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Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.
Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
*Learn how to use the Human Factors/Ergonomics tools in process industries
*Identify and prioritize Ergonomic issues, develop interventions, and measure their effects
*Apply Ergonomics to the design of new facilities
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Preface Acknowledgements Author Disclaimer
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Chapter review 1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors 1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors 1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors 1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design 1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design 1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors 1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing 1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects 1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors 1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 1.5 References
PERSONAL FACTORS 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense220.127.116.11 Accommodation of the Eye 18.104.22.168 Visual Field 22.214.171.124 Process of Adaptation 126.96.36.199 Color Vision 188.8.131.52 Visual Acuity 184.108.40.206 Age
2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities220.127.116.11 Attention 18.104.22.168 Perception 22.214.171.124 Memory 126.96.36.199 Decision Making
2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing 2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance188.8.131.52 Factors Affecting Strength 184.108.40.206 Endurance and Fatigue
2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size220.127.116.11 Sources of Body Size Variability 18.104.22.168 Principles of Body Size Application
2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method22.214.171.124 Participants 126.96.36.199 Equipment 188.8.131.52 Procedure
2.4.2 Data Collected184.108.40.206 Data Analyses
2.4.3 Conclusion220.127.116.11 Recommendations for Existing Operations
2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 2.6 References
PHYSICAL FACTORS 3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders 3.2 Manual Handling Tasks 3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors 3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks 18.104.22.168 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks 22.214.171.124 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks 126.96.36.199 Biomechanical Models 3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks 3.3.1 Risk Factors 3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools 3.3.3 Hand Tools 3.4 Behavior 3.5 Ergonomics Program 3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process 3.5.2 Solutions 3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program 3.6 Case Study 3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 3.8 References
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Illumination4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 188.8.131.52 Lighting Quantity 184.108.40.206 Task Factors 220.127.116.11 Age Factor 18.104.22.168 Lighting Quality 22.214.171.124.1 Lighting Color 126.96.36.199.2 Glare 188.8.131.52.3 Luminance Ratio
4.3 Temperature4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 184.108.40.206 Cognitive Tasks 220.127.116.11 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 18.104.22.168 Cognitive Tasks 22.214.171.124 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 126.96.36.199 Hot Environment 188.8.131.52 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 184.108.40.206 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 220.127.116.11 Guidelines for Cold Conditions
4.4 Noise4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 18.104.22.168 Speech and Communication 22.214.171.124 Cognitive Performance 126.96.36.199 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 188.8.131.52 Aging Hearing Loss 184.108.40.206 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 220.127.116.11 Noise Control at Source 18.104.22.168 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 22.214.171.124 Noise Control at The receiver
4.5 Vibration4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 126.96.36.199 Motor Control 188.8.131.52 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration
4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results 4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter 4.8 References
5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN 5.1 Human System Interface 5.2 Controls 5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls 5.2.2 Types of Controls 5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification 5.2.4 Stereotypes 5.2.5 Access to Operate 5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation 5.2.7 Valves 5.3 Visual Displays 5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays 5.3.2 Mounting Displays 5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays 5.5 Auditory Displays 5.6 Field Control Panels 5.6.1 Field Panel Layout 5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling 5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels 5.7 Process Control Displays 5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface 184.108.40.206 Display Hierarchy 220.127.116.11 Contents of Displays 18.104.22.168 Display Layout 22.214.171.124 Abbreviations and Labels 126.96.36.199 Alarms 188.8.131.52 Text Messages 184.108.40.206 Lines and Arrows 220.127.116.11 Numeric Values 18.104.22.168 Use of Color 22.214.171.124 Display Access 126.96.36.199 Symbols 5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays 188.8.131.52 Initial Survey 184.108.40.206 Scope the Improvements 220.127.116.11 Prepare the Interface Design Team 18.104.22.168 Brief the Board Operators 22.214.171.124 Execute the Interface Design Effort 126.96.36.199 Obtain Operator Feedback 188.8.131.52 Transfer to the New System 184.108.40.206 Summary 5.8 Case Study 5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 5.10 References APPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design
WORKPLACE DESIGN 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Workplace Design Principles 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located 6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible 6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population 220.127.116.11: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace 18.104.22.168: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population 22.214.171.124: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population 6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible 126.96.36.199: Aisleways and corridors 188.8.131.52: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment 184.108.40.206: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms 220.127.116.11.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps 18.104.22.168.2 Walkways and platforms 22.214.171.124 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition 6.2.6 Positioning work 126.96.36.199: Position work within the range of motion of the body 188.8.131.52: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach 184.108.40.206: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures 220.127.116.11: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture 18.104.22.168: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder 22.214.171.124: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted 126.96.36.199: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities 188.8.131.52: Minimize manual handling 184.108.40.206: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress 6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards 220.127.116.11: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace 18.104.22.168.1 Seated workstations 22.214.171.124.2 Standing workstations 126.96.36.199.3 Sit/Stand workstations 188.8.131.52 Selecting the optimal workstation design 184.108.40.206: Workstation design standards 220.127.116.11.1 Seated Workstations 18.104.22.168.2 Standing Workstations 22.214.171.124.3 Sit/Stand Workstations 126.96.36.199 Seating 6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability 188.8.131.52 Design considerations 184.108.40.206 Maintenance considerations 6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles 6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis 6.3.2 Task Analysis 6.3.3 LINK Analysis 6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations 6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant 6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter 6.7 References
JOB FACTORS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders220.127.116.11 Normal Sleep 18.104.22.168 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 22.214.171.124 Fatigue
7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life126.96.36.199 Shift Schedule Worked 188.8.131.52 Individual Differences 184.108.40.206 Personal and Social Life
7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design220.127.116.11 Length of Shift 18.104.22.168 Rotation of Shift 22.214.171.124.1 Direction of Rotation 126.96.36.199.2 Speed of Rotation 188.8.131.52.3 Number of Consecutive Days off
7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork184.108.40.206 Sleep 220.127.116.11 Diet 18.104.22.168 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 22.214.171.124 Personal and Mental Hygiene 126.96.36.199 Strategies for Night Work 188.8.131.52 Organizational Strategies 184.108.40.206.1 Education 220.127.116.11.2 Facilities Design 18.104.22.168.3 Career Opportunities 22.214.171.124.4 Planned Maintenance Napping
7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules 7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies 7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis126.96.36.199 Purpose of Task Analysis 188.8.131.52 When to Use Task Analysis 184.108.40.206 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 220.127.116.11 Process of the Task Analysis
7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology18.104.22.168 Critical Task Identification Process 22.214.171.124 Critical Task Analysis 126.96.36.199 Follow-up Documentation
7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups 7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned188.8.131.52 Implementation 184.108.40.206 During Training 220.127.116.11 Observations 18.104.22.168 Measure 22.214.171.124 Positive Outcomes
7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program126.96.36.199 Recommended Program Elements 188.8.131.52 Practical Considerations for Implementation
7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis 7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 7.9 References
8 INFORMATION PROCESSING
8.1 Human Error
8.1.2 Why humans make errors
8.1.3 Mental errors
8.1.4 Display errors
8.1.5 Environmental causes
8.1.6 System factors that lead to error
8.2 Plant signs and labels
8.2.1 Equipment labeling program
8.2.2 Designing signs and labels
184.108.40.206 Content of the message
220.127.116.11 Message layout 18.104.22.168 Appearance of Characters 22.214.171.124 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 126.96.36.199 Pipe labeling 188.8.131.52 Electrical wire and cables labeling 184.108.40.206 Equipment labels 220.127.116.11 Equipment signs 18.104.22.168 Sampling points 22.214.171.124 Information signs 8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures 8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training 8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis 8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire 8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 8.8 References ATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist
- THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Project management 9.2.1 Management of major projects 9.2.2 Management of Base Projects 9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management 9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase 9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase 9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review 9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team 9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP) 9.3.6 Procedures 9.3.7 Analysis Techniques 9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review 9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel 9.3.11 Post Project Review 9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 9.5 References
- No. of pages:
- © Gulf Professional Publishing 2003
- 19th December 2003
- Gulf Professional Publishing
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Dennis Attwood has over 34 years of experience as a specialist in Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics. He joined Risk, Reliability, Safety (RRS) Engineering USA in 2003 after 21 years with ExxonMobil Corporation as a Human Factors Specialist. Dennis has authored over 100 publications in the field, and holds a Bachelor's of Applied Science in Electrical Engineering and a Masters and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering.
Risk Reliability and Safety Engineering LLC, Texas, USA
Joseph M. Deeb has over twenty years of experience in both University teaching and research and in applying Human Factors and Ergonomics to a wide range of industry businesses. Since joining ExxonMobil company,over 11years ago, Joe has provided Human Factors and Ergonomics global support for its operations. Joe has authored a number of external publications, both in refereed journals and conference proceedings, and internal reports.
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
Mary Danz-Reece, a certified professional ergonomist, currently heads the
business planning section at ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc. and has
previously headed the Human Factors and Chemicals Toxicology Sections.
Since joining ExxonMobil in 1991, Mary has provided human factors expertise
to ExxonMobil operations including on-and offshore production, refining,
chemical manufacturing, fuels marketing and mining operations. Mary has
been recognized for outstanding contributions to the field of ergonomics by
the Ergonomics division of the Institute of Industrial Engineers.
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
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