Environmental Mycology in Public Health - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124114715, 9780124115354

Environmental Mycology in Public Health

1st Edition

Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management

Editors: Carla Viegas Ana Pinheiro Raquel Sabino Susana Viegas João Brandão Cristina Veríssimo
eBook ISBN: 9780124115354
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124114715
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 29th August 2015
Page Count: 458
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Description

Environmental Mycology in Public Health: Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management provides the most updated information on fungi, an essential element in the survival of our global ecology that can also pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they are present in buildings.

As the exposure to fungi in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms, including allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, this book presents information on fungi and their disease agents, important aspects of exposure assessment, and their impacts on health.

This book answers the hard questions, including, "How does one detect and measure the presence of indoor fungi?" and "What is an acceptable level of indoor fungi?" It then examines how we relate this information to human health problems.

Key Features

  • Provides unique new insights on fungi and their metabolites detection in the environmental and occupational settings
  • Presents new information that is enriched by significant cases studies
  • Multi-contributed work, edited by a proficient team in medical and environmental mycology with different individual expertise
  • Guides the readers in the implementation of preventive and protective measures regarding exposure to fungi

Readership

academics and researchers in microbiology, mycology, environmental microbiology, public health, immunoallergology, toxicology and veterinary science

Table of Contents

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  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Part I. Fungal Specificities in Environmental Mycology
    • Section I. General Fungal Characteristics
      • Chapter 1. Cellular Constitution, Water and Nutritional Needs, and Secondary Metabolites
        • Fungal Structures
        • Growth Conditions
        • Fungal Metabolites
      • Chapter 2. Dispersion Forms
    • Section II. Outline of Fungal Pathologies
      • Chapter 3. Fungal Infections
        • Superficial Fungal Infections
        • Subcutaneous Infections
        • Invasive Fungal Infections
      • Chapter 4. Allergic Response to Fungal Exposure
        • Allergic Disease and Fungal Sensitization
        • Immune Response and Hypersensitivity to Fungal Exposure
        • Allergic Rhinitis
        • Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis
        • Asthma
        • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
        • Atopic Dermatitis
        • Other Diseases
        • Diagnosis of Fungal-Related Allergic Diseases
        • Treatment
      • Chapter 5. Mycotoxicoses
        • Aflatoxins
        • Fumonisins
        • Ochratoxins
        • Zearalenone
        • Trichothecenes
    • Section III
      • Chapter 6. Risk Groups for Acquiring Fungal Infections
  • Part II. Environmental Mycology in Public Health
    • Section I
      • Chapter 7. Pathways and Routes of Natural Exposure to Fungal Infection
        • Exposure Pathways and Routes of Infection in Humans
        • Dermatophytosis
        • Superficial Candidosis
        • Mycotic Keratitis
        • Otomycosis
        • Aspergillosis
        • Systemic Candidosis
        • Cryptococcosis
        • Mucormycosis
        • Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia
        • Blastomycosis
        • Coccidioidomycosis
        • Histoplasmosis
        • Paracoccidioidomycosis
        • Chromoblastomycosis
        • Entomophthoromycosis
        • Mycetoma
        • Sporotrichosis
        • Phaeohyphomycosis
        • Hyalohyphomycosis
        • Inhalational Models of Infection
        • Mucosal Models of Infection
        • Direct Infection
        • Conclusions
    • Section II. Occupational Settings
      • Chapter 8. Highly Contaminated Workplaces
        • Introduction
        • Fungal Aerosols in Animal Confinement Buildings
        • Fungal Aerosols in Sawmills
        • Fungal Aerosols in Waste Sectors
        • Fungal Aerosols in the Food Industry
        • Fungal Aerosols during Plant and Grain Handling
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 9. Fungi in Low-contamination Occupational Environments
        • Introduction
        • Measurement Aspects
        • Fungal Species in Indoor Environments
        • General Aspects of Fungal Contamination
        • Essential Sources of Indoor Fungi
        • Role of Ventilation in Fungal Contamination of Indoor Spaces
        • Carpets
        • Fungal Growth due to Moisture or Dampness
        • General Observations on the Data from Low-contamination Environments
        • Offices
        • Schools and Day Care Centers
        • Hospitals and Institutions
        • Other Locations
        • Experiences from Interventions
        • Application of Guidance Reference Values for Fungal Contamination
        • Importance of Indoor Environmental Investigations in Public Health
    • Section III. Nonoccupational Exposure
      • Chapter 10. Domestic Environment
        • Preventive Measures
        • Collaborators
      • Chapter 11. Urban Environment
        • Introduction
        • Cryptococcosis
        • Sporotrichosis
      • Chapter 12. Urban Settings
      • Chapter 13. Recreational Environment
        • Introduction
        • Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
        • Discussion/Conclusions
        • Recommendations
      • Chapter 14. Hospital Environment
        • Contamination Sources
        • Threshold Values Used to Evaluate Microbiological Contamination in the Hospital Environment
        • When Should a Hospital Environmental Analysis be Performed?
    • Section IV
      • Chapter 15. Fungal Disease Outbreaks and Natural Disasters
        • Introduction
        • Fungal Diseases after Natural Disasters
        • Outbreaks Caused by Dimorphic Fungi
        • Outbreaks Caused by Molds
        • Conclusion
        • Disclaimer
  • Part III. Fungi and Metabolites
    • Chapter 16. Dietary Exposure Assessment of European Population to Mycotoxins: A Review
      • Introduction
      • Exposure Assessment Methodology
      • Exposure Assessment of European Population
      • Conclusion and Future Needs
    • Chapter 17. Mycotoxins as Food Carcinogens
      • Mycotoxins Contaminating Food
      • Tolerable Daily Intakes and Maximum Levels in Foodstuffs
      • Carcinogenic Risk to Humans: IARC and NTP Classifications
      • Aflatoxin B1: Genotoxic Carcinogen
      • Ochratoxin A: Long Genotoxic–Epigenetic Dilemma
    • Chapter 18. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Indoor Environments
      • Introduction and Scope
      • Mycotoxins in Building Materials, Dust, and Air from Indoor Environments
      • Mycotoxins in the Context of Moisture Damage
      • Summary, Concluding Remarks, Future Challenges
    • Chapter 19. Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxins and Preventive Measures
      • Characteristics of Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure
      • Indications of Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Occupational Settings
      • Airborne Concentration, Duration, and Frequency as Criteria for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure
      • Assessment Strategies
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 20. Mycotoxins: Genotoxicity Studies and Methodologies
      • Introduction
      • Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay
      • Micronucleus
      • Nucleoplasmic Bridges
      • Nuclear Buds
      • Assessing Genotoxic Effects of Mycotoxins by CBMN
      • Comet Assay
      • Assessing Genotoxic Effects of Mycotoxins by Comet Assay
    • Chapter 21. Mycotoxin Analytical Methods
      • Extraction and Analytical Techniques
      • Food and Feed of Cereal Origin
      • Other Food Matrices
      • Separation Techniques for Identification and Determination of Mycotoxins
      • Immunoassay and Other Methods
      • Environmental Samples
    • Chapter 22. Indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC) Levels and Associations with Respiratory Health, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), and Allergy
      • Introduction
      • Measurement and Analysis of MVOC
      • MVOC Levels in Indoor and Occupational Environments
      • MVOCs in Indoor Environment as Indicator of Hidden Microbial Growth
      • Health Effect and Sick Building Syndrome
      • Conclusions
  • Part IV. Methods in Environmental Mycology
    • Section I. Environmental Sampling
      • Chapter 23. Air, Surface and Water Sampling
        • Introduction
        • Passive Methods
        • Active Methods
        • Strategy
        • Surface Sampling
        • Water Sampling
    • Section II
      • Chapter 24. Sand and Soil Sampling
      • Chapter 25. Processing Methodologies
        • Microscopy
        • Classical Culturing Methods
        • Biochemical Methods
        • Immunological Assays
        • Molecular Biology Approaches
      • Chapter 26. Molecular Approaches to Detect and Identify Fungal Agents in Various Environmental Settings
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
458
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124115354
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124114715

About the Editor

Carla Viegas

Carla Viegas

Carla Viegas – Graduated in Environmental Health from Lisbon School of Health Technology – Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon has a Master degree in Safety and Ergonomics from Lisbon University and PhD in Occupational and Environmental Health from New University of Lisbon. The author’s major field of study is occupational and environmental mycology leading and participating in several projects about both areas of expertise. Special interest are occupational exposure to fungi in highly contaminated settings and complementarity of conventional methods and molecular tools to assess fungi occupational exposure with several articles published or in press. Professor at Lisbon School of Health Technology, Director of the Occupational Health Master’s course and researcher at Environment and Health Research Group.

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Ana Pinheiro

Ana Pinheiro

Catarina Pinheiro has a degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Lisbon, a degree in Conservation and Restoration from the New University of Lisbon and a PhD on Conservation Science from the New University of Lisbon. The focus of the current project is the fungal contamination in Archives and how this environment can affect both the people and the historic documents deposited at these premises. Particular interests are fungal microbiology, indoor air quality, occupational exposure to fungi and risk analysis with several articles published or in press. Has also teaching experience, both in the Pharmacy field and in Cultural Heritage and related thematics.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Raquel Sabino

Raquel Sabino

Raquel Sabino graduated in Biology – Microbiology and Genetics by the University of Lisbon and PhD in Biology by Minho University. Specialized in clinical and environmental mycology, has been conducting research in these two areas of expertise. Professor in postgraduate courses covering these areas and also in environmental microbiology. Presently conducting research at the Portuguese Institute of Health and in California Institute of Medical Research / Stanford University in Aspergillus molecular epidemiology. Specialization domains are molecular epidemiology of Candida and Aspergillus, studies in clinical and environmental fungal isolates, regarding virulence and antifungal susceptibility pattern and related environmental health problems. One main interest of the author is also the nosocomial fungal infections. The author participated in several national and international projects and has several publications / communications in the referred areas of specialization.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Reference Unit for Parasitic and Fungal Infections - Department of Infectious Diseases, Lisbon, Portugal

Susana Viegas

Susana Viegas

Susana Viegas graduated in Environmental Health from Lisbon School of Health Technology - Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon has a Master degree in Safety and Ergonomics from Lisbon University and PhD in Occupational and Environmental Health from New University of Lisbon. The principal research topics of this author are chemical occupational exposures and indoor air quality. Director and Professor of Environmental Health Graduate Course of Lisbon School of Health Technology and Coordinator of Environment and Health Research Group. Published mostly on occupational and environmental exposure to chemical agents and nowadays developing research about occupational exposures to mycotoxins in different settings.

Affiliations and Expertise

Environment and Health Research Group - Lisbon School of Health Technology/Institute Polytechnic of Lisbon, Portugal

João Brandão

João Brandão

João Brandão graduated in Chemistry/Biotechnology, specialized in clinical mycology and environmental research work. Has been conducting research in these two areas of expertise, which also lectured at Lusófona University during 4 years (Genetics and Microbiology). Currently - staff of the National Institute of Health, Internal auditor for ISO 17025, and national delegate of the Portuguese Association of Medical Mycology to the European Confederation of Medical Mycology. Particular interest in sand microbiological quality as a biological reservoir of pathogens for recreational users. Has been busy with this subject for 11 years. Leading a monitoring sand programme promoted by the local Blue Flag organization until 2010. Leading R&D project on alternative methods to those currently used. Also very interested in nosocomial and endemic fungal infections as well as prevention and early molecular detection.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Reference Unit for Parasitic and Fungal Infections - Department of Infectious Diseases, Lisbon, Portugal

Cristina Veríssimo

Cristina Veríssimo

Cristina Veríssimo graduated in Biology from the University of Lisbon, specialized in environmental and clinical mycology. Has a masters degree in Human Biology and Environment on invasive aspergillosis. One of the pioneers in this area, the author participated in several national and international projects within environmental mycology, particularly in the project for monitoring the microbiological quality of the sands supported by the Portuguese Blue Flag association (ABAE) and in the ICREW European project financed by Interreg IIIB. Author of several publications in clinical and environmental mycology. Head of the Mycology Laboratory at the National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Reference Unit for Parasitic and Fungal Infections - Department of Infectious Diseases, Lisbon, Portugal