored over 100 publications in the field, and holds a Bachelor's of Applied Science in Electrical Engineering and a Masters and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering.
Risk Reliability and Safety Engineering LLC, Texas, USA
Joseph M. Deeb has over twenty years of experience in both University teaching and research and in applying Human Factors and Ergonomics to a wide range of industry businesses. Since joining ExxonMobil company,over 11years ago, Joe has provided Human Factors and Ergonomics global support for its operations. Joe has authored a number of external publications, both in refereed journals and conference proceedings, and internal reports.
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
Mary Danz-Reece, a certified professional ergonomist, currently heads the
business planning section at ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc. and has
previously headed the Human Factors and Chemicals Toxicology Sections.
Since joining ExxonMobil in 1991, Mary has provided human factors expertise
to ExxonMobil operations including on-and offshore production, refining,
chemical manufacturing, fuels marketing and mining operations. Mary has
been recognized for outstanding contributions to the field of ergonomics by
the Ergonomics division of the Institute of Industrial Engineers.
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
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