Enzymes in Food Processing (1966) - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123957597, 9780323163071

Enzymes in Food Processing (1966)

1st Edition

Authors: Gerald Reed
eBook ISBN: 9780323163071
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 496
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Enzymes in Food Processing describes the properties and practical applications of enzymes in food processing. This 20-chapter book includes applications such as the use of enzymes to tenderize meat, to produce dextrose, to clarify wine, to liquefy candy centers. The first part of this text is an introduction to the chemistry and kinetics of enzyme reactions. Chapters 2 to 5 describe the general nature of enzyme reactions, reaction rates, and the effect of pH and temperature, as well as the effect of inhibitors and activators on enzyme reactions. Chapters 6 to 9 examine specific enzymes, including the carbohydrases, proteases, lipases, and oxidoreductases, while Chapter 10 presents the methods of enzyme production. Considerable chapters are devoted to the application of enzymes in food processing. The chapters are arranged according to commodities, such as milling, baking, starch, dairy products, fruits, fruit products, wines, distilled alcoholic beverages, confectionary, and flavors. Chapter 19 and 20 includes a brief description of the closely related use of enzymes in feeds and as digestive aids, as well as the health and legal aspects of the use of enzymes. Food technologists, microbiologists, and enzyme chemists will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

I. The Subject Matter

II. Natural Occurrence of Enzymes in Raw Materials and Foods

III. Fermentations

IV. Traditional Sources of Enzymes for Use in Food Processing

2. The Nature of Enzymatic Reactions

I. Illustration of Enzyme Action by Analogy

II. Historical Development of the Enzyme Concept

III. Illustration of Enzyme Action with Malt α-Amylase

3. General Characteristics of Enzymes

I. Enzyme Units

II. Enzyme Kinetics

III. Enzyme Specificity

IV. Nomenclature

4. Effect of Temperature and pH

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Temperature

III. Regeneration of Enzyme Activity

IV. Effect of Radiation

V. Effect of Pressure

VI. Effect of Moisture

VII. Effect of pH

5. Enzyme Inhibition and Activation

I. Enzyme Inhibition

II. Enzyme Activation

6. Carbohydrases

I. The Substrate

II. Endoamylases

III. Exoamylases

IV. Starch Synthesis

V. Transglucosylase

VI. Formation of Dextran and Levan

VII. Pectic Enzymes

VIII. Cellulases

IX. Lactase

X. Invertase

7. Proteolytic Enzymes

I. The Substrate 1

II. Specificity of Proteases

III. Major Uses of Proteases and Criteria for the Choice of Enzymes

IV. Papain and Chymopapain

V. Ficin

VI. Bromelain

VII. Trypsin

VIII. Chymotrypsin

IX. Pepsin

X. Rennin

XI. Cathepsins

XII. Exopeptidases

XIII. Enzymes Hydrolyzing Scleroproteins

XIV. Microbial Proteases

8. Lipases

I. The Substrate

II. Lipase and Esterase Activity

III. Pancreatic Lipase

IV. Milk Lipase

V. Plant Lipases

VI. Microbial Lipases

9. Oxidoreductases

I. Introduction

II. Glucose Oxidase

III. Catalase

IV. Peroxidase

V. Polyphenol Oxidase

10. Production of Commercial Enzymes

I. Sources of Enzymes and Their Importance

II. Enzyme Location

III. General Methods for Preparing Enzymes

IV. Production of Animal Enzymes

V. Production of Plant Enzymes

VI. Production of Microbial Enzymes

11. Milling and Baking

I. Amylase

II. Protease

III. Lipoxidase and Lipase

IV. Lactase

V. Pentosanases

VI. Polyphenol Oxidases

12. Starch, Starch Syrups, and Dextrose

I. Acid Hydrolysis

II. Liquefaction of Starch by Enzymes

III. Corn Syrup

IV. Dextrose

V. Miscellaneous Applications of Amylases

VI. Production of Fructose

13. Dairy Industry

I. Natural Enzymes of Milk

II. Hydrogen Peroxide—Catalase Treatment

III. Rennin and the Formation of Milk Curd

IV. Lipolysis and Proteolysis during the Ripening of Cheese

V. Lactase

VI. Glucose Oxidase in the Production of Egg Albumen and Dried Egg Yolk

VII. Miscellaneous Applications of Enzymes in the Dairy Industry

14. Fruits, Fruit Products, and Wines

I. Introduction

II. Pectin Content

III. Native Pectic Enzymes

IV. Apple Juice

V. Grape Juice

VI. Wines

VII. Other Fruits

VIII. Miscellaneous Applications of Pectic Enzymes

IX. Glucose Oxidase

X. Naringinase

XI. Polyphenol Oxidase and O- Methyl transferase

XII. Amylase and Invertase

15. Distilled Alcoholic Beverages and Beer

I. Distilled Alcoholic Beverages

II. Beer

16. Meat and Other Proteinaceous Foods

I. Tenderizing of Meat

II. Miscellaneous Uses of Proteolytic Enzymes in Meat, Fish, and for the Production of Protein Hydrolyzates

17. Candy, Cacao, Chocolate, Coffee

I. The Use of Invertase in the Candy Industry

II. Lipase-Produced Flavors in Chocolate Products

III. The Curing of Cacao Beans

IV. Enzymes in the Production of Green Coffee Beans

18. Flavors

I. Flavor Nucleotides

II. Enzymes Which Regenerate the Flavor of Processed Foods

19. Miscellaneous Applications of Enzymes in the Food Industry

I. Introduction

II. Removal of Atmospheric Oxygen by Glucose Oxidase

III. Use of Glucose Oxidase as an Analytical Tool

IV. Use of Enzymes as Digestive Aids

V. Use of Enzymes in the Feed Industry

VI. Enzymatic Maceration of Vegetable Matter

VII. Clinical Use of Enzymes

20. Health and Legal Aspects of the Use of Enzymes

I. Immunochemical Reactions

II. General Health Aspects

III. Legal Aspects

Appendix A. Cost Of Enzymes

Appendix B. List Of Microorganisms

Appendix C. List Of Symbols And Abbreviations




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© Academic Press 1966
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Gerald Reed

Affiliations and Expertise

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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