Ergonomic Solutions for the Process Industries

Ergonomic Solutions for the Process Industries

1st Edition - December 19, 2003

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  • Authors: Dennis Attwood, Joseph Deeb, Ph.D., CPE, M.Erg.S., Mary Danz-Reece
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080470078

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Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.

Key Features

*Learn how to use the Human Factors/Ergonomics tools in process industries

*Identify and prioritize Ergonomic issues, develop interventions, and measure their effects

*Apply Ergonomics to the design of new facilities


The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    Author Disclaimer

    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Chapter review
    1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors
    1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors
    1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors
    1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design
    1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design
    1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors
    1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing
    1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects
    1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors
    1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    1.5 References

    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities
    2.2.1 Visual Sense Accommodation of the Eye Visual Field Process of Adaptation Color Vision Visual Acuity Age
    2.2.2 Auditory Sense
    2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities Attention Perception Memory Decision Making
    2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing
    2.3 Physical Capabilities
    2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance Factors Affecting Strength Endurance and Fatigue
    2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size Sources of Body Size Variability Principles of Body Size Application
    2.4 Case Study
    2.4.1 Method Participants Equipment Procedure
    2.4.2 Data Collected Data Analyses
    2.4.3 Conclusion Recommendations for Existing Operations
    2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    2.6 References

    3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders
    3.2 Manual Handling Tasks
    3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors
    3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks Biomechanical Models
    3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks
    3.3.1 Risk Factors
    3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools
    3.3.3 Hand Tools
    3.4 Behavior
    3.5 Ergonomics Program
    3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process
    3.5.2 Solutions
    3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program
    3.6 Case Study
    3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    3.8 References

    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Illumination
    4.2.1 Lighting and Performance Lighting Quantity Task Factors Age Factor Lighting Quality Lighting Color Glare Luminance Ratio
    4.3 Temperature
    4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance Cognitive Tasks Physical Activities
    4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance Cognitive Tasks Physical Activities
    4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health Hot Environment Cold Environment
    4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone
    4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment
    4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions Guidelines for Heat Conditions Guidelines for Cold Conditions
    4.4 Noise
    4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance Speech and Communication Cognitive Performance Nuisance and Distraction
    4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health Aging Hearing Loss Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
    4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise Noise Control at Source Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission Noise Control at The receiver
    4.5 Vibration
    4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance Motor Control Visual Performance
    4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health
    4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration
    4.6 Case Study
    4.6.1 Method
    4.6.2 Results
    4.6.3 Recommendations
    4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System
    4.6.5 Final Results
    4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter
    4.8 References

    5.1 Human System Interface
    5.2 Controls
    5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls
    5.2.2 Types of Controls
    5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification
    5.2.4 Stereotypes
    5.2.5 Access to Operate
    5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation
    5.2.7 Valves
    5.3 Visual Displays
    5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays
    5.3.2 Mounting Displays
    5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays
    5.5 Auditory Displays
    5.6 Field Control Panels
    5.6.1 Field Panel Layout
    5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling
    5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels
    5.7 Process Control Displays
    5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface Display Hierarchy Contents of Displays Display Layout Abbreviations and Labels Alarms Text Messages Lines and Arrows Numeric Values Use of Color Display Access Symbols
    5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays Initial Survey Scope the Improvements Prepare the Interface Design Team Brief the Board Operators Execute the Interface Design Effort Obtain Operator Feedback Transfer to the New System Summary
    5.8 Case Study
    5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    5.10 References
    APPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design

    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Workplace Design Principles
    6.2.1 Introduction
    6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located
    6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible
    6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population
    6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible Aisleways and corridors Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms Stairs, ladders and ramps Walkways and platforms Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition
    6.2.6 Positioning work Position work within the range of motion of the body Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach Avoid static loads and fixed work postures Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities Minimize manual handling Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress
    6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards Major categories of workstations in the process workplace Seated workstations Standing workstations Sit/Stand workstations Selecting the optimal workstation design Workstation design standards Seated Workstations Standing Workstations Sit/Stand Workstations Seating
    6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability Design considerations Maintenance considerations
    6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles
    6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design:
    6.3.1 Activity Analysis
    6.3.2 Task Analysis
    6.3.3 LINK Analysis
    6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations
    6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant
    6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter
    6.7 References

    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule
    7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders Normal Sleep Sleep Behavior and Disorders Fatigue
    7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance
    7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health
    7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life Shift Schedule Worked Individual Differences Personal and Social Life
    7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design Length of Shift Rotation of Shift Direction of Rotation Speed of Rotation Number of Consecutive Days off
    7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork Sleep Diet Keeping Body Clock in Synch Personal and Mental Hygiene Strategies for Night Work Organizational Strategies Education Facilities Design Career Opportunities Planned Maintenance Napping
    7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules
    7.3 Stress
    7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress
    7.3.2 Coping Strategies
    7.4 Job Analysis
    7.4.1 Task Analysis Purpose of Task Analysis When to Use Task Analysis Who can perform a Task Analysis? Process of the Task Analysis
    7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology Critical Task Identification Process Critical Task Analysis Follow-up Documentation
    7.5 Team-Based Approach
    7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI)
    7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model
    7.5.3 ACUMEN
    7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups
    7.6 Behavior-Based Safety
    7.6.1 Lessons Learned Implementation During Training Observations Measure Positive Outcomes
    7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program Recommended Program Elements Practical Considerations for Implementation
    7.7 Case Study
    7.7.1 Introduction
    7.7.2 Task Analysis
    7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis
    7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    7.9 References

    8.1 Human Error
    8.1.1 Introduction
    8.1.2 Why humans make errors
    8.1.3 Mental errors
    8.1.4 Display errors
    8.1.5 Environmental causes
    8.1.6 System factors that lead to error
    8.2 Plant signs and labels
    8.2.1 Equipment labeling program
    8.2.2 Designing signs and labels Content of the message Message layout Appearance of Characters Placement of sign or label
    8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels Pipe labeling Electrical wire and cables labeling Equipment labels Equipment signs Sampling points Information signs
    8.3 Procedures
    8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed
    8.3.2 Developing procedures
    8.3.3. Format of written procedures
    8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used
    8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures
    8.4 Training
    8.4.1 Developing training
    8.4.2 Task analysis for training development
    8.4.3 Contents of a training package
    8.4.4 Training for trainers
    8.4.5 When to provide training
    8.4.6 Evaluating training
    8.5 Vigilance
    8.5.1 Transportation systems
    8.5.2 Control room operations
    8.5.3 Mining operations
    8.5.4 Driving performance
    8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement
    8.5.7 Operator workload analysis
    8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire
    8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    8.8 References
    ATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist

    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Project management
    9.2.1 Management of major projects
    9.2.2 Management of Base Projects
    9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management
    9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase
    9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase
    9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review
    9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team
    9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and
    Operability Reviews (HAZOP)
    9.3.6 Procedures
    9.3.7 Analysis Techniques
    9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process
    9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors
    9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel
    9.3.11 Post Project Review
    9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter
    9.5 References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 480
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2003
  • Published: December 19, 2003
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080470078

About the Authors

Dennis Attwood

Dennis Attwood has over 34 years of experience as a specialist in Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics. He joined Risk, Reliability, Safety (RRS) Engineering USA in 2003 after 21 years with ExxonMobil Corporation as a Human Factors Specialist. Dennis has authored over 100 publications in the field, and holds a Bachelor's of Applied Science in Electrical Engineering and a Masters and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Risk Reliability and Safety Engineering LLC, Texas, USA

Joseph Deeb, Ph.D., CPE, M.Erg.S.

Joseph M. Deeb has over twenty years of experience in both University teaching and research and in applying Human Factors and Ergonomics to a wide range of industry businesses. Since joining ExxonMobil company,over 11years ago, Joe has provided Human Factors and Ergonomics global support for its operations. Joe has authored a number of external publications, both in refereed journals and conference proceedings, and internal reports.

Affiliations and Expertise

ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA

Mary Danz-Reece

Mary Danz-Reece, a certified professional ergonomist, currently heads the

business planning section at ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc. and has

previously headed the Human Factors and Chemicals Toxicology Sections.

Since joining ExxonMobil in 1991, Mary has provided human factors expertise

to ExxonMobil operations including on-and offshore production, refining,

chemical manufacturing, fuels marketing and mining operations. Mary has

been recognized for outstanding contributions to the field of ergonomics by

the Ergonomics division of the Institute of Industrial Engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA

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