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Encyclopedia of Stress - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080569772

Encyclopedia of Stress

1st Edition

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Editor in Chief: George Fink
eBook ISBN: 9780080569772
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 19th April 2000
Page Count: 2328
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Stress is generally defined as a strain upon a bodily organ or mental power. Depending on its duration and intensity, stress can have short- or long-lasting effects: it has been linked to heart disease, immune deficiency, memory loss, behavioral disorders, and much more. These effects on the individual also have a major impact on health care costs and services, employee productivity, and even violent crime. The Encyclopedia of Stress is the first comprehensive reference source on stressors, the biological mechanisms involved in the stress response, the effects of activating the stress response mechanisms, and the disorders that may arise as a consequence of acute or chronic stress. While other books focus on specific aspects of stress, this three-volume set covers the entire spectrum of topics, with nearly 400 articles in all. In addition to the subjects traditionally associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (whereby the brain sends a message to the body to react), the Encyclopedia includes a wide range of related topics such as neuroimmune interactions, cytokines, enzymatic disorders, effects on the cardiovascular system, immunity and inflammation, and physical illnesses. It also goes beyond the biological aspects of stress to cover topics such as stress and behavior, psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, workplace stress, post-traumatic stress, stress-reduction techniques, and current therapies. The Encyclopedia of Stress makes information easy to find and understand for a broad audience of researchers, clinicians, professionals, and students.

Key Features

@introbul:Key Features @bul:* Presenting the first-ever encyclopedia on stress

  • Brings together the latest information on stressors, stress responses, and the disorders that can result
  • Covers stress from molecules to man to societies
  • Contains nearly 400 articles, covering a wide range of stress-related topics
  • Arranges topics in easily found alphabetical order
  • Supplements each article with a glossary and further reading list
  • Provides the most comprehensive coverage of stress available
  • Includes extensive cross-referencing between articles and a complete subject index
  • Covers hot topics, ranging from stress in the workplace and post-traumatic stress disorder to stress-related diseases
  • Edited by one of the world's leading authorities on stress
  • Written by more than 560 experts from 20 different countries
  • Appeals to a wide audience seeking information on topics within and outside their areas of expertise


Graduate and medical libraries, academic clinicians, professional psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, health workers, and researchers from graduate to senior scientific levels.

Table of Contents

Contents by Subject Area. Preface. Guide to the Encyclopedia. VOLUME 1: Acute Stress Disorder and Postraumatic Stress Disorder. Acute Stress Response: Experimental. Acute Trauma Response. Adenylyl Cyclases and Stress Response. Adjustment Disorders. Adolescence. Adrenal Cortex. Adrenaline. Adrenal Insufficiency. Adrenal Medulla. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH). Adrenogenital Syndrome. Aerobics in Stress Reduction. Affective Disorders. Aggression. Aggressive Behavior. Aging and Psychological Stress. Aging and Stress, Biology of. AIDS. Alarm Phase and General Adaptation Syndrome. Alcohol, Alcoholism and Stress: A Psychobiological Perspective. Alcohol and Stress: Social and Psychological Aspects. Aldosterone. Allostasis and Allostatic Load. Alternative Therapies. Alzheimer's Disease. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. Amenorrhea. Amnesia. Amygdala. Androgen Action. Anger. Angiotensin. Animal Models (Nonprimate) for Human Stress. Antibody Response. Antidepressant Actions on Glucocorticoid Receptors. Antisocial Disorders. Anxiety. Anxiolytics. Apoptosis. Arterial Baroreflex. Arthritis. Asthma. Atherosclerosis. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Stress and. Autoimmunity. Autonomic Nervous System. Autotolerance. Avoidance. Behavior, Overview. Behavior Therapy. Bereavement. Beta-Adrenergic Blockers. Beta-Endorphin. Blacks, Stress in. Blood Pressure. Borderline Personality Disorder. Brain and Brain Regions. Brain Trauma. Breast Cancer. Burnout. Calbindin. Calcium-Dependent Neurotoxicity. Calcium, Role of. Cancer. Cancer Treatment. Captivity, Adaptation to. Captivity, Recovery from. Cardiovascular System and Stress. Caregivers, Stress and. Catecholamines. Central Stress Neurocircuits. Cerebral Metabolism, Brain Imaging. Chaperone Proteins. Chernobyl, Stress Effects of. Child Abuse. Childhood Stress. Child Sexual Abuse. Cholesterol and Lipoproteins. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Circadian Rhythms, Effects of Prenatal Stress in Rodents: An Animal Model for Human Depression. Circadian Rhythms, Genetics of. Cognition and Stress. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Combat, Acute Reactions to. Combat Reaction, Chronic. Combat Stress Reaction. Community Studies. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. Complementary Medicine in North America. Concentration Camp Survivors. Conservation of Resources Theory. Control and Stress. Coping Skills. Coping, Stress and. Corticosteriod-Binding Globulin. Corticosteroid Receptors. Corticosteroids and Stress. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF). Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Binding Protein. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptors. Crime Victims. Critical Thermal Limits. Crowding Stress. Cultural Factors. Cultural Transition. Cushing's Syndrome, Medical Aspects. Cushing's Syndrome, Neuropsychiatric Aspects. Cytokines. Cytokines, Stress, and Depression: A Mechanism Involving Corticotropin-Releasing Factor. Cytotoxic Lymphocytes. Death Anxiety. Defensive Behaviors. Dental Stress. Depersonalization. Depression and Manic-Depressive Illness. Depression Models. Desensitization. Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST). Diabetes, Type I. Diet and Stress, Non-Psychiatric. Disasters, Public, Effects of. Disaster Syndrome. Disease, Stress Induced, Overview. Dissociation. Distress. Divorce, Children of. Domestic Violence. Dopamine, Central. Drosophila Genes and Anoxia. Drosophila Studies. Drug Use and Abuse. VOLUME 2: Earthquakes, Stress Effects of. Eating Disorders and Stress. Educational Levels and Stress. Elder Abuse. Electrodermal Activity. Emergency Personnel, Stress in. Emotional Inhibition. Emotions: Structure and Adaptive Functions. Endocrine Systems. Enuresis. Environmental Factors. Environmental Stress, Effects on Human Performance. Epilepsy. Estrogen. Ethanol and Endogenous Opiods. Evolutionary Origins and Functions of the Stress Response. Excitatory Amino Acids. Excitotoxins. Exercise. Familial Patterns of Stress. Fatigue and Stress. Fear. Febrile Response. Feedback Systems. Fibrinogen and Clotting Factors. Fight-or-Flight Response. Firefighters, Stress in. Fish, Stress in. Floods, Stress Effects of. Food Intake and Stress, Human. Food Intake and Stress, Non-Human. Food Shift Effect. Freud, Sigmund. GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid). Gastrointestinal Effects. Gender and Stress. Genetic Factors and Stress. Genetic Predispositions to Stressful Conditions. Glia or Neuroglia. Glucocorticoid Negative Feedback. Glucocorticoids, Effects of Stress on. Glucocorticoids, Neuroendangerment and Neurotoxicity. Glucocorticoids, Overview. Glucocorticoids, Role in Stress. Glucose Transport. Glycobiology of Stress. Gonadotropin Secretion, Effects of Stress on. Grieving. Group Therapy. Gulf War Syndrome, Psychological and Chemical Stressors. Health and Socioeconomic Status. Health Behavior and Stress. Heart Disease/Attack. Heart Rate. Heat Resistance. Heat Shock Genes, Human. Heat Shock Proteins: HSP60 Family Genes. Heat Shock Response, Overview. Herpesviruses. Hippocampal Neurons. Hippocampus, Corticosteroid Effects on. Hippocampus, Overview. HIV Infection/AIDS. Holocaust, Stress Effects of. Holocaust Survivors, Experiences of. Homeostasis. Homosexuality, Stress and. Hostility. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases. Hyperractivity (Cardiovascular). Hypertension. Hyperthermia. Hyperthyroidism. Hyperventilation. Hypnosis. Hypoglycemia. Hypotension, Hypovolemia, and Septic Shock. Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Anatomy of. Hypothermia. Hypothroidism. Hysteria. Immobilization Stress. Immune Cell Distribution, Effects of Stress on. Immune Function, Stress-Induced Enhancement of. Immune Response. Immune Suppression. Immune System, Aging. Immunity. Impotence, Stress and. Impulse Control. Incest. Indigenous Societies. Industrialized Societies. Infection. Instinct Theory. Insulin Resistance. Interactions between Stress and Drugs of Abuse. Korean Conflict, Stress Effects of. Learned Helplessness. Learning and Memory, Effects of Stress on. Left Ventricular Mass. Leishmania. Life Events Scale. Lipocortin 1. Lockerbie Air Crash, Stress Effects of. Lymph Nodes. Lymphocytes. Lymphocyte Trafficking. Macrophage Antimycobacterial Activity, Effects of Stress on. Macrophages. Major Depressive Disorder. Male Partner Violence. Marital Conflict. Marital Status and Health Problems. Marriage. Maternal Deprivation. Medical Profession and Stress. Membrane Glucocorticoid Receptors. Memory and Stress. Memory Impairment. Menopause and Stress. Menstrual Cycles and Stress. Mental Stress Testing. Metabolic Syndrome and Stress. Metastasization. Metyrapone: Basic and Clinical Studies. Migraine. Minorities and Stress. Motor Vehicle Accidents, Stress Effects of. Mucosal Immunity, Stress and. Multiple Personality Disorder. Multiple Sclerosis. Musculoskeletal Problems and Stress. Myopathy. VOLUME 3: Natural Killer (NK) Cells. Negative Affect. Nelson's Syndrome. Neuroendocrine Systems. Neurogenesis. Neuroimmunomodulation. Nightmares. Nitric Oxide. Northern Ireland, Studies of Stress in. Nuclear Warfare, Threat of. Nutrition. Obesity, Stress and. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Oklahoma City Bombing, Stress Effects of. Opioids. Optimism. Oxidative Stress. Oxidative Stress and Acidosis, Molecular Responses to. Oxytocin. Pain. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Paranoia. Paraventricular Nucleus. Peacekeeping. Peptides. Persian Gulf Ware, Stress Effects of. Personality Processes. Pharmacological Treatments of Stress. Pheromones. Pituitary Regulation, Role of. Police, Stress in. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Delayed. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Neurobiology of. Posttraumatic Therapy. Premenstrual Syndrome. Pressures, Effects of Extreme High and Low. Primate Hierarchies and Personality. Primate Models, Behavioral-Immunological Interactions. Primate Models, Cardiovascular Disease. Primate Models, Overview. Prison. Prisoners of War. Problem-Solving Skills Training. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Prostaglandins. Protein Synthesis. Psychoanalysis. Psychological Stressors, Overview. Psychoeuroimmunology. Psychosocial Factors and Stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. Psychotherapy. Psychotic Disorders. Reductive Stress. Reenactment Techniques. Refugees, Stress in. Regional Blood Flow, Stress Effects. Relaxation Techniques. Religion and Stress. Renal and Adrenocortical Actions of Dopamine. Reproduction, Effects of Social Stress on. Reproductive Dysfunction in Primates, Behaviorally Induced. Resistance. Restraint Stress. Salivary Cortisol. Salt Appetite. Schizophrenia. School Stress and School Refusal Behavior. Seasonal Changes in Stress Responses. Secretagogue. Self-Esteem, Stress and Emotion. Selye, Hans. Serotonin. Sex Differences in Human Stress Response. Sex Steroids, Response to Stress and Susceptibility to Depression. Sexual Assault. Sexual Dysfunction. Sickle Cell Disease and Stress. Sleep Loss, Jet Lag, and Shift Work. Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Stress. Smoking and Stress. Social Capital. Social Status and Stress. Social Stress, Animal Models of. Social Support. Somatic Disorders. Startle Response. Steroid Hormone Receptors. Steroid Hydroxylases. Stress, Definitions and Concepts of. Stress Effects, Overview. Stress Generation in the Context of Depressive Disorders. Stress Hyporesponsive Period. Stress Management and Cardiovascular Disease. Stress Management, CAM Approach. Suicide, Biology of. Suicide, Psychology of. Suicide, Sociology of. Surgery and Stress. Survivor Guilt. Sympathetic Nervous System. Synthetic Glucocorticoids. Teaching and Stress. Temperature Effects. Terrorism. Thermal Stress. Thermotolerance, Thermoresistance, and Thermosensitivity. Three Mile Island, Stress Effects of. Thymus. Thyroid Hormones. Torture. Trauma and Memory. Type A Behavior. Type A Personality, Type B Personality. Ulceration, Gastric. Understimulation/Boredom. Urocortin. Vasoactive Peptides. Vasopressin. Vietnam Veterans, Postwar Experiences of. Violence. Waist-Hip Ratio. War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Treatment of. War Stress in the former Yugoslavia. Workplace Stress. Contributors. Index.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2000
19th April 2000
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor in Chief

George Fink

George Fink is a Neuroendocrinologist and Neuropharmacologist who has had a major interest in stress since the start of his career. He was recently appointed Vice President and Director of Research of the Pharmos Corporation in Israel and the United States, and is the former Director of the Medical Research Council's Brain Metabolism Unit and honorary professor in the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Dr. Fink has published over 340 neuroendocrine papers and several authoritative books, and is past president of the European Neuroendocrine Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Mental Health Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia


@qu:"Given the pervasive nature of stress in everyone's lives, it is amazing that no major reference work to date has previously focused on this subject. The three-volume Encyclopedia of Stress fills a large gap in the encyclopedic literature of psychology and physiology. The 14 subject areas and 394 articles cover every aspect of stress, from the emotional to the biochemical. Navigation through the volumes is logical and straightforward. ...It is well written and may easily hold the interest of someone who is merely casually browsing. Depth of content is appropriate for undergraduates and graduate students and the professional looking for comprehensive background information. This impressive work addresses an issue fundamental to the quality of life. It would be an excellent addition to the collection of academic, medical, psychological, and public libraries." @source:—Lorraine Evans in AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOKS ANNUAL 2002 @qu:"A fantastic endeavour and a very clear idea that manages to combine an academically relevant topic with a socially relevant issue. A really good combination of topics with scientific excellence and social relevance... It is well-written, by many of the world authorities, and accessible, sexy and nicely cross-referenced with related topics and indexing ...There is really nothing like this book." @source:—BRITISH MEDICAL AWARDS (November 2001) @qu:"...everytime you pick up one of them to look at one article in particular, you'll be perusing them for an hour or two, wondering when you'll find the time to go do more library research on each of the many topics and ideas that caught your attention. These books would be useful in so many venues it is difficult to know what to list. They are clearly enough written that they could be used in medical or psychological service settings for education of both patients and practitioners. Every university library ought to include them, and many psychology and psychiatry departments will definitely want to have copies." @source:—PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS (2001) @qu:"It provides the most comprehensive and updated survey of research in stress medicine, by leading authors in the field. A must in any medical or psychological library." @source:—PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS (2000)

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