Endogenous Peptides and Learning and Memory Processes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124749801, 9780323144674

Endogenous Peptides and Learning and Memory Processes

1st Edition

Editors: Joe L. Jr. Martinez
eBook ISBN: 9780323144674
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 608
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Endogenous Peptides and Learning and Memory Processes presents the role of pituitary and central nervous system peptidergic systems in the modulation of memory and learning. This book discusses the various experimental findings concerning the role of peptides in attention, memory, conditioning, opiate tolerance, and amnesia. Organized into five parts encompassing 26 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the possible chemical relationship between melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This text then discusses the complex behavioral activities of ACTH involving processes that serve the adaptive abilities of the organism, such as memory, learning, motivation, attention, and arousal. Other chapters consider the possibility that post-training injection of some hormones may aid retention performance following training in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task. The final chapter deals with the various types of behavioral tests for studying the central nervous system effects of peptides. This book is a valuable resource for specialists, teachers, clinicians, and researchers in the fields of neuropharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, experimental psychology, and psychopharmacology.

Table of Contents




Part I ACTH and MSH

Chapter 1 The Distribution of MSH and ACTH in the Rat and Human Brain and Its Relation to Pituitary Stores

I. Historical Introduction

II. Pro-Opiomelanocortin, MSH, and ACTH

III. Assay of α-MSH and ACTH in the Pituitary and the Brain

IV. Immunocytochemical Localization of α-MSH and ACTH in the Brain

V. The Opiomelanocortin Family in Development

VI. The Synthesis of MSH and ACTH by the Brain


Chapter 2 Mechanisms of Action of Behaviorally Active ACTH-like Peptides

I. Introduction

II. Effects on Conditioned Behavior or Behavioral Effects

III. In Vivo Fate

IV. Generation of Neuropeptides

V. Receptor Sites

VI. ACTH as a Neuromodulator


Chapter 3 Actions of ACTH- and MSH-like Peptides on Learning, Performance, and Retention

I. Introduction

II. ACTH- and MSH-like Peptides and Learning

III. ACTH-like Peptides and Performance

IV. ACTH- and MSH-like Peptides and Retention

V. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 4 ACTH Modulation of Memory Storage Processing

I. Modulation of Memory Storage Processes

II. ACTH Effects on Memory Storage

III. Mechanisms Underlying ACTH Memory Modulation

IV. Noradrenergic Memory Modulation

V. Integration of ACTH and NE Memory Modulation


Chapter 5 ACTH and Brain Mechanisms Controlling Approach-Avoidance and Imprinting in Birds

I. Introduction

II. Approach-Avoidance Behavior and Imprinting in Birds

III. Conclusions


Chapter 6 ACTH and the Reminder Phenomena

I. Introduction

II. ACTH-Induced Alleviation of Retrograde Amnesia

III. Ontogenetic Memory Loss: Reinstatement and ACTH

IV. The Kamin Effect and ACTH-Induced Reactivation

V. Effects of ACTH on Extinction of Aversively Motivated Behavior

VI. State-Dependent Retention

VII. Redintegration

VIII. Clinical Implications of the ACTH-Induced Reminder Phenomena

IX. Conclusions and Musings


Chapter 7 ACTH4-9 Analog (ORG 2766) and Memory Processes in Mice

I. Introduction

II. Preliminary Experiment: Effects on Retention and Extinction of One-Way Active Avoidance Conditioning

III. Peptide Effects and Training Level

IV. Central versus Peripheral Effects on Active Avoidance Behavior

V. Peripheral versus Central Administration of ORG 2766 in Appetitive Operant Conditioning

VI. Discussion


Chapter 8 Pituitary-Adrenocortical Effects on Learning and Memory in Social Situations

I. Introduction

II. Pituitary-Adrenocortical Effects on Avoidance-of-Attack

III. Pituitary-Adrenocortical Effects on Submissiveness

IV. How Does Corticosterone Affect Behavior in Social Learning-Memory Situations?

V. Concluding Comments


Chapter 9 ACTH Analogs and Human Performance

I. Introduction

II. Methodological Issues

III. Task Effects

IV. Physiological Measures

V. Subjective Rating Scales

VI. Conclusion


Part II Endorphins

Chapter 10 Cellular Distribution and Function of Endorphins

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Enkephalins

III. Distribution of β-Endorphin

IV. Effects of Opioid Peptides on Neuronal Activity

V. Structural-Functional Correlations


Chapter 11 Endorphin Influences on Learning and Memory

I. Influence of Endorphins on Behavioral Processes: Information Processing as Affected by Biotransformation of β-Endorphin

II. Time Gradient Effects of α- and -γ-Endorphin on Passive Avoidance Behavior


Chapter 12 Enkephalin and Endorphin Influences on Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning

I. Introduction

II. Opiate Alkaloids and Naloxone: Aversively Motivated Tests

III. Endorphins and Endorphin Analogs

IV. Conclusions


Chapter 13 Endogenous Opioids, Memory Modulation, and State Dependency

I. Introduction

II. Early Evidence That the Primary Role of Endogenous Opioids Might Be in the Regulation of Behavior

III. Effect of Naloxone on Memory Consolidation

IV. Possible Mechanism of the Effect of Naloxone on Consolidation

V. Effect of Opioid Peptides on Consolidation

VI. Training Releases β-Endorphin from the Rat Brain

VII. Electroconvulsive Shock Releases β-Endorphin from Brain but Not Pituitary Gland

VIII. Possible Role of a Physiological Amnesic Mechanism

IX. Final Comment


Chapter 14 Facilitation of Long-term Memory by Brain Endorphins

I. Endorphins and Behavior

II. Opiate Receptor Activation and Memory

III. Peptide Effects on Memory

IV. Memory Modulation by Opioid Systems


Chapter 15 Endorphin and Enkephalin Effects on Avoidance Conditioning: The Other Side of the Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

I. Introduction

II. Endorphin Effects on Inhibitory Avoidance Conditioning

III. Enkephalin Effects on Active Avoidance Conditioning

IV. Naloxone Reversibility

V. Adrenal Medullary Involvement

VI. Conclusions


Part III Vasopressin and Oxytocin

Chapter 16 Central Nervous System Distribution of Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Neurophysin

I. Introduction

II. Neurons Producing Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Neurophysin

III. Vascular Projections of Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Neurophysin Neurons

IV. Neural Projections of Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Neurophysin Neurons

V. Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Neurophysin in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

VI. Relation of CNS Vasopressin and Oxytocin to Pituitary Stores

VII. Functional Considerations Based on Neuroanatomical Relationships

VIII. Final Remarks


Chapter 17 Avoidance Conditioning and Endocrine Function in Brattleboro Rats

I. Introduction

II. Physiological and Hormonal Characteristics of Brattleboro Rats Relevant to the Interpretation of Avoidance Experiments

III. Behavioral Studies of Brattleboro Rats

IV. General Conclusion


Chapter 18 Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Dependence on Opiates

I. Introduction

II. Opiate Action and Learning-Memory Processes

III. Neurohypophyseal Hormones and Opiate Tolerance-Physical Dependence

IV. Neurohypophyseal Hormones and Opiate Dependence (Abuse)

V. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 19 Vasopressin and Oxytocin in Learning and Memory

I. Introduction

II. Studies of Structure-Activity Relationships

III. The Physiological Role of Endogenous Neurohypophyseal Hormones in Memory Processes

IV. How Do Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reach their Site(s) of Action?

V. Perspective


Part IV Opiates

Chapter 20 Opiate Modulation of Memory

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Opiate Agonists and Antagonists on Retention of Inhibitory and Active Avoidance Learning

III. Interpretation of the Results

IV. Conclusions


Chapter 21 Influence of Amygdala Opiate-Sensitive Mechanisms, Fear-Motivated Responses, and Memory Processes for Aversive Experiences

I. Introduction

II. Alteration of Memory Processes by Amygdala-Opiate Manipulations

III. Amygdala Enkephalins: A Focus for Research on the Central Nucleus

IV. Alteration of Fear-Motivated Conditioned Responses by Amygdala Central Nucleus-Opiate Manipulations

V. The Influence of Amygdala-Opiate Mechanisms on Fear-Motivated Responses and Memory: A Common Neural Substrate in the Central Nucleus?


Chapter 22 Changes in Brain Peptide Systems and Altered Learning and Memory Processes in Aged Animals

I. Introduction

II. Amine Neurotransmitters and Memory Alterations in Aged Rats

III. Changes in Learning and Memory in Aged Rats

IV. Peptide Modulation of Impaired Memory

V. Opiate Modulation of Memory

VI. Changes with Age in Opiate Receptor Systems

VII. Conclusions


Chapter 23 A Two-Process Model of Opiate Tolerance

I. Introduction

II. Tolerance Definitions

III. Morphine Tolerance: Behavioral Models

IV. Behavioral and Physiological Models of Morphine Tolerance: An Integration


Part V Other Neuropeptides

Chapter 24 Substance Ρ and Its Effects on Learning and Memory

I. Introduction

II. Posttrial Influences on Learning

III. Discussion


Chapter 25 Specific Anatomical and Synaptic Sites of Neuropeptide Action in Memory Formation

I. Background: Reward Systems as Neuronal Substrates for Memory Consolidation

II. Peptides and Memory


Chapter 26 Multiple Independent Actions of Neuropeptides on Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Pituitary-CNS Dissociation of Hypothalamic Peptides

III. Pigmentary-Extrapigmentary Dissociation of MSH

IV. Behavioral-Narcotic Dissociation of Opiate Peptides

V. Situational Dissociation of Peptides




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© Academic Press 1981
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Joe L. Jr. Martinez

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