Engineering in Rock Masses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750619653, 9781483105192

Engineering in Rock Masses

1st Edition

Editors: F G Bell
eBook ISBN: 9781483105192
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 14th March 1994
Page Count: 592
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Engineering in Rock Masses is a 26-chapter text that deals with the behavior, investigation, and construction of rock masses.

The first chapters review the properties, behavior, classification, and occurrence of groundwater in rock masses. The subsequent chapters discuss the stress analysis, exploration, laboratory testing, geophysical methods, and instrumentation in these materials. These topics are followed by discussions of slope stability, rockfall problems, settlement and bearing capacity, subsidence, and seismic movements of rocks and rock masses. This work also evaluates the role of pumping system, ground freezing, grouting, rock anchors, drilling, blasting, and open excavation. The remaining chapters look into the rock masses’ tunneling, underground chambers, shafts, socketed foundations, and retaining structures.

This book will be of great value to practicing civil and mining engineers, engineering geologists, and researchers.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

1 Properties and Behavior of Rocks and Rock Masses

1.1 Geological Aspects: Igneous Rocks

1.2 Geological Aspects: Metamorphic Rocks

1.3 Geological Aspects: Sedimentary Rocks

1.4 Factors Controlling the Mechanical Behavior of Rocks

1.5 Deformation and Failure of Rocks

1.6 Strength of Discontinuous Rock Masses and its Assessment


2 Influence of Weathering and Discontinuities on the Behavior of Rock Masses


2.1 Rate of Weathering

2.2 Mechanical Weathering

2.3 Chemical and Biological Weathering

2.4 Slaking and Swelling of Mudrocks

2.5 Engineering Classification of Weathering


2.6 Nomenclature of Joints

2.7 Origins of Joints

2.8 Description of Jointed Rock Masses

2.9 Discontinuities and Rock Quality Indices

2.10 Recording Discontinuity Data


3 Description and Classification of Rock Masses

3.1 Description of Rocks and Rock Masses

3.2 Properties of Rocks and Rock Masses

3.3 Basic Geotechnical Description of ISRM

3.4 Principles of Classification

3.5 Review of Classifications

3.6 The Rating Concept


4 Groundwater in Rock Masses

4.1 Basic Concepts

4.2 Hydrodynamics of Porous and Equivalent Media

4.3 Discontinuous Media

4.4 Hydromechanical Coupling


5 Block Theory in Rock Engineering

5.1 Properties of a Rock Mass and Computational Possibilities

5.2 Stereographic Projection

5.3 Block Theory

5.4 Case I: Analysis Given Only the Orientations of the Joints

5.5 Case II: Further Analysis Given the Joint Friction Angles

5.6 Case III: Further Analysis to Define Real Keyblocks Given the Locations of Joint Traces

5.7 Case IV: Further Analysis for Known Initial Stress, Joint Dilatancy or Rock Permeability - the Block Reaction Curve

5.8 An Example

5.9 Conclusions


6 Stress Analysis for Rock Masses

6.1 Purpose

6.2 In situ State of Stress

6.3 Classical Stress Analysis

6.4 Zone of Influence of an Excavation

6.5 Excagvation Shape and Boundary Stresses

6.6 Rock Structure and Boundary Stresses

6.7 Computational Methods of Stress Analysis

6.8 Boundary Element Method

6.9 Finite Difference and Distinct Element Methods

6.10 Finite Element Method


7 Exploration and Investigation of Rock Masses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Methodology for Rock-Mass Investigation

7.3 Methods for the Study of Rock Masses


Further Reading

8 Laboratory Testing of Rocks

8.1 Density and Porosity

8.2 Water Sorption and Capillarity

8.3 Permeability

8.4 Durability of Weak Rocks

8.5 Compressive and Shear Strength

8.6 Hardness

8.7 Elastic Properties


9 Rock-Mass Assessment Using Geophysical Methods

9.1 Geomechanical Properties

9.2 Geophysical Properties

9.3 Surface Geophysical Methods

9.4 Drillhole Geophysical Methods

9.5 Geophysical Classification


10 Instrumentation in Rock Masses

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Measurement of Groundwater Level and Pore Water Pressure

10.3 Measurement of Stress and Strain in Rock Masses

10.4 Stress-Change Measurements

10.5 Measurement of Displacement



11 Slope Stability and Rockfall Problems in Rock Masses

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Slope Stability in Rock Masses

11.3 Rockfalls

11.4 Conclusions


12 Settlement and Bearing Capacity of Rock Masses

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Geological Characterization

12.3 Geomechanical Models

12.4 Settlement of Foundations on Rock

12.5 Axial Compression Capacity of Foundations

12.6 Uplift Capacity

12.7 Lateral Capacity

12.8 Acknowledgements


13 Subsidence in Rock Masses

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Subsidence Due to Coal Mining

13.3 Subsidence in Metalliferous Mining

13.4 Subsidence Due to the Abstraction of Fluids

13.5 Methods of Subsidence Prediction


14 Seismic Movements and Rock Masses

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Basic Principles of Seismic Action

14.3 Analysis - an Overview

14.4 Earthquakes and Foundations in Rock

14.5 Earthquakes and Natural Rock Slopes

14.6 Earthquakes and Open-Pit Mining

14.7 Earthquakes, Caverns and Tunnels

14.8 Design to Improve Resistance to Earthquakes


15 Control of Groundwater in Rock Masses by Pumping Systems

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Overburden and Open-Cast Mining

15.3 Some Aspects of Soil Structure of Alluvials

15.4 Rock Types and Groundwater

15.5 Engineering Precautions

15.6 Initial Investigation

15.7 Underground Water in Rocks

15.8 System Design Guidelines

15.9 Summary



16 Ground Freezing

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Freezing Methods

16.3 Hydrogeology and Ground Freezing

16.4 Design of a Frozen Wall

16.5 Placing Concrete Against Frozen Ground

16.6 Monitoring Frozen Ground


17 Grouting in Rock Masses

17.1 Nature and Purposes of Grouting

17.2 Site Investigation

17.3 When is Grouting Necessary?

17.4 Types of Grout

17.5 Cement Grouting Equipment

17.6 Stage Grouting and Methods

17.7 Closure Grouting

17.8 Grout Curtain Design

17.9 Grout Pressures

17.10 The Nature of Grout Penetration in Cracks

17.11 Water : Cement Ratio and its Effect on Durability

17.12 Grouting of Fine Cracks

17.13 Grouting of Stressed Rock

17.14 Assessment of Grouting

17.15 Some Words of Caution and Encouragement to the Inexperienced




18 Reinforcement and Support of Rock Masses

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Dowels

18.3 Rockbolts

18.4 Sprayed Mortar and Concrete



19 Rock Anchors

19.1 General Approach to Anchoring

19.2 The Components of an Anchor System

19.3 The Tendon System

19.4 The Mechanics of Load Mobilization

19.5 Anchors in Soft Rocks

19.6 Anchor Construction

19.7 Anchor Testing

19.8 Anchor Performance

19.9 Anchor Monitoring

19.10 Anchor Maintenance

19.11 Uncertainty in Anchor Use


20 Drilling and Blasting of Rock Masses

20.1 Drilling of Rock Masses

20.2 Blasting of Rock Masses

20.3 Explosives



21 Open Excavation in Rock Masses

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Groundwater and Excavation

21.3 Methods of Excavation: Drilling and Blasting

21.4 Methods of Excavation: Ripping

21.5 Diggability


22 Tunnelling in Rock Masses

22.1 General Approach for Tunnelling Projects

22.2 Site Investigations and Ground Probings

22.3 Excavation and Support Methods for Rock Tunnelling

22.4 Structural Design of Tunnels

22.5 In situ Monitoring and its Interpretation

22.6 Structural Detailing of the Lining

22.7 Documents for Tunnelling


23 Underground Chambers in Hard Rock Masses

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Benefits of Underground Chambers

23.3 Design and Construction Procedure for Underground Chambers

23.4 Site Characterization

23.5 Rock-Mass Classification

23.6 Rock-Engineering Considerations

23.7 Rock Support and Reinforcement

23.8 Application of Design and Construction Procedure to an Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel


24 Shafts and Raises in Rock Masses

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Shaft and Raise Design

24.3 Shaft and Raise Construction

24.4 Scenario of Shaft and Raise Construction


25 Socketed Foundations in Rock Masses

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Axial Loading

25.3 Lateral Loading

25.4 Design Example



26 Retaining Structures for Rock Masses

26.1 Introduction: General Aspects

26.2 Failure Modes in Rock Masses

26.3 Strength Parameters

26.4 Lateral Pressures on Retaining Structures

26.5 Effects of Surcharge Loading

26.6 Effect of Slope Creep

26.7 Stability of Retaining Structures

26.8 Monolithic Retaining Walls

26.9 Special Types of Retaining Walls

26.10 Composite Retaining Structures

26.11 Rock Reinforcement, Rock Anchoring

26.12 Dowelling of Rock Bodies

26.13 Rock Grouting

26.14 Spaced and Single Restraining Structures

26.15 Protective Structures for Bridges and Masts

26.16 Accompanying Measures

26.17 Final Remarks

References and Further Reading



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1992
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

F G Bell

Affiliations and Expertise

Formerly University of Natal, South Africa