Environmental and Pollution Science

Environmental and Pollution Science

2nd Edition - April 11, 2006

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  • Authors: Ian Pepper, Charles Gerba, Mark Brusseau
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080494791

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Description

Environmental and Pollution Science, Second Edition, provides the latest information on the environmental influence of a significant number of subjects, and discusses their impact on a new generation of students. This updated edition of Pollution Science has been renamed to reflect a wider view of the environmental consequences we pay as a price for a modern economy. The authors have compiled the latest information to help students assess environmental quality using a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem. The book covers key topics such as the fate and transport of contaminants, monitoring and remediation of pollution, sources and characteristics of pollution, and risk assessment and management. It contains more than 400 color photographs and diagrams, numerous questions and problems, case studies, and highlighted keywords. This book is ideally suited for professionals and students studying the environment, especially as it relates to pollution as well as government workers and conservationists/ecologists.

Key Features

  • Emphasizes conceptual understanding of environmental impact, integrating the disciplines of biology, chemistry, and mathematics
  • Topics cover the fate and transport of contaminants; monitoring and remediation of pollution; sources and characteristics of pollution; and risk assessment and management
  • Includes color photos and diagrams, chapter questions and problems, and highlighted key words

Readership

Professionals and students studying the environment, especially as it relates to pollution; also government workers and conservationists/ecologists

Table of Contents

  • Part 1 Processes Affecting Fate and Transport of Contaminants

    Chapter 1 The Extent of Global Pollution

    1.1 Science and Pollution

    1.2 Global Perspective of the Environment

    1.3 Pollution and Population Pressures

    1.4 Overview of Environmental Characterization

    1.5 Advances in Analytical Detection Technology

    1.6 The Risk Based Approach to Pollution Science

    1.7 Waste Management, Site Remediation, and Ecosystem Restoration

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 2 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Soils and the Subsurface

    2.1 Soil and Subsurface Environments

    2.2 Solid Phase

    2.3 Gaseous Phase

    2.4 Liquid Phase

    2.5 Basic Physical Properties

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 3 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Waters

    3.1 The Watery Planet

    3.2 Unique Properties of Water

    3.3 Mechanical Properties

    3.4 The Universal Solvent

    3.5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

    3.6 Light in Aquatic Environments

    3.7 Oceans

    3.8 Lakes and Reservoirs—The Lentic System

    3.9 Streams and Rivers—The Lotic System

    3.10 Groundwater—Water in the Subsurface

    3.11 A Watershed Approach

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 4 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of the Atmosphere

    4.1 Chemical Composition

    4.2 Physical Properties and Structure

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 5 Biotic Characteristics of the Environment

    5.1 Major Groups of Organisms

    5.2 Microorganisms in Surface Soils

    5.3 Microorganisms in the Subsurface

    5.4 Biological Generation of Energy

    5.5 Soil as an Environment for Microbes

    5.6 Activity and Physiological State of Microbes in Soil

    5.7 Enumeration of Soil Bacteria via Dilution and Plating

    5.8 Microorganisms in Air

    5.9 Microorganisms in Surface Water

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 6 Physical Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate

    6.1 Contaminant Transport and Fate in the Environment

    6.2 Contaminant Properties

    6.3 Advection

    6.4 Dispersion

    6.5 Mass Transfer

    6.6 Transformation Reactions

    6.7 Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Contaminants

    6.8 Estimating Phase Distributions of Contaminants

    6.9 Quantifying Contaminant Transport and Fate

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 7 Chemical Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Basic Properties of Inorganic Contaminants

    7.3 Basic Properties of Organic Contaminants

    7.4 Sorption Processes

    7.5 Abiotic Transformation Reactions

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 8 Biological Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate

    8.1 Biological Effects on Pollutants

    8.2 The Overall Process of Biodegradation

    8.3 Microbial Activity and Biodegradation

    8.4 Biodegradation Pathways

    8.5 Transformation of Metal Pollutants

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Part 2 Monitoring, Assessment, and Regulation of Environmental Pollution

    Chapter 9 Physical Contaminants

    9.1 Particle Origins

    9.2 Particle Size

    9.3 Particles in Air or Aerosols

    9.4 Particulates in Water

    9.5 Summary

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 10 Chemical Contaminants

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Types of Contaminants

    10.3 Sources: Agricultural Activities

    10.4 Sources: Industrial and Manufacturing Activities

    10.5 Sources: Municipal Waste

    10.6 Sources: Service-Related Activities

    10.7 Sources: Resource Extraction/Production

    10.8 Sources: Radioactive Contaminants

    10.9 Natural Sources of Contaminants

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 11 Microbial Contaminants

    11.1 Water-Related Microbial Disease

    11.2 Classes of Diseases and Types of Pathogens

    11.3 Types of Pathogenic Organisms

    11.4 Sources of Pathogens in the Environment

    11.5 Fate and Transport of Pathogens in the Environment

    11.6 Standards and Criteria for Indicators

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 12

    The Role of Environmental Monitoring in Pollution Science

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Sampling and Monitoring Basics

    12.3 Statistics and Geostatistics

    12.4 Sampling and Monitoring Tools

    12.5 Soil and Vadose Zone Sampling and Monitoring

    12.6 Groundwater Sampling and Monitoring

    12.7 Surface Water Sampling and Monitoring

    12.8 Atmosphere Sampling and Monitoring

    12.9 Conclusions

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 13 Environmental Toxicology

    13.1 History of Modern Toxicity in the United States

    13.2 Toxic Versus Nontoxic

    13.3 Exposure and Dose

    13.4 Evaluation of Toxicity

    13.5 Responses to Toxic Substances

    13.6 Carcinogens

    13.7 Mutagens

    13.8 Teratogens

    13.9 Chemical Toxicity: General Considerations

    13.10 Chemical Toxicity: Selected Substances

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 14 Risk Assessment

    14.1 The Concept of Risk Assessment

    14.2 The Process of Risk Assessment

    14.3 Ecological Risk Assessment

    14.4 Microbial Risk Assessment

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 15 Environmental Laws and Regulations

    15.1 Regulatory Overview

    15.2 The Safe Drinking Water Act

    15.3 The Clean Water Act

    15.4 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    15.5 Federal Insecticide and Rodenticide Act

    15.6 Clean Air Act

    15.7 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    15.8 The Pollution Prevention Act

    15.9 Other Regulatory Agencies and Accords

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Part 3 Land and Water Pollution Mitigation

    Chapter 16 Soil and Land Pollution

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Surface Mining

    16.2.1 Mine Tailings

    16.2.2 Air Emissions

    16.3 Deforestation

    16.4 Soil Acidity—Salinity

    16.5 Soil Erosion

    16.6 Agricultural Activities

    16.7 Animal Wastes

    16.8 Industrial Wastes With High Salts and Organics

    16.9 Invasive Species

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 17 Subsurface Pollution

    17.1 Groundwater as a Resource

    17.2 Groundwater Pollution

    17.3 Groundwater Pollution Risk Assessment

    17.4 Point-Source Contamination

    17.4.1 Hazardous Organic Chemicals

    17.5 Diffuse-Source Contamination

    17.6 Other Groundwater Contamination Problems

    17.7 Sustainability of Groundwater Resources

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 18 Surface Water Pollution

    18.1 Surface Freshwater Resources

    18.2 Marine Water Resources

    18.3 Sources of Surface Water Pollution

    18.4 Sediments as Surface Water Contaminants

    18.6 Nutrients and Eutrophication of Surface Waters

    18.7 Organic Compounds in Water

    18.8 Enteric Pathogens as Surface Water Contaminants

    18.9 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

    18.10 Quantification of Surface Water Pollution

    18.11 Determining BOD

    18.12 Dilution of Effluents

    18.13 Dye Tracing of Plumes

    18.14 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Plume Concentrations

    18.15 Compliance Monitoring

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 19 Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Superfund Process

    19.3 Site Characterization

    19.4 Remediation Technologies

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 20 Ecosystem Restoration and Land Reclamation

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Site Characterization

    20.3 Site Restoration

    20.4 Site Monitoring

    20.5 Approaches to Ecosystem Restoration

    20.6 Land Reclamation

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Part 4 Atmospheric Pollution

    Chapter 21 Sensory Pollutants, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiofrequency Radiation

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Heat

    21.3 Light

    21.4 Noise Pollution

    21.5 Odor as a Sensory Pollutant

    21.6 Electromagnetic Fields and Radiofrequency Radiation

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 22 Indoor Air Quality

    22.1 Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality

    22.2 Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants

    22.3 Factors Influencing Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution

    22.4 Monitoring IAQ

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 23 Atmospheric Pollution

    23.1 Air Pollution Concepts

    23.2 Sources, Types, and Effects of Air Pollution

    23.3 Weather and Pollutants

    23.4 Pollution Trends in the United States

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 24 Global Change

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect

    24.3 Other Global Changes

    24.4 Solutions to the Problems of Global Environmental Change

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Part 5 Waste and Water Treatment and Management

    Chapter 25 Industrial and Municipal Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Relevant Regulations for Industrial and Municipal Solid Wastes

    25.3 Major Forms of Industrial Wastes

    25.4 Treatment and Disposal of Industrial Wastes

    25.5 Reuse of Industrial Wastes

    25.6 Treatment and Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste

    25.7 Pollution Prevention

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 26 Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    26.1 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage)

    26.2 Modern Wastewater Treatment

    26.3 Oxidation Ponds

    26.4 Septic Tanks

    26.5 Land Application of Wastewater

    26.6 Wetlands and Aquaculture Systems

    26.7 Sludge Processing

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 27 Land Application of Biosolids and Animal Wastes

    27.1 Biosolids and Animal Wastes: A Historical Perspective and Current Outlook

    27.2 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage)

    27.3 Wastewater (Sewage) Treatment

    27.4 Methods of Land Application of Biosolids

    27.5 Benefits of Land Application of Biosolids

    27.6 Hazards of Land Application of Biosolids

    27.7 Sources of Animal Wastes

    27.8 Nonpoint Versus Point Source Pollution

    27.9 Benefits of Land Application of Animal Wastes

    27.10 Hazards of Land Application of Animal Wastes

    27.11 Public Perceptions of Land Application

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 28 Drinking Water Treatment and Water Security

    28.1 Water Treatment Processes

    28.2 Disinfection

    28.3 Factors Affecting Disinfectants

    28.4 Halogens

    28.5 Disinfection By-Products

    28.6 Residential Water Treatment

    28.7 Water Security

    28.8 Monitoring Community Water Quality

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Part 6 Emerging Issues in Pollution Science

    Chapter 29 Genetically Engineered Crops and Microbes

    29.1 Introduction to Nucleic Acids

    29.2 Recombinant DNA Technology

    29.3 Transfer of Nucleic Acid Sequences from One Organism to Another (Cloning)

    29.4 Chemical Synthesis, Sequencing and Amplification of DNA

    29.5 Heterologous Gene Expression in Pro- and Eukaryotes

    29.6 Genetically Engineered Plants for Agriculture

    29.7 Genetically Engineered Plants for Remediation

    29.8 Microbial-Assisted Remediation

    29.9 Potential Problems Due to Genetically Modified Organisms

    29.10 Summary

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 30 Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Gene Transfer

    30.1 Why Are Antibiotics An Issue?

    30.2 Classification and Function of Antibiotics

    30.3 Development of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    30.4 Transfer of Genetic Material by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    30.5 Prevalent Environments Favoring HGT

    30.6 Isolation and Detection of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    30.7 Incidence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Various Environments

    30.8 Gene Transfer Between Bacteria—How Prelevants It?

    30.9 Summary and Conclusions

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 31 Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors

    31.1 Endocrine Disruptors and Hormones

    31.2 Significance of EDCs in Water

    31.3 Incidence of EDCs in Water

    31.4 Fate and Transport of Estrogenic Compounds in Municipal Wastewater

    31.5 Methods for Measuring Estrogenic Activity in Water

    31.6 What are the Risk of EDCs?

    Questions and Problems

    References and Additional Reading

    Chapter 32 Epilogue: Is the Future of Pollution History?

    32.1 The Role of Government in Controlling Pollution

    32.2 Research Priorities Necessary to Protect Human Health

    32.3 Pollution Prevention of Earth, Air, and Water

    32.4 Is the Future of Pollution History?

Product details

  • No. of pages: 552
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: April 11, 2006
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080494791

About the Authors

Ian Pepper

Ian Pepper
Dr. Ian Pepper is currently a Professor at the University of Arizona. He is also Director of the University of Arizona, Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) and the NSF Water and Environmental Technology (WET) Center. Dr. Pepper is an environmental microbiologist specializing in the molecular ecology of the environment. His research has focused on the fate and transport of pathogens in air, water, soils and wastes. His expertise has been recognized by membership on six National Academy of Science Committees and former memberships on an EPA FIFRA Science and Advisory Panel. Dr. Pepper is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Microbiology, the Soil Science Society of America, and the American Society of Agronomy. He is also a Board Certified Environmental Scientist within the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists. He is the author or co-author of six textbooks; 40 book chapters; and over 180 peer-review journal articles.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Charles Gerba

Charles Gerba
Dr. Charles P. Gerba is a Professor at the University of Arizona. He conducts research the transmission of pathogens through the environment. His recent research encompasses the transmission of pathogens by water, food and fomites; fate of pathogens in land applied wastes; development of new disinfectants; domestic microbiology and microbial risk assessment. He has been an author on more than 500 articles including several books in environmental microbiology and pollution science. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1998 he received the A. P. Black Award from the American Water Works Association for outstanding contributions to water science and in 1996 he received the McKee medal from the Water Environment Federation for outstanding contributions to groundwater protection. He received the 1999 Award of Excellence in Environmental Health from National Association of County and City Health Officials.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Mark Brusseau

Dr Mark Brusseau’s work is focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological factors and processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminants in the subsurface environment. At the university he also teaches courses on Contaminant Transport in Porous Media as well as Soil and Groundwater Remediation. He has published over 250 works, and is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the Soil Science Society of America.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona at Tucson, USA

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Kachi C. Sun Jul 19 2020

    Miss

    I love your book it's really an eye opener.

  • Dr. A. Fri Oct 19 2018

    Book is indispensable

    I consider this book to be one of the best environmental pollution books in the world; it was rich with scientific information about pollution I did not know before. It is a very important and necessary book for those interested in environmental pollution. I am currently teaching it to the students of Basra University in Iraq.