Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122266805, 9780080917771

Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: John Lindon
eBook ISBN: 9780080917771
Hardcover ISBN: 9780122266805
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st January 2000
Page Count: 2581


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The Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry provides authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the whole topic of spectroscopy, from theory to applications. Short articles, each covering one aspect of spectroscopy, provide the professional spectroscopist working in academia or industry with the essential facts and background on areas of spectroscopy peripheral to their own. A list of further reading at the end of each article directs the reader to the level of detail required for professional purposes. Articles are arranged alphabetically, each having been named to facilitate logical access by the reader. Each article is flagged as to which area of spectroscopy it covers ("Mass Spectroscopy," "Magnetic Resonance," etc.) and whether it covers theory, methods and instrumentation, or applications. Users can refer to an alphabetical article listing, or to a listing arranged according to subject area to locate articles. Further reading lists at the end of each article allow easy access to the primary literature. Extensive cross-referencing, a complete subject index, numerous figures, and color plates are included in each volume.
Initial access to the online version offering extensive hypertext linking and advanced search tools is available to buyers of the print edition. Ongoing access is maintained for a minimum annual fee.

Key Features

  • Contains nearly 300 articles covering the whole area of spectroscopy and related areas
  • Provides the essential facts and background for each topic
  • Includes reading lists in each article to help the reader access more detailed information
  • Allows easy access to required information through alphabetical listings, extensive cross-referencing to related articles, and a detailed subject index in each volume
  • Includes numerous figures and tables that illustrate the text
  • Contains color plate sections in each volume
  • Includes initial access to the online version with extensive hypertext linking and advanced search tools Ongoing access is maintained for a minimum annual fee


Professional spectroscopists working in academia or industry (e.g., in pharmaceutical, chemical, and engineering industries), relevant libraries and individual research groups. CD-ROM version especially should be useful to teachers/undergraduates as a source of course material and to postgraduates for practical tips and ideas for new ways of tackling problems

Table of Contents

Atmospheric Pressure Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Atomic Absorption, Methods & Instrumentation. Atomic Absorption, Theory. Atomic Emission and Fluorescence, Theory. Atomic Emission, Methods & Instrumentation. Atomic Fluorescence, Methods & Instrumentation. Atomic Spectroscopy, Historical Perspective. ATR and Reflectance IR Spectroscopy, Applications. Biochemical Applications of Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Biochemical Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Biochemical Applications of Raman Spectroscopy. Biofluids Studied by NMR. Biological Applications of EPR. Biological Applications of IR Spectroscopy. Biomacromolecular Applications of Circular Dichroism and ORD. Biomacromolecular Applications of UV-visible Absorption Spectroscopy. Biomedical Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. C13 NMR in Solution, Applications. C13 NMR Methods. C13 NMR Parameter Survey. Calibration and Reference Systems (Regulatory Authorities). Carbohydrates Studied by NMR. Cells Studied by NMR. Chemical Applications of EPR. Chemical Exchange Effects in NMR. Chemical Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Chemical Reactions Studied by Electronic Spectroscopy. Chemical Shift and Relaxation Reagents in NMR. Chemical Structure Information from Mass Spectrometry. Chemical Studies Using IR. Chemicals and Solvents, Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Chiroptical Spectroscopy, Orientated Molecules and Anisotropic Systems. Chiroptical Spectroscopy, Emission Theory. Chiroptical Spectroscopy, General Theory. Chromatography-IR Methods & Instrumentation. Chromatography-MS Methods. Chromatography-NMR Applications. Chromatography-IR Applications. CIDNP Applications. Circular Dichroism Spectrometers. Circularly Polarised Luminescence and Fluorescence Detected Circular Dichroism. Cluster Ions Measured Using Mass Spectrometry. Colorimeters. Colorimetry, Applications. Colorimetry, Theory. Computational Methods of Analysis and Chemometrics in Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Contrast Mechanisms in MRI. Cosmochemical Applications Using Mass Spectrometry. Crystals and Polymers, Theory and Prediction of Vibrational Spectra. Diffusion Studied Using NMR Spectroscopy. Drug Metabolism Studied Using NMR Spectroscopy. Dyes and Indicators, Applications of UV-visible Absorption Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Radiation. Electron Diffraction, Applications. Electron Diffraction, Instrumentation. Electron Microscope Applications. Electron Microscope Instrumentation. Electron Microscope Theory. Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy, Theory. Electronic Absorption, Spectrometers. Electronic Components, Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Electronic Emission & Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Theory. Electronic Spectroscopy, Historical Perspective. Electronic Spectroscopy, Linear Dichroism, Theory. Electrospray Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Ellipsometry, Technique and Applications. Enantiomeric Purity Studied Using NMR. Energy Transfer in Transition Metal & Lanthanide Systems. Environmental & Agricultural Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Environmental Applications of Electronic Spectroscopy. Environmental Applications of IR Spectroscopy. Environmental Applications of Mass Spectrometry. EPR Imaging. EPR Methods. EPR Spectroscopy, Theory. Exciton Coupling. F19 NMR Applications (Solution State). Far Infrared Spectroscopy Applications. Fast Atom Bombardment Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Fibre Optics. Fibres and Films Studied Using X-ray Diffraction. Field Desorption and Field Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Field Ionisation Kinetics in Mass Spectrometry. Flame and Temperature Measurement Using Vibrational Spectroscopy. Fluorescence and Emission, Instruments. Fluorescence Anisotropy (Static & Dynamic). Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy, Applications. Fluorescence Microscopy, Applications. Fluorescent Molecular Probes. Food & Dairy Products, Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Food Science Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Food Science Applications of NMR Spectroscopy. Forensic Science Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Forensic Science Applications of IR Spectroscopy. Forensic Science Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Forestry and Wood Products, Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Fourier Transformation and Sampling Theory. Fragmentation in Mass Spectrometry. FT-Raman Spectroscopy Applications. Gas Phase Applications of NMR Spectroscopy. Geology and Mineralogy Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Glow Discharge MS Methods. Halogen NMR Spectroscopy (excluding F19). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (As, Sb, Bi). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (B, AI, Ga, In, Tl). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (Ge, Sn, Pb). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (La - Hg). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (O, S, Se, Te). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (Sc - Zn). Heteronuclear NMR Applications (Y - Cd). High Energy Ion Beam Analysis Methods (& background). High Pressure Studies Using NMR Spectroscopy. High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy, Applications. High Resolution IR Spectroscopy (gas phase) Applications. High Resolution IR Spectroscopy (gas phase) Instrumentation. High Resolution Solid State NMR, C13. High Resolution Solid State NMR, 1H, 19F. Hole Burning Spectroscopy Methods. HPLC Detectors. Hydrogen Bonding and other Physicochemical Interactions Studied by IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Hyphenated Techniques, Applications of in MS. In vivo NMR Spectroscopy Methods. In vivo NMR, Applications - 31P. In vivo NMR, Applications - H1. In vivo NMR, Applications - Other Nuclei. Induced Circular Dichroism. Inductively Coupled Plasma MS, Methods. Industrial Applications of IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Inelastic Neutron Scattering, Applications. Inelastic Neutron Scattering, Instrumentation. Infra Red Spectral Group Frequencies of Organic Compounds. Inorganic Chemistry, Applications of CD and ORD. Inorganic Chemistry, Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Inorganic Chemistry, Applications of UV-visible Absorption Spectroscopy. Inorganic Compounds and Minerals Studied Using X-ray Diffraction. Inorganic Condensed Matter, Applications of Luminescence Spectroscopy. Interstellar Molecules, Spectroscopy of. Ion Collision, Theory. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT). Ion Dissociation Kinetics, Mass Spectrometry. Ion Energetics in Mass Spectrometry. Ion Imaging Using Mass Spectrometry. Ion Molecule Reactions in Mass Spectrometry. Ion Structures in Mass Spectrometry. Ion trap Mass Spectrometers. Ionisation Theory. IR and Raman Spectroscopy of Inorganic, Coordination and Organometallic Compounds. IR Spectrometers. IR Spectroscopy Sample Preparation Methods. IR Spectroscopy Studies of Works of Art. IR Spectroscopy, Theory. Isotope Ratio Studies Using Mass Spectrometry. Isotopic Labelling. Labelling Studies in Biochemistry Using NMR. Laser Applications in Electronic Spectroscopy. Laser Magnetic Resonance. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometers. Laser Spectroscopy Theory. Light Microscope Applications. Light Microscope Instrumentation. Light Sources and Optics. LIMS (Laboratory Information Management Systems). Linear Dichroism, Applications. Linear Dichroism, Instrumentation. Liquid Crystal Studies by Electronic Spectroscopy. Liquid Crystals & Liquid Crystal Solutions Studied by NMR. Luminescence, Applications. Luminescence, Theory. Macromolecular Applications of X-ray Diffraction. Macromolecule Ligand Interactions Studied Using X-ray Diffraction. Macromolecule-ligand Interactions Studied by NMR. Magnetic Circular Dichroism, Theory. Magnetic Field Gradients, in High Resolution NMR. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy. Magnetic Resonance, Historical Perspective. MALDI Mass Spectrometers. Mass Spectrometry, Historical Perspective. Materials Science Applications of X-ray Diffraction. Matrix Isolation studies by IR and Raman Spectroscopies. Medical Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Medical Science Applications of IR. Membranes Studied by NMR Spectroscopy. Metastable Ions. Microspectrofluorimetry Applications. Microwave and Radiowave Spectroscopy, Applications. Microwave Spectrometers. Mossbauer Spectrometers. Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Applications. Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Theory. MRI Applications, Biological. MRI Applications, Clinical. MRI Applications, Clinical Flow Studies. MRI Instrumentation. MRI of Oil/Water in Rocks. MRI Theory. MRI Using Stray Fields. MS-MS and MSn. Multiphoton Excitation in Mass Spectrometry. Multiphoton Spectroscopy, Applications. Multivariate Statistical Methods. Muon-spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Applications. n-dimensional NMR Methods. Near IR Spectrometers. Near IR Spectroscopy, Applications. Negative Ion MS, Methods. Neutralisation-Reionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Neutron Diffraction, Applications. Neutron Diffraction, Instrumentation. Neutron Diffraction, Theory. Nitrogen NMR. NMR Data Processing. NMR in Anisotropic Systems, Theory. NMR Microscopy. NMR of Solids. NMR Principles. NMR Pulse Sequences. NMR Relaxation Rates. NMR Spectrometers. NMR Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Nuclei in Solution. Non-linear Raman Spectroscopy, Applications. Non-linear Raman Spectroscopy, Instruments. Non-linear Raman Spectroscopy, Theory. Nonlinear Optical Properties. NQR, Applications. NQR, Instruments. NQR, Theory. Nuclear Overhauser Effect. Nucleic Acids & Nucleotides Studied Using MS. Nucleic Acids Studied by NMR. Optical Frequency Conversion. ORD and Polarimetry Instruments. Organic Chemistry Applications of Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Organic Chemistry Applications of UV-visible Spectroscopy. Organic Chemistry, Applications of Circular Dichroism and ORD. Organometallics Studied Using MS. P31 NMR. Parameters in NMR Spectroscopy, Theory of. Peptides & Proteins Studied Using Mass Spectrometry. Perfused Organs Studied Using NMR Spectroscopy. PET, Applications. PET, Methods and Instrumentation. PET, Theory. Petroleum Industry applications of Mass Spectrometry. Pharmaceutical Applications of Atomic Spectroscopy. Pharmaceutical Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in Solution, Applications. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Applications. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Methods and Instrumentation. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Theory. Photoelectron Spectrometers. Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Applications. Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Theory. Photoelectron-Photoion Coincidence Methods in Mass Spectrometry (PEPICO). Photoionisation and Photodissociation Methods in Mass Spectrometry. Photothermal and Time-resolved IR Spectroscopy. Plasma Desorption Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Polymer Applications of IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Polymers Studied Using Mass Spectrometry. Polymers Studied Using NMR. Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Applications. Product Operator Formalism in NMR. Proteins Studied Using NMR Spectroscopy. Proton Affinities. Proton Microprobe (Method & Background). Proton Microprobe, Applications. Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry, Methods. Quadrupoles, Use of in MS. Quantitative Analysis. Quantitative Analysis in IR and Raman Spectroscopies. Quantitative Analysis Using NMR Spectroscopy. Radio Frequency Field Gradients in NMR, Theory. Raman and FTIR Microscopy, Applications. Raman and IR Microspectroscopy. Raman Optical Activity, Applications. Raman Optical Activity, Spectrometers. Raman Optical Activity, Theory. Raman Spectrometers. Rayleigh Scattering and Raman Spectroscopy, Theory. Reference Materials for Atomic Spectroscopy. Reflectance. Relaxometers. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Applications. Rigid Solids Studied Using MRI. Rotational Spectroscopy, Theory. Scanning Probe Microscopes. Scanning Probe Microscopy, Applications. Scanning Probe Microscopy, Theory. Scattering and Particle Sizing, Applications. Scattering Theory. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Sector Mass Spectrometers. Si29 NMR. SIFT Applications in MS. Small Molecule Applications of X-ray Diffraction. Solid State Diffraction, Theory. Solid State NMR Using Quadrupolar Nuclei. Solid State NMR, Methods. Solid State NMR, Rotational Resonance. Solvent Supression Methods in NMR Spectroscopy. Sonically Induced NMR Methods. SPECT, Applications. SPECT, Instrumentation & Methods. SPECT, Theory. Spectro-electrochemistry Studied Using EPR Spectroscopy. Spectro-electrochemistry, Applications. Spectro-electrochemistry, Methods & Instrumentation. Spectroscopy of Ions. Spin Trapping & Spin Labelling Studied Using EPR Spectroscopy. Sports Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Stars, Spectroscopy of. Statistical Theory of Mass Spectra. Stereochemistry Studied Using MS. Stray Light in Electronic Spectroscopy. Structural Chemistry Using NMR Spectroscopy, Inorganic Molecules. Structural Chemistry Using NMR Spectroscopy, Peptides. Structural Chemisty Using NMR Spectroscopy, Natural Products. Structural Chemisty Using NMR Spectroscopy, Organic Molecules. Structural Chemisty Using NMR Spectroscopy, Pharmaceuticals. Structure Refinement (Solid State Diffraction). Structure Solution (Solid State Diffraction). Surface Induced Dissociation in MS. Surface Plasmon Resonance, Applications. Surface Plasmon Resonance, Instrumentation. Surface Plasmon Resonance, Theory. Surface Studies by IR Spectroscopy. Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), Applications. Symmetry in Spectroscopy, Effects of. Tensor Representations. Thermospray Ionisation in Mass Spectrometry. Time of Flight Mass Spectrometers. Titrations and Complexation Studies by UV-visible Absoption Spectroscopy. Translational Energy Loss Studies Using Mass Spectrometry. Tritium NMR Applications. Two-Dimensional NMR Methods. UV-visible Photon Detectors. Vibrational CD Spectrometers. Vibrational CD, Applications. Vibrational CD, Theory. Vibrational, Rotational & Raman Spectrocopy, Historical Perspective. Viruses Studied by X-Ray Diffraction. X-ray Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Theory. X-ray Absorption Spectrometers. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, Applications. X-ray Diffraction Instrumentation for Single Crystal Studies. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy, Applications. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy, Methods. X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers. X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Applications. X-ray Spectroscopy, Theory. Xenon NMR Spectroscopy. Zeeman and Stark Effect, Theory. Zeeman and Stark Methods in Spectroscopy, Instrumentation. Zeeman and Stark Methods in Spectroscopy, Applications.


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About the Editor-in-Chief

John Lindon

John Lindon is a Professor and Senior Research Investigator in the Division of Computational and Systems Medicine, part of the Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, UK. He is also a founder Director of, and a Consultant to, Metabometrix Ltd, a company spun out of Imperial College to exploit the commercial possibilities of metabolic phenotyping.

He obtained his B.Sc (1966), Ph.D. (1969) and D.Sc (1993) degrees from Birmingham University UK. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Columbia University, New York, USA (1969-1970), and then joined the Chemistry Department of Southampton University UK, to use NMR methods to research the properties of liquid crystals and later as a faculty member. From 1976 to 1995 he was at the Wellcome Research Laboratories (a pharmaceutical company) in the UK, occupying several senior scientific and managerial roles related to the use of physical chemical methods in drug design and discovery, latterly as Head of Spectroscopy, until they were taken over by Glaxo, now part of GlaxoSmithKline in 1995. He then joined Birkbeck College, University of London and moved to Imperial College London as part of the transfer of the Jeremy Nicholson team in 1998.

He has co-authored a book on NMR of oriented molecules, another on metabonomics in toxicology, one on metabonomics in general, one on NMR in pharmaceutical &D and one on metabolic phenotyping in personalised medicine and population screening. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry with a third edition in preparation, is on the editorial board of a number of journals and has authored many review articles and chapters, plus more than 450 research papers. He has given many key-note, plenary and invited lectures around the world.

His major research interest is the use of NMR and other analytical methods coupled with multivariate statistics to study biofluids and tissues, a field now termed metabolic phenotyping, leading to new approaches for disease diagnosis, prediction of outcomes and assessing disease risks in populations. His other achievements include the pioneering of a range of NMR data acquisition and processing methods, the use of nematic liquid crystals and NMR spectroscopy for determing accurate molecular structures in the liquid state, and the application of spectroscopy and other physical chemistry methods in drug design. Developments of NMR-based approaches in biomedical research include the use of directly-coupled HPLC-NMR fo mixture analysis and application of high resolution magic-angle-spinning NMR to tissue samples.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College London, UK


"...The entries give short descriptions, references to classics in the field, and cross-references to other related techniques...There are many professionals trained at an earlier time or learning new fields who would profit from this set in their libraries." --CHOICE

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