Ensuring Global Food Safety

Ensuring Global Food Safety

Exploring Global Harmonization

2nd Edition - February 10, 2022

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  • Editors: Aleksandra Martinovic, Sangsuk Oh, Huub Lelieveld
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128160121
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128160114

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Description

Ensuring Global Food Safety: Exploring Global Harmonization, Second Edition, examines the policies and practices of food law which remain top contributors to food waste. This fully revised and updated edition offers a rational and multifaceted approach to the science-based issue of "what is safe for consumption?" and how creating a globally acceptable framework of microbiological, toxicological and nutritional standards can contribute to the alleviation of hunger and food insecurity in the world. Currently, many laws and regulations are so stringent that healthy food is destroyed based on scientifically incorrect information upon which laws and regulations are based. This book illuminates these issues, offering guidelines for moving toward a scientifically sound approach to food safety regulation that can also improve food security without putting consumers at risk.

Key Features

  • Presents the progress and current status of regulatory harmonization for food standards
  • Provides a science-based foundation for global regulatory consensus
  • Approaches challenges from a risk-benefit approach, also including safety assurance
  • Includes global perspectives from governmental, academic and industry experts

Readership

Governmental policy-makers, researchers and academics addressing the concerns of food insecurity around the world; lawyers, legal departments of multinational companies; companies that export and import food; food quality and safety laboratories

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • Chapter 1. Introduction: Ensuring global food safety: A public health priority and a global responsibility
  • Chapter 2. Safety and security: the costs and benefits of traceability and transparency in the food chain
  • 2.1. The burden of foodborne outbreaks
  • 2.2. The food supply chain: increasing risk
  • 2.3. Working toward traceability and transparency
  • 2.4. The costs associated to a lack of traceability
  • 2.5. Benefits beyond food safety
  • 2.6. More operational efficiency
  • Chapter 3. Food regulation around the world
  • Chapter 3.1. Introduction
  • Chapter 3.2. International food law
  • Chapter 3.3. United States of America
  • Chapter 3.4. Canada
  • Chapter 3.5. The road to harmonization in Latin America
  • Chapter 3.6. European Union
  • Chapter 3.7. Turkey
  • Chapter 3.8. The Russian Federation
  • Chapter 3.9. Azerbaijan
  • Chapter 3.10. Australia and New Zealand
  • Chapter 3.11. People's Republic of China
  • Chapter 3.12. Republic of Korea
  • Chapter 3.13. Japan
  • Chapter 3.14. India
  • Chapter 3.15. Pakistan
  • Chapter 3.16. Eastern Africa
  • Chapter 3.17. Republic of South Africa
  • Chapter 3.18. Private food law
  • Chapter 3.19. Conclusions
  • Chapter 4. The global harmonization initiative
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Food and nutrient security
  • 4.3. International standards
  • 4.4. The global harmonization initiative
  • 4.5. GHI association
  • 4.6. GHI ambassador programme
  • 4.7. GHI working groups
  • 4.8. GHI library
  • 4.9. Conclusion
  • Chapter 5. Food safety regulations within countries of increasing global supplier impact
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Regulations of global food suppliers by international law and standards
  • 5.3. Regulations of global food suppliers by domestic laws
  • 5.4. Conclusion: supplier change and global food safety regulation
  • Chapter 6. A simplified guide to understanding and using food safety objectives and performance objectives
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Good practices and hazard analysis critical control point
  • 6.3. Setting public health goals—the concept of appropriate level of protection
  • 6.4. Food safety objectives
  • 6.5. Performance objectives
  • 6.6. The difference between food safety objectives, performance objectives, and microbiological criteria
  • 6.7. Responsibility for setting a food safety objective
  • 6.8. Setting a performance objective
  • 6.9. Responsibility for compliance with the food safety objective
  • 6.10. Meeting the food safety objective
  • 6.11. Not all food safety objectives are feasible
  • 6.12. Concluding remarks
  • 6.13. About the ICMSF
  • Chapter 7. Regulating emerging food trends: a case study in insects as food for humans
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Where and what?
  • 7.3. Why eating insects?
  • 7.4. The consumers are having a say
  • 7.5. Regulatory aspects regarding insects for human consumption
  • 7.6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 8. Some thoughts on the potential of global harmonization of antimicrobials regulation with a focus on chemical foodsafety
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Global estimates of antimicrobials in food animals—the wrong and the right trousers
  • 8.3. The “nature” of antimicrobials
  • 8.4. A precautionary tale and chloramphenicol
  • 8.5. Risk profile of foods containing CAP—of exposure levels and toxicological models
  • 8.6. Toward a straightforward resolution—Intended Normal Use
  • Chapter 9. Substantiating regular, qualified, and traditional health claims
  • 9.1. Introduction and background
  • 9.2. When truth and certainty must compete
  • 9.3. Qualifying the certainty of information
  • 9.4. RCT's and plausibility
  • 9.5. Traditional medicinal products in the EU
  • 9.6. Health claims based on traditional use
  • 9.7. Basic evidential requirements
  • 9.8. Qualifying the expert
  • 9.9. Reliability of the expert's opinion
  • 9.10. Principles and methodology
  • 9.11. Degree of scrutiny
  • 9.12. Extrapolating results obtained in diseased subjects
  • 9.13. Plausibility
  • 9.14. The way forward
  • Chapter 10. Benefits and risks of organic food
  • 10.1. The modern food market
  • 10.2. Why organic food?
  • 10.3. Organic food production and market
  • 10.4. Impact and benefits of organic food
  • 10.5. Limitations, gaps, and future research
  • 10.6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 11. Mycotoxin management: an international challenge
  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. Mycotoxin regulations
  • 11.3. Harmonized regulations
  • 11.4. Trade impact of regulations
  • 11.5. Technical assistance
  • 11.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 12. Novel food processing technologies and regulatory hurdles
  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Novel technologies
  • 12.3. Nonthermal technologies
  • 12.4. Thermal technologies
  • 12.5. Legislative issues concerning novel technologies
  • 12.6. Global harmonization concerning novel technologies
  • 12.7. Final remarks
  • Chapter 13. Processing issues: acrylamide, furan, and trans fatty acids
  • 13.1. Introduction
  • 13.2. Acrylamide
  • 13.3. Furan
  • 13.4. Trans fatty acids
  • 13.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 14. Food safety and regulatory survey of food additives and other substances in human food
  • 14.1. Introduction
  • Chapter 15. Food contact materials legislation: sanitary aspects
  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. FCMs legislation in the European Union
  • 15.3. The Council of Europe technical recommendations on FCMs
  • 15.4. FCMs legislation in the United States
  • 15.5. FCMs legislation in the MERCOSUR
  • 15.6. FCMs legislation in Japan
  • 15.7. FCMs legislation in China
  • 15.8. Comparison of FCMs legislations
  • 15.9. Conclusions—harmonization, mutual recognition, and new legislations
  • List of acronyms
  • Chapter 16. Nanotechnology and food safety
  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Nanotechnology and food systems
  • 16.3. Current status of regulation of nanomaterials in food
  • 16.4. Hurdles in evaluation and regulation of the use of nanotechnology in foods
  • 16.5. Future developments and challenges
  • Chapter 17. Monosodium glutamate in foods and its biological importance
  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. Umami taste
  • 17.3. Glutamate in human metabolism
  • 17.4. Nutritional studies
  • 17.5. Toxicological studies
  • 17.6. Sensitivity
  • 17.7. Health effects
  • 17.8. Other effects
  • 17.9. Safety evaluations
  • 17.10. Labeling issues
  • 17.11. Future perspective
  • Chapter 18. Responding to incidents of low-level chemical contamination and deliberate contamination in food
  • 18.1. Introduction
  • 18.2. Risk analysis
  • 18.3. General control measures for chemicals
  • 18.4. Case study 1
  • 18.5. Case study 2
  • 18.6. Case study 3
  • 18.7. Conclusion
  • Chapter 19. Nutraceuticals: possible future ingredients and food safety aspects
  • 19.1. Introduction
  • 19.2. What are nutraceuticals?
  • 19.3. Supposed health effects
  • 19.4. Challenges
  • 19.5. Regulations and safety issues
  • 19.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 20. Nutrition and bioavailability: sense and nonsense of nutrition labeling
  • 20.1. Introduction
  • 20.2. Scope
  • 20.3. Methodology
  • 20.4. Structure of the review
  • 20.5. Overview of nutrition labeling
  • 20.6. Nutrition labeling in different countries
  • 20.7. Consumer understanding and use of nutrition labels
  • 20.8. Bioavailability and nutrition label
  • 20.9. Conclusion
  • 20.10. Future scope
  • Chapter 21. The first legislation for foods with health claims in Korea
  • 21.1. Background
  • 21.2. Health/Functional Food Act
  • 21.3. Health claims allowed for HFFs
  • 21.4. Scientific substantiation of health claims for HFFs
  • 21.5. Future directions
  • Chapter 22. Bioactivity, benefits, and safety of traditional and ethnic foods
  • 22.1. Introduction
  • 22.2. Objective
  • 22.3. Scope
  • 22.4. Methodology
  • 22.5. Structure of the review
  • 22.6. Food and chronic diseases
  • 22.7. Biological mechanism of bioactive food compounds
  • 22.8. Bioactive food compounds in traditional/ethnic foods
  • 22.9. Conclusion
  • 22.10. Future scope
  • Chapter 23. Water determination in food
  • 23.1. Introduction
  • 23.2. Water content
  • 23.3. Water determination in dairy powders
  • 23.4. Water content determination by near-infrared spectroscopy
  • 23.5. Summary
  • Chapter 24. Global harmonization of analytical methods
  • 24.1. Introduction
  • 24.2. Methods for establishing the basic composition, quality, or economic value of foods
  • 24.3. Methods for establishing the nutrient content of foods
  • 24.4. Methods for detecting or confirming the absence of contaminants in foods
  • 24.5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 25. Global harmonization of the control of microbiological risks
  • 25.1. Introduction
  • 25.2. Microbiological food safety management
  • 25.3. Emerging foodborne pathogens
  • 25.4. Microbiological criteria
  • 25.5. Microbiological testing
  • 25.6. Validation of microbiological methods
  • 25.7. Harmonization of global regulations for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods
  • 25.8. Conclusion
  • Chapter 26. Testing for food safety using human competent liver cells (HepG2): a review
  • 26.1. Introduction
  • 26.2. Assessment of human food safety and the current problems using existing in vitro and in vivo assays
  • 26.3. Human HepG2 cell system
  • 26.4. Specific features of human HepG2 cells
  • 26.5. Validation and application of human HepG2 cells and their S9-fractions in genetic toxicology studies for assessing food safety
  • 26.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 27. Capacity building: Harmonization and achieving food safety in an era of unilateral legislation
  • 27.1. Introduction
  • 27.2. Capacity building
  • 27.3. The role of multilateral agreements in achieving food safety
  • 27.4. Unilateral food safety legislation for promoting capacity building
  • 27.5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 28. Capacity building: building analytical capacity for microbial food safety
  • 28.1. Introduction
  • 28.2. Significance of microbial food safety
  • 28.3. Staphylococcus and its species
  • 28.4. Listeria monocytogenes
  • 28.5. Bacillus cereus
  • 28.6. Capacity building in India
  • Chapter 29. Role of education and training of food handlers in improving food safety and nutrition: the Indian experience
  • 29.1. Food environment: dietary and nutrition transition as prime determinants of food behavior
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: February 10, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128160121
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128160114

About the Editors

Aleksandra Martinovic

Aleksandra Martinovic,Associate Professor, Faculty of Food Technology, Food Safety and Ecology - ‎University of Donja Gorica Dr Aleksandra Martinović's research interest focuses on the practical application of fundamental knowledge in the field of food safety, microbiology of food, and the development and implementation of new technologies in the food industry. The Ambassador is the Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI) for Montenegro, the Chair of the Global Interest Harmonization Group (SIG) and the Task Team (TT) Scientific Committees in the European Federation of Food Science and Technology the European Federation of Food Science and Technology, chairman of the meat hygiene working group within the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG). She is a member of a specialized fish processing group within the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group (EHEDG). Dr Martinovic has independently or as a co-author published dozens of scientific papers, a chapter in a scientific monograph issued abroad, a textbook for pre-university level of education, and a study manual.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Faculty of Food Technology, Food Safety and Ecology, ‎University of Donja Gorica

Sangsuk Oh

Professor at the department of Food and Nutrition at Ewha Womans University and former official at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor at the department of Food and Nutrition at Ewha Womans University

Huub Lelieveld

Prof. dr. h.c. Huub Lelieveld, formerly with Unilever, now President of the Global Harmonization Initiative, a non-governmental organisation working towards globally harmonised and science based food safety regulations, is also a member of the Executive Committee and Past-President of EFFoST (the European Federation of Food Science and Technology), Founder and Past-President of EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group). He is Fellow of IAFoST (the International Academy of Food Science and Technology), Fellow of IFT (the Institute of Food Technologists), served on the Governing Council of IUFoST (the International Union of Food Science and Technology) and has been Chair of the Nonthermal Processing and International divisions of IFT. At Unilever, he was responsible for hygienic processing and plant design and novel processing technologies. He is editor or co-editor of many books, on food hygiene, food safety and food processing technologies. He also wrote many chapters for such books as well as hundreds of articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and in relevant magazines. He is visiting professor at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

formerly Unilever R&D, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

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