Enzymes in Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Enzymes in Synthetic Organic Chemistry

1st Edition - June 17, 1994

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  • Authors: Wong, Whitesides
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080505824

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Description

This book covers the most recent development of enzymatic organic synthesis, with particular focus on the use of isolated enzymes. It is organized into one introductory chapter dealing with the characteristics of enzymes as catalysts, and five chapters dealing with different types of chemical transformations. Methods for enzyme immobilization and stabilizaton, the use of enzymes in extreme environments, and the alteration of enzyme properties by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis for synthetic purposes are covered.

Readership

For graduate students and other professionals involved with organic synthesis, medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, bio-organic chemistry, biotechnology and other applied biological sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Preface. Acknowledgements. General Aspects. Rate acceleration in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Enzyme inhibition. Specificity. Improvement or alteration of enzyme specifity. Enzyme stabilization and reactor configuration. Cofactor regeneration. Enzyme catalysis in organic solvents. Multienzyme systems and metabolic engineering. Rational design of new enzymatic catalysts. Conclusion. References. Use of Hydrolytic Enzymes: Amidases, Proteases, Esterases, Lipases, Nitrilases, Phosphatases, Epoxide Hydrolases. Amidases. Protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis. Proteases that act as esterases. Acetylcholine esterase. Pig liver esterase. Phospholipases. Cholesterol esterase. Lipases. Nitrile hydrolysis enzymes. Epoxide hydrolase. Phosphatase. References. Oxidoreductions. Nicotinamide cofactor dependent oxidoreductions. Dehydrogenases which utilize ketoacids as substrates. Other NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases. Oxidoreductases that are metalloenzymes. References. C-C Bond Formation. Aldol condensation. Ketol and aldol transfer reaction. Addition of HCN to aldehydes. Acyloin condensation. C-C bond forming reactions involving acetyl coA. Isoprenoid and steroid synthesis. &bgr;-replacement of chloroalanine. C-C bond formation catalyzed by vitamin B12. References. Synthesis of Glycoside Bonds. Background. Glycosyltransferases of the Leloir pathway. Substrate specificity and synthetic applications of glycosyltransferases. Non-Leloir glycosyltransferases. Glycosidases. Transglycosidases. Synthesis of N-glycosides. Biological applications of synthetic glycoconjugates. Future opportunities. References. Addition, Elimination and Other Group Transfer Reactions (Phosphoryl-, Methyl-, Sulpho- and Amino-Transfer Reactions). Addition of water to alkenes: fumarase. Addition of ammonia to double bonds: ammonia lyases. Transamination: aminotransferases. Addition and elimination of carboxyl group. Nucleoside triphosphate requiring enzymatic reactions. Preparation of ATP chiral at &agr;-, &bgr;- or &ggr;-phosphorous. Phosphorothioate-containing DNA and RNA. DNA and RNA oligomers. Incorporation of modified or unnatural bases into DNA or RNA. Dehalogenation. Synthesis of chiral methyl groups. S-Adenosylmethionine and transmethylation. Sulfate activation and transfer reactions. References. Subject index.

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1994
  • Published: June 17, 1994
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080505824

About the Authors

Wong

Whitesides

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