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Encyclopedia of the Eye - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123741981, 9780123742032

Encyclopedia of the Eye

1st Edition

Editors: Joseph Besharse Barbara Battelle David Beebe Reza Dana Peter Bex Paul Bishop Dean Bok Patricia D’Amore Henry Edelhauser Linda Mcloon Jerry Niederkorn Thomas Reh Ernst Tamm
Editor in Chief: Darlene Dartt
eBook ISBN: 9780123742032
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123741981
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th April 2010
Page Count: 2344
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As the first comprehensive reference for the eye, its support structures, diseases, and treatments, Encyclopedia of the Eye is an important resource for all visual scientists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists, as well as researchers in immunology, infectious disease, cell biology, neurobiology and related disciplines. This four-volume reference is unique in its coverage of information on all tissues important for vision, including the retina, cornea and lens. It also covers the physiological and pathophysiologic processes that affect all eye tissues.

This Encyclopedia is invaluable for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are seeking an introduction to an area of eye research. Each chapter explains the basic concepts and provides references to relevant chapters within the Encyclopedia and more detailed articles across the wider research literature. The Encyclopedia is also particularly useful for visual scientists and practitioners who are researching a new area, seeking deeper understanding of important research articles in fields adjacent to their own, or reviewing a grant outside their immediate area of expertise.

Key Features

  • Written by experts at a level that permits students to grasp key elements of a specific subject
  • Provides an entryway into the major features of current eye research
  • No other source puts this much information, so well-indexed and with so many helpful full color figures and graphics, in the hands of the ophthalmic scientist


This encyclopedia is invaluable for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are seeking an introduction to an area of eye research

Table of Contents

Article Title Lead Author

1 Adaptive immune system and the eye: mucosal immunity, Austin Mircheff

2 Adaptive Immune System and the eye: T Cell-mediated immunity, Kyle McKenna

3 Innate Immune System and the eye, Meredith Gregory-Ksander

4 Role of Complement in Ocular Immune Response, Nalini Bora

5 Dynamic Immunoregulatory Processes that Sustain Immune Privilege in the Eye, Jerry Niederkorn

6 Immunosuppressive and Anti-Inflammatory Molecules that maintain Immune privilege of the Eye, Andy Taylor

7 Antigen Presenting Cells in the Eye and Ocular Surface, Pedram Hamrah

8 Angiogenesis in the Eye, Claus Cursiefen

9 Dry Eye: An Immune-Based Inflammation, Michael E. Stern

10 Penetrating Keratoplasty, D F P Larkin

11 Immunopathogenesis of HSV Keratitis, Robert Hendricks

12 Immunopathogenesis of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness), Eric Pearlman

13 Immunopathogenesis of Pseudomonas Keratitis, Linda Hazlett

14 Pathogenesis and Immunology of Bacterial Endophthalmitis, Mike Gilmore

15 Immunobiology of Acanthamoeba Keratitis, Jerry Niederkorn

16 Immunopathogenesis of Experimental Uveitic Diseases, Rachel Caspi

17 Pathogenesis of Uveitis in Humans, John Forrester

18 Immunobiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration, Rafael Ufret-Vincenty

19 Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms in Allergic Conjunctivitis, Virginia Calder

20 Immunobiology of Uveal Melanoma, Martine Jager

22 Pathogenesis of Fungal Keratitis, Eric Pearlman

23 Lens Structure, David Beebe

24 Lens determination and induction, Richard Lang

25 Lens fiber cell differentation, Michael Robinson

28 Normal age-related changes - crystallin modifications, lens hardening, Kirsten Lampi

30 Lens regeneration, Panagiotis Tsonis

31 Structure and evolution of the crystallins, Graeme Wistow

32 Ionic Permeability and Currents in the Lens, Paul Donaldson

33 Gap junctions, Eric Beyer

36 Accommodation Adrian, Glasser

37 Genetics of congenital cataract, J. Fielding Hejtmancik

38 Cortical cataracts, Ralph Michael

39 Nuclear cataracts, Roger Truscott

40 Posterior subcapsular and anterior polar cataracts, Choun-ki Joo

42 Genetics of age-related cataracts, Alan Shiels

43 Posterior Capsule Opacification, I.M. Wormstone

45 Presbyopia, Adrian Glasser

46 The Epidemiology of Cataract, Sheila West

47 Tear film overview, Kazuo Tsubota

48 Meibomian glands and lipid layer, Thomas J. Millar

49 Lacrimal gland overview, Sarah Hamm-Alvarez

50 Lacrima gland hormonal regulation, Austin Mircheff

51 Lacrimal gland signaling - neural, Driss Zoukhri

52 Overview of Electrolyte and Fluid Transport across the Conjunctiva, Oscar Candia

53 Conjunctival Goblet Cells, Robin Hodges

54 OCULAR MUCINS, Monica Berry

55 Conjunctiva Immune Surveillance, Erich Knop

56 Tear drainage, Friedrich Paulsen

57 Defense mechanisms of tears and ocular surface, Alison McDermott

58 Cornea Overview, Penny Asbell

59 The Corneal Epithelium: Cell Biology and Basic Science, Mary Ann Stepp

60 Corneal Epithelium: Wound Healing Junctions, Attachment to Stroma Receptors, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Intracellular Communications, Elizabeth Fini

61 Corneal epithelium: response to infection, Linda Hazlett

62 Corneal epithelium: transport and permeability, Peter Reinach

63 The Ocular Surface: The Surgical Treatment for Corneal Epithelial Stem Cell Deficiency, Corneal Epithelial Defect, and Peripheral Corneal Ulcer, Noriko Koizumi

64 Refractive surgery and inlays, Rudy Nuijts

65 Stem cells of ocular surface, James Funderburgh

66 Contact lenses, Fiona Stapleton

67 Imaging of the Cornea, Stephen Kaufman

68 Corneal nerves: anatomy, Carl Marfurt

69 Corneal nerves: function, Carlos Belmonte

70 Corneal stroma, James Funderburgh

71 Corneal dystrophies, Natalie Afshari

72 Corneal imaging - clinical, Roger Steinert

73 Corneal scars, Daniel Dawson

74 Corneal endothelium overview, David Whikehart

75 Corneal endothelium signaling mechanisms, Joseph Bonnano

76 Corneal endothelium regulation of proliferation, Ula Jurkunas

78 Artifical cornea, May Griffith

79 Blinking mechanism, Charles McMonnies

80 Drug delivery to cornea and conjunctiva - esterase and protease directed prodrug design, Ashim Mitra

81 Inflammation of conjunctiva, Teruo Nishida

82 Knock out mice models: cornea, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, Winston Kao

83 Gene therapy, Rajiv Mohan

84 Lids: anatomy, pathophysiology and mucocutaneous junction, Ted Wojno

85 The role of the ciliary body in aqueous humor dynamics. Structural aspects, Ernst Tamm

86 Ion transport in the ciliary epithelium, Olaf Strauss

88 Neuroendocrine properties of the ciliary epithelium, Miguel Coca-Prados

89 Control of Aqueous Humor Flow, Jay McLaren

90 Ciliary blood flow and its role in aqueous humor formation, Jeffrey Kiel

91 Pharmacology of aqueous humor formation, Carol Toris

92 Functinal morphology of the trabecular meshwork, Ernst Tamm

93 Biomechanics of Aqueous Humor Outflow Resistance, Mark Johnson

94 The Biology of Schlemm Canal, Dan Stamer

95 The Fibrillar Extracellular Matrix of the Trabecular Meshwork, Donna Peters

96 The role of proteoglycans in the trabecular meshwork, Ted Acott

97 Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Turnover in the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathways, Rudolf Fuchshofer

98 The Cytoskeletal Network Of The Trabecular Meshwork, Paul Kaufman

99 Steroid-Induced Ocular Hypertension and Effects of Glucocorticoids on the Trabecular Meshwork, Abbot Clark

100 Myocilin, Mike Fautsch

101 The role of oxidative stress in the trabecular meshwork, Pedro Gonzalez

102 Biological Properties of the Trabecular Meshwork Cells, Paul Russell

103 Uveoscleral outflow, Albert Alm

104 Pharmacology of the aqueous humour outflow, Kathryn Cracknell

106 The development of the aqueous humor outflow pathways, Ernst Tamm

108 Immunological Aspects of Aqueous Humor Turnover, Claus Cursiefen

110 Biomechanics of the optic nerve head, J. Crawford Downs

112 Structural Changes in the Trabecular Meshwork with POAG, Elke Luetjen-Drecoll

113 Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, Detlev Spiegel

114 Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, Ursula Schlotzer-Schrehardt

115 Pigment Dispersion Syndrome and Pigmentary, Glaucoma Robert Ritch

116 IOP and damage of ON axons, Robert Nickells

117 Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis and Neuroprotection, Francesca Cordeiro

118 The Genetics of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma, Rand Allingham

119 Molecular genetics of congenital and juvenile glaucoma, Michael Walter

120 Animal models of glaucoma, Stanislav Tomarev

121 Concept of angiogenic privilege, Claus Cursiefen

122 Angiogenesis in response to hypoxia, H Okano

123 Angiogenesis in inflammation, Zoltan Szekanecz

124 Angiogenesis in wound healing, Omaida Velazquez

125 Hemangiogenesis vs lymphangiogenesis, Diane Bielenberg

126 Innate immunity and angiogenesis, Ralph Kelly

128 Molecular mechanisms of angiostasis, Raghu Kalluri

129 Stability and functional integrity of new blood vessels, Akiyoshi Uemura

130 Vessel Regression, Hans-Peter Hammes

131 Blood:retinal barrier, Jose G. Cunha-Vaz

132 RPE barrier, Lawrence J Rizzolo

133 Properties and Functions of the vessels of the Ciliary Body, Susan Kidson

136 Anatomy and Regulation of the Optic Nerve Blood Flow, Alon Harris


138 Breakdown of the RPE blood-retinal barrier, Mary Elizabeth Hartnett

139 Macular edema, Robert Frank

140 Central retinal vein occlusion, Sohan Hayreh

141 Pathological retinal angiogenesis, Anthony Adamis

142 Development of the Retinal Vasculaure, Tailoi Chan-Ling

143 Choroidal Neovascularization, Scott Cousins

144 The Vascular Stem Cell, Maria Grant


146 Avascularity of the cornea, Jayakrishina Ambati

147 Retinal Pigment Epithelial - Choroid Interactions, Knatokie Ford

149 Pericytes and Microvascular Remodeling: Regulation of Retinal Angiogenesis, Ira Herman

150 Evolution of opsins, Todd Oakley

151 Genetic dissection of invertebrate phototransduction, Baruch Minke

152 Phototransduction in Limulus photoreceptors, Richard Payne


154 The Photoresponse in Squid, Jane Mitchell

155 The physiology of photoreceptor synapses and other ribbon synapses, Wallace B. Thoreson

157 Limulus eyes and their circadian regulation, Barbara Battelle

158 Circadian rhythms in the fly's visual system, Elzbieta Pyza

159 Fish retinomotor movements, Beth Burnside

160 The circadian clock in the retina regulates rod and cone pathways, Stuart Mangel

161 Circadian Regulation of Ion Channels in Photoreceptors, Gladys Ko

162 Circadian Metabolism in the Chick Retina, P. Michael Iuvone

163 The Colorful Visual World of Butterflies, Francesca Frentiu

164 Polarized-Light Vision in Land and Aquatic Animals, Tom Cronin

165 Zebra fish as a model for understanding retinal diseases, Susan Brockerhoff

166 Zebra fish - Retinal Development and Regeneration, David R. Hyde

167 Xenopus laevis as a model for understanding retinal diseases, Orson Moritz

168 Retinal Degeneration Through the Eye of the Fly, Nansi Colley

169 Developmental Anatomy of the Retinal and Choroidal Vasculature, Joe G Hollyfield

170 Post-Golgi trafficking and ciliary targeting of rhodopsin, Dusanka Deretic


172 Physiological Anatomy of the Choroidal Vasculature, Sohan Hayreh

173 Rod and cone photoreceptor cells: inner and outer, David S Williams

175 Rod and cone photoreceptor cells: outer segment membrane renewal, David S Williams

176 Light-driven translocation of signaling proteins in vertebrate photoreceptors, Vadim Arshavsky; Peter Calvert

177 Rod photoreceptor cells: soma and synapse, Robert Smith

178 Cone photoreceptor cells: soma and synapse, Robert Smith

179 Morphology of interneurons: horizontal cells, Leo Peichl

180 Morphology of interneurons: bipolar cells, Silke Haverkamp

181 Morphology of interneurons: amacrine cells, Enrica Strettoi

182 Morphology of interneurons: interplexiform cells, Doug Mcmahon

183 Phototransduction: rhodopsin, Kris Palczewski


185 Phototransduction: the visual cycle, Gabriel Travis

186 Phototransduction: Phototransduction in Rods, Yingbin Fu

187 Phototransduction: inactivation in rods, Vsevolod Gurevich

188 Phototransduction: adaptation in rods, Trevor Lamb

189 Phototransduction: phototransduction in cones, Vladimir Kefalov

190 Phototransduction: inactivation in cones, Vsevolod Gurevich

191 Phototransduction: adaptation in cones, Trevor Lamb

192 Circadian Photoreception, Ignacio Provencio

193 Retinal Cannabinoids, Stephen Yazulla

194 Information Processing in the Retina, Frank Werblin

195 Information processing: horizontal cells, Arlene A. Hirano

196 Information processing: bipolar cells, Samuel Wu

197 Information processing: amacrine cells, Robert Marc

198 Information processing: ganglion cells, Thomas Muench

199 Information processing: contrast sensitivity, Jonathan, B. Demb

200 Information processing: direction sensitivity, Z. Jimmy Zhou

201 Information processing: retinal adaptation, Kenneth Alexander

202 Glutamate Receptors in Retina, Malcolm Slaughter

203 GABA Receptors in the Retina, Stephen Yazulla


205 Neurotransmitters and receptors: dopamine receptors, P. Michael Iuvone

206 Neurotransmitters and receptors: melatonin receptors, Allan Wiechmann

207 Neuropeptides: localization, Nicholas Brecha

208 Neuropeptides: function, Nicholas Brecha

209 Primary photoreceptor degenerations: terminology, Richard G Weleber

210 Primary photoreceptor degenerations: retinitis pigmentosa, Richard G Weleber

211 Secondary photoreceptor degenerations: age-related macular degeneration, L Johnson

212 Secondary photoreceptor degenerations, Michael Gorin

213 Retinal Vasculopathies: Diabetic Retinopathy, Jayakrishina Ambati

214 Retinopathy of Prematurity, Mary Elizabeth Hartnett

215 Color blindness: inherited, Joseph Carroll

216 Color blindness: acquired, Joseph Carroll

217 Injury and repair: light damage, Robert Anderson

218 Injury and repair: neovascularization, Jayakrishina Ambati

219 Injury and repair responses: retinal detachment, Steven Fisher; Geoffrey Lewis

220 Injury and Repair: Retinal Remodeling, Robert Marc

221 Injury and repair: stem cells and transplantation, Michael Young

222 Injury and Repair: Prostheses, Gerald Chader

223 Anatomically Separate Rod and Cone Signalling Pathways, Steven Nusinowitz

224 Unique specializations - functional: dynamic range of vision systems, Aapakkam Sampath

225 The Photoreceptor Outer Segment as a Sensory Cilium, Joseph Besharse

226 Non-Invasive Testing Methods: Multifocal Electrophysiology, Erich Sutter

227 Phototransduction: Retina: Alternative Visual Cycle in Muller Cells, Gabriel Travis


230 Ocular Media Clarity and Straylight, Thomas JTP van den Berg

231 Pupil, Paul Gamlin

232 Chromatic function of the cones, David H Foster

233 Photopic, mesopic and scotopic vision and changes in visual performance, John Barbur

234 Acuity, Michael Crossland

235 Contrast sensitivity, Peter Bex

236 Binocular Vergence Eye Movements and the Near Response, Cliff Schor

237 Fundamentals of Stereopsis, Laurie M. Wilcox

239 Astigmatism, Michael Cox

241 Myopia Fuensanta, A. Vera-Diaz

242 Refractive surgery, Susana Marcos

243 Amblyopia, Dennis Levi

244 Hyperopia, Elise Harb

245 Perimetry, David Henson

246 Adaptive optics, David Williams

247 Optical Coherence Tomography, Wolfgang Drexler

248 Eye field transcription factors, Michael Zuber

249 Embryology and early patterning, Paola Bovolenta

250 Coordinating Division and Differentiation in Retinal Development, Rod Bremner

251 Retinal Histogenesis, Thomas Reh

252 Histogenesis: cell fate: signaling factors, Valerie Wallace

253 Photoreceptor development: early steps/fate, Anand Swaroop

254 Ganglion cell development: early steps/fate, Nadean Brown

255 Intraretinal circuit formation, Rachel Wong

256 Anatomy, aging, and anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, Jerry Sebag

257 The molecular composition of the vitreous and aging changes, Paul Bishop

258 Vitreous: Cellular origin, formation and turnover of the vitreous, Willi Halfter

259 Formation and regression of the primary vitreous and hyaloid vascular system, Richard Lang

260 Hyalocytes, Tatsuro Ishibashi

261 Anti-angiogenic properties of vitreous, Gerard Lutty

262 Regulation of Intraocular Oxygen by the Vitreous, Gel Nancy Holekamp

264 Pharmacological vitreolysis, Arnd Gandorfer

265 Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, David Charteris

266 Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, Paul Hiscott

267 The Role of the Vitreous in Macular Hole Formation, William Smiddy

268 Hereditary Vitreoretinopathies, Martin Snead

269 The physiologic consequences of vitreous composition, Mike Trese

270 The Bony Orbit: Bony Anatomy and Orbital Fracture, Andrew R. Harrison

271 The Bony Orbit: Orbital Imaging, Andrew R. Harrison

272 Eyelid Anatomy and the Pathophysiology of Blinking, Craig Evinger

273 Differentiation and Morphogenesis of Extraocular Muscles, Drew M. Noden

274 Extraocular Muscles: Extraocular Muscle Anatomy, Linda K. McLoon

275 Extraocular Muscles: Extraocular Muscle Metabolism, Francisco Andrade

276 Extraocular Muscles: Proprioception and Muscle Spindles, Roland Blumer

277 Extraocular Muscles: Strabismus and Nystagmus at the Muscle/Eye Movement Level, R. John Leigh; Alessandro Serra

278 Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders, Thomas Bosley

279 Extraocular Muscles: Extraocular Muscle Involvement in Disease, Fatima Pedrosa-Domellof

280 Extraocular Muscles: Thyroid Eye Disease, Rebecca Bahn; Marius N. Stan

281 The Active Pulley Hypothesis, Joseph Demer

282 Orbital Soft Tissue Biomechanics, Sander Schutte

283 Orbital Masses and Tumors, Ioannis Mavrikakis

284 Vascular Anatomy Michael, S Lee

285 Cranial Nerves and Autonomic Innervation, Linda K. McLoon

286 Optic Nerve: Optic Neuritis, Mathias Bahr; Katharina Hein

287 Ischemic optic neuropathy, Sohan Hayreh

288 Optic Nerve: Inherited Optic Neuropathies, Alfredo Sadun

289 Extraocular Muscles: Functional Assessment in the Clinic, Stephen Christiansen


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© Academic Press 2010
30th April 2010
Academic Press
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About the Editors

Joseph Besharse

Joseph Besharse

Dr. Besharse is currently The Marvin Wagner Professor and Chair of the Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy at the Medical College of Wisconsin. He received his BA degree from Hendrix College (Conway, Arkansas) and MA and PhD degrees from Southern Illinois University. After a brief period on the faculty at Old Dominion University in Virginia, he moved to Columbia University as a post-doctoral fellow in retinal research. He was appointed to the faculty of Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy at Emory University School of Medicine in 1977, becoming full professor in 1984. He assumed the position of Professor and Chair of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University Kansas School of Medicine (Kansas City) in 1989 and moved on to his present position at Medical College of Wisconsin in 1997. Dr. Besharse’s research has focused on membrane turnover, circadian clocks, and microtubule-based transport in photoreceptors with special attention to fundamental pathways that are disrupted in photoreceptor degenerative diseases. His research has been continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health since 1978. In addition to his roles as Department Chair and a principal investigator, he directs an NIH funded training program in Vision Science. Dr. Besharse is a past member of the editorial boards of Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science and Vision Neuroscience and served as the Retina Section Editor of Experimental Eye Research. He has served as a Trustee of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, and has served two full terms as a member of two different NIH study sections. Among his awards are the Alcon Research Award for outstanding research in Vision Science (1993), the Alumni Achievement Award from Southern Illinois University (1998) and the Distinguished Service Award from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (2005). He is a Gold Fellow of ARVO.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin

Barbara Battelle

Barbara Battelle

David Beebe

David Beebe

Reza Dana

Reza Dana

In addition to his role as Senior Scientist and Co-Director at the Schepens Eye Research Institute, Dr. Reza Dana holds the Claes H. Dohlman Chair in Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School. He is Director of the Cornea & Refractive Surgery Service at the Massachusetts Eye & Ear, and serves as the Vice Chairman of the Harvard Department of Ophthalmology and Associate Chief of Ophthalmology for Academic Programs at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. After graduating Summa Cum Laude from St. Paul’s School in New Hampshire, he completed his bachelor’s (Phi Beta Kappa), graduate, and medical education at Johns Hopkins University. He performed his residency in Ophthalmology at the Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary in Chicago, followed by a clinical fellowship in Cornea and External Diseases at the Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia. Reza then completed additional fellowship training in Immunology and Uveitis at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and in Ocular and Transplantation Immunology at the Schepens Eye Research Institute. Dr. Dana also holds a Master of Science degree in Management from Harvard University. Reza has been a member of the full-time Harvard faculty since 1995. As a clinician-scientist, he has a particular interest in the molecular and cellular mechanisms of inflammation as they pertain to the ocular surface and anterior segment pathologies, including dry eye, allergy, wound healing responses, and transplant rejection.

Affiliations and Expertise

Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, MA, USA

Peter Bex

Peter Bex

Paul Bishop

Paul Bishop

Dean Bok

Dean Bok

Affiliations and Expertise

Jules Stein Eye Institute, Devid Geffin School of Medicine at UCLA

Patricia D’Amore

Patricia D’Amore

Henry Edelhauser

Henry Edelhauser

Linda Mcloon

Linda Mcloon

Jerry Niederkorn

Jerry Niederkorn

Thomas Reh

Thomas Reh

Dr. Reh is Professor of Biological Structure and Director of the Neurobiology and Behavior Program at the University of Washington. He is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Foundation Fighting Blindness, and of a start-up biotechnology company, Acucela. He has received several awards for his work, including the AHFMR and Sloan Scholar awards and has published over 100 journal articles, reviews and books. Funded by numerous N.I.H. and private foundation grants, his lab is focused on the development and repair of the retina, with an overall goal of understanding the cellular and molecular biology of regeneration in the eye.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biological Structure and Director of the Neurobiology and Behavior Program, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

Ernst Tamm

Ernst Tamm

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chairman

About the Editor in Chief

Darlene Dartt

Darlene Dartt

Senior Scientist, The Harold F. Johnson Research Scholar, and Senior Scientist, Schepens Eye Research Institute; Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. At the Schepens Eye Research Institute Dr. Dartt served as the Acting Director of Research and the Director of Scientific Affairs for ten years. She received her AB degree from Barnard College (Columbia University) in New York City and her PhD from the Department of Physiology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. After post-doctoral fellowships at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston, Dr. Dartt joined the Schepens Eye Research Institute in 1985. Her primary research interest is the neural regulation of tear production. Her research focuses on the signaling pathways used by nerves and growth factors in the lacrimal gland and conjunctival goblet cells to induce secretion and proliferation and how dysregulation of these pathways can lead to dry eye syndromes in mouse models and humans, particularly after refractive surgery. She has been continuously funded by NIH since 1980 for this work. Dr. Dartt directs the Institute’s Department of Defense Research Program and chaired four Military Vision Research Symposia. She served on and chaired the ARVO Cornea Program Planning Committee and served on the Members in Training Committee. She was a founding member, a member of the organizing committee, and more recently Treasurer for the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society. She has been on the organizing committee for the three Biennial Cornea Conferences in Boston, MA. She served as Vice-President for North America for the International Society for Eye Research and a Councilor for the International Society for Contact Lens Wear. She is on the Editorial Board for Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Experimental Eye Research, and The Ocular Surface. She served on the Review Panel for Fight For Sight and has been an Ad Hoc member of numerous NEI and NIAMS study sections. She received the Lew R. Wasserman Merit Award by Research to Prevent Blindness and is a Gold Fellow of ARVO.

Affiliations and Expertise

Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, MA, USA


"The excellent pedagogical quality of the figures is well-integrated with the text. The Eye has fulfilled the Editors' plan to provide a modern reference work that covers the basic science of the eye, and provides the reader with easily understandable articles. With regard to their plan to make the reference work accessible to a wide variety of students, researchers, engineers, optometrists and ophthalmologists, The Eye is a testimony that they succeeded in their quest…The editors and the contributors are to be congratulated for providing the eye community with a useful and recommended reference book." --Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 2011

Ratings and Reviews