Engine Testing

Engine Testing

The Design, Building, Modification and Use of Powertrain Test Facilities

4th Edition - March 5, 2012

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  • Authors: A. J. Martyr, M.A. PLINT
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969497
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969503

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Description

Engine Testing is a unique, well-organized and comprehensive collection of the different aspects of engine and vehicle testing equipment and infrastructure for anyone involved in facility design and management, physical testing and the maintenance, upgrading and trouble shooting of testing equipment. Designed so that its chapters can all stand alone to be read in sequence or out of order as needed, Engine Testing is also an ideal resource for automotive engineers required to perform testing functions whose jobs do not involve engine testing on a regular basis. This recognized standard reference for the subject is now enhanced with new chapters on hybrid testing, OBD (on-board diagnostics) and sensor signals from modern engines.

Key Features

  • One of few books dedicated to engine testing and a true, recognized market-leader on the subject
  • Covers all key aspects of this large topic, including test-cell design and setup, data management, and dynamometer selection and use, with new chapters on hybrid testing, OBD (on-board diagnostics) and sensor signals from modern engines
  • Brings together otherwise scattered information on the theory and practice of engine testing into one up-to-date reference for automotive engineers who must refer to such knowledge on a daily basis

Readership

Automotive engineers assigned to install and manage test equipment although it is not their main job; Test facility managers, engine and component designers, test engineers, lab technicians, and emission technicians; Graduate students and researchers involved in engine testing

Table of Contents

  • Foreword to the Fourth Edition

    About the Authors

    Introduction

    Chapter 1. Test Facility Specification, System Integration, and Project Organization

    Introduction: The Role of the Test Facility

    Part 1. The Specification of Test Powertrain Facilities

    Part 2. Multidisciplinary Project Organization and Roles

    Summary

    Chapter 2. Quality and H&S Legislation and Management, Type Approval, Test Correlation, and Reporting of Results

    Test Facility Efficiency and Quality Certification

    Management Roles

    Work Scheduling

    Health & Safety (H&S) Legislation, Management, and Risk Assessment

    Common Hazards in All Powertrain Facilities

    Risk Analysis

    Management and Supervision of University Test Facilities

    Use and Maintenance of Test Cell Log Books

    Test Execution, Analysis, and Reporting

    Determination of Cause and Effect

    Key Life Testing

    Vehicle and Vehicle Systems Type Approval, Homologation, and Confirmation of Production

    Cell-to-Cell Correlation

    End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) Directive

    Power Test Codes and Correction Factors

    Statistical Design of Experiments

    Useful Websites and Regulations

    Further Reading

    Chapter 3. The Test Cell as a Thermodynamic System

    Introduction

    The Energy Balance of the Engine

    Diversity Factor and the Final Specification of a Facility Energy Balance

    Common or Individual Services in Multi-Cell Laboratories?

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Chapter 4. Powertrain Test Facility Design and Construction

    Part 1. Cell Types, Sizes, and Layout

    Part 2. Cell Contents and Fittings

    Part 3. Test Cell Roles and their Special Features

    Part 4. Fire Safety and Fire Suppression in Test Facilities: European Atex Codes Applied to Engine Test Cells

    Useful Websites

    Chapter 5. Electrical Design Requirements of Test Facilities

    Introduction

    The Electrical Engineer’s Design Role

    General Characteristics of the Electrical Installation

    Physical Environment

    Electrical Signal and Measurement Interference

    Earthing System Design

    The Layout of Cabling

    Integration of AC Dynamometer Systems

    Supply Interconnection of Disturbing and Sensitive Devices

    Power Cable Material and Bend Radii

    Electrical Power Supply Specification

    Electrical Cabinet Ventilation

    European Safety Standards and CE Marking

    Safety Interaction Matrix

    Useful Texts on EMC Suitable for Electrical Engineers Involved with Test Facility Design

    Chapter 6. Ventilation and Air-Conditioning in Powertrain Test Facilities

    Part 1. Test Cell Ventilation Strategies

    Part 2. Design of Ventilation Ducts and Distribution Systems

    Part 3. Combustion Air (Ca) Treatment and Climatic Cells

    Summary

    Notation

    Further Reading

    Chapter 7. Test Cell Cooling Water and Exhaust Gas Systems

    Part 1. Cooling Water Supply Systems

    Part 2. Exhaust Gas Systems

    Part 3. Turbocharger Testing

    Chapter 8. Fuel and Oil Storage, Supply and Treatment

    Introduction

    Bulk Fuel Storage and Supply Systems

    Decommissioning of Underground Fuel Tanks

    Auditing of Fuel Use

    Fuel Pipes

    Storage and Treatment of Residual Fuels

    Storage of Biofuels

    Reference Fuel Drums

    Natural Gas (NG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

    Fuel Supply to the Test Cell

    In-Cell Fuel Systems

    Engine Fuel Pressure Control

    Engine Fuel Temperature Control

    Engine Oil Cooling Systems

    Properties of Gasoline and “Shelf Life”

    Properties of Diesel Fuels

    Fuel Dyes and Coloring

    Safety Principles in Handling and Storing Volatile Fuels

    Further Reading

    Chapter 9. Vibration and Noise

    Part 1: Vibration and its Isolation

    Part 2: Noise and its Attenuation in Test Facilities

    Useful texts

    Further Reading

    Chapter 10. Dynamometers

    Introduction

    Trunnion-Mounted (Cradle2) Dynamometers

    Measurement of Torque Using In-Line Shafts or Torque Flanges

    Calibration and the Assessment of Errors in Torque Measurement

    Torque Measurement Under Accelerating and Decelerating Conditions

    Measurement of Rotational Speed

    One, Two, or Four Quadrant?

    Dynamometer Torque/Speed and Power/Speed Characteristics

    Pushing the Limits of Dynamometer Performance

    Water Quantity Required to Absorb a Given Power in Water Brakes

    Engine Cranking and Starting

    Choice of Dynamometer

    Classification of Dynamometer Types and their Working Principles

    Chapter 11. Rigging the Engine and Shaft Selection

    Part 1. Rigging of Electrical and Fluid Services Plus Engine Mountings

    Part 2. Selection of a Suitable Dynamometer Connecting Shaft

    Part 3. Flywheels and Engine Starting Systems

    Notation

    Further Reading

    Chapter 12. Test Cell Safety, Control, and Data Acquisition

    Part 1. Machinery and Control System Safety: Stopping, Starting, and Control in the Test Cell

    Part 2. Open- and Closed-Loop Control of Engine and Dynamometer

    Part 3. Test Control Software, Choosing Supplier, and Sequence Editing

    Part 4. Data Acquisition and the Transducer Chain

    Further Reading

    Chapter 13. Data Handling, the Use of Modeling, and Post-Test Processing

    Part 1. Data Collection and Transmission

    Part 2. Management of Data: Some General Principles

    Chapter 14. Measurement of Fuel, Combustion Air, and Oil Consumption

    Introduction

    Part 1. Measurement Instruments for Liquid Fuel Consumption

    Part 2. Measurement of Air Consumption and Gas Flows

    Notation Used in Air Consumption Calculations

    Further Reading

    Chapter 15. The Combustion Process and Combustion Analysis

    Introduction

    Single-Cylinder Research and “Optical” Engines

    Fundamental Influences on Combustion

    Total and Instantaneous Energy Release

    Cyclic Energy Release—Mean Effective Pressure (Indicated, Gross, and Pumping)

    Instantaneous Energy Release

    Computerized Engine Indicating Technology and Methodology

    Basic Circuit and Operation of Pressure Measurement Chain

    Ground Loops in Indication Equipment

    “Exact” Determination of True Top Dead Center Position

    Combustion Analysis Roles in IC Engines for Hybrid Vehicles

    Integration of Combustion Analysis Equipment within the Test Cell

    High-End Engine Calibration Cells

    Occasional use of Combustion Analysis in Test Cells

    Engine Indicating Pressure Transducers (EIPTS)

    Fuel Rail Pressure and “Shot Volume” Measurement

    Speed/Crank Angle Sensors

    Calculation for Combustion Analysis Test Results

    Notation

    Further Reading

    Chapter 16. Engine Exhaust Emissions

    Emission Legislation, Certification, and Test Processes

    Auxiliary Engine-Driven Units, Fitted or Omitted for the Emissions Test

    Legislation Classifications

    After-Market Emission Legislation

    Fuel Standards

    Basic Chemistry of Internal Combustion Engine Emissions

    Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

    Emissions from Diesel Engines

    Principles of Particulate Emissions Measurement

    Principles of Measurement and Analysis of Gaseous Emissions

    Exhaust “After-Treatment” Catalysts and Filters, Operation and Testing

    Testing of Post-Combustion Exhaust Systems and Devices

    Integration and Management of Exhaust Emission Instrumentation

    Calibration, Span Gases, Storing Gas Distribution System

    Gas Analyzers and “Emission Benches”

    Constant-Volume Sampling (CVS) Systems

    Health and Safety Implications and Interlocks for CVS Systems

    Temperature Soak Areas for Legislative Testing

    The European Exhaust Emissions Test Procedure (Passenger Cars)

    The US Federal Light-Duty Exhaust Emission Test Procedure (FTP-75)

    Heavy-Duty Test Procedures

    Exhaust Emissions of Marine Propulsion Diesel Engines

    ISO 8178 and Testing Emissions of Non-Road Vehicle Engines

    Vehicle Evaporative Emissions

    Implications of Choice of Site on Low-Level Emissions Testing

    Abbreviations

    References

    Further Reading

    Useful Addresses

    Chapter 17. Chassis or Rolling-Road Dynamometers

    Introduction

    Genesis of the Rolling-Road Dynamometer

    The Road Load Equation

    Calibration, Coast-Down, and Inertia Simulation

    Brake System Testers

    Tire-Testing Dynamometers

    Rolling Roads for In-Service Tuning and Assessment

    Rolling Roads for End-of-Line (EOL) Production Testing

    Chassis Dynamometers for Emissions Testing

    The Emission Dynamometer Cell and Environs

    Mileage Accumulation Facilities

    NVH and EMC Chassis Dynamometers

    Special Features of Chassis Dynamometers in Climatic Cells

    Flat-Track Chassis Dynamometers

    Independent Wheel Dynamometers

    Articulated Chassis Dynamometers

    Robot Drivers or Shifters

    The Installation of Chassis Dynamometers

    Chassis Dynamometer Cellar or Pit Design and Construction Details

    Design and Installation of Variable-Geometry (4 × 4) Dynamometers

    Drive Cabinet Housing

    Offloading and Positioning Chassis Dynamometer Units

    Tire Burst Detectors

    Loading and Emergency Brakes

    Vehicle Restraints

    Guarding and Safety

    Roll Surface Treatment

    Road Shells and Bump Strips

    Driver’s Aids

    Fire Suppression

    The Effect of Roll Diameter on Tire Contact Conditions

    Limitations of the Chassis Dynamometer

    Solar Heat Load Testing in Chassis Dynamometer Environmental Cells

    Chapter 18. Anechoic Test Cells

    Introduction

    Part 1. NVH Testing and Acoustic Test Facilities

    Part 2. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Test Facilities

    Further Reading

    Chapter 19. The Pursuit and Definition of Accuracy

    Introduction and Terms

    Analog Versus Digital

    Example: Measurement of Exhaust Temperature of a Diesel Engine

    Some General Principles

    Definition of Terms Relating to Accuracy

    Statements Regarding Accuracy: A Critical Examination

    Instrumental Accuracy: Manufacturers’ Claims

    Uncertainty

    Traceability

    Combination of Errors

    The Number of Significant Figures to be Quoted

    Absolute and Relative Accuracy

    The Cost of Accuracy: A Final Consideration

    Further Reading

    Chapter 20. Tribology, Fuel, and Lubrication Testing

    Introduction

    Calorific Value of Fuels

    Gaseous Fuels

    Lubricant Classification and Certification

    Tribology

    Oil Characteristics

    Fuel Contamination of Lubrication Oil

    Reference Fuels and Lubricants

    Designated Engines and Test Regimes in Fuel and Lube Testing

    Biofuels (see chapter 7 concerning storage of biofuels)

    Further Reading

    Chapter 21. Thermal Efficiency, Measurement of Heat, and Mechanical Losses

    Introduction

    Ideal Standard Cycles: Effect of Compression Ratio

    The Energy Balance of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Measurement of Mechanical Losses in Engines

    Summary

    Notation

    APPENDIX 1. Martyr’s Laws of Engineering Project Management

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: March 5, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969497
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080969503

About the Authors

A. J. Martyr

A. J. Martyr
A.J. (Tony) Martyr has been either the sole or a co-author of all editions of ‘Engine Testing’. For the last 50 years he has held senior technical positions in companies, internationally involved in the design and testing of automotive and marine powertrains. His published works include a book on Project Management, and papers on subjects covering Dynamometry and the International Transfer of Technology.

M.A. PLINT

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Lead Test Engineer, AVL Engine Instrumentation and Test Systems, UK

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  • JurajMisenka Mon Aug 05 2019

    Great!

    Great!