Encyclopedia of Sleep

Encyclopedia of Sleep

1st Edition - December 31, 2012

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Clete Kushida
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123786104

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Description

In a world of 24-hour media saturation, sleep has become an increasingly fraught enterprise. The award-winning four-volume Encyclopedia of Sleep, Four Volume Set is the largest reference, either online or in print, on the subject of sleep. Written to be useful for the novice and the established researcher and clinician, Topic areas will include sleep across the life cycle and in other species, sleep and women, sleep and the elderly, pediatric sleep, sleep deprivation and loss, sleep mechanisms, sleep physiology and pathophysiology, sleep disorders, neurobiology, chronobiology, pharmacology, and impact of other disorders on sleep. Recognizing the many fields that are connected to sleep science, the editorial team has been carefully chosen to do justice to this highly interdisciplinary field of study. The steady growth of researchers and clinicians in the sleep field attests to the continued interest in the scientific study of sleep and the management of patients with sleep disorders, and anyone involved in this exciting field should find this work to be an invaluable reference.

Key Features

  • 2013 PROSE Award winner for Multivolume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers
  • Thoroughly interdisciplinary: looks at sleep throughout the life cycle, with exceptional coverage of basic sleep concepts, the physiology of sleep as well as sleep disorders of all descriptions
  • Excellent coverage of sleep and special populations, covering the lifespan, as well as gender and ethnic differences, among others
  • Chapters focusing on sleep disorders are grouped under the broad categories classified in the ICSD-2 for clear organization so that the reader can effectively access the steps involved in diagnosing and treating these disorders
  • Online version is linked both within the encyclopedia (to related content) and to external sources (such as primary journal content) so that users have easy access to more detailed information if needed

Readership

Basic and clinical science researchers who study sleep science as well as clinicians who are seeking evidence-based diagnostic tools and treatments for patients suffering from sleep disorders. Also useful for polysomnographic technologists and other allied health professionals, as well as medical specialists and primary care physicians

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief

    Editorial Board

    Preface

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Basic Sleep Concepts, Science, Deprivation, and Mechanisms

    Background

    Perspectives

    A History of the Scientific Study of Sleep

    The First Hundred Years

    A Gathering of Eagles

    The Emergence of Sleep Research

    The REM Period

    Sleep Deprivation

    Biological Rhythms and Sleep Research

    Theories of Sleep

    Sleep Disorders Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    History of Sleep Medicine

    Professional Organizations

    Complications of OSA

    Discipline Identity and Discipline Overlap

    Minimal Penetration of the Mainstream Educational System

    Final Thoughts

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Normal Human Sleep

    Introduction

    Adult Sleep Architecture

    Sleep in Newborns and Infants

    Changes in Sleep with Aging

    Sleep Duration

    Sleep Neurophysiology

    Autonomic Nervous System

    Model of Sleep Regulation

    The Function of Sleep

    Key Points

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Concepts of Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Alertness

    Definitions of Sleepiness and Fatigue

    Factors Underlying Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Alertness

    Measurement

    Countermeasures

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Classification of Sleep Disorders

    Insomnia

    Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Hypersomnia Not Due to Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders, Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, or Other Causes of Disturbed Nocturnal Sleep

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Parasomnias

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Isolated Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Ontogeny of Sleep

    Humans Sleep Most When They Are Young

    Infant Sleep and Wake Bouts Are Fragmented

    Developmental Changes in Sleep Structure Build on a Basic Foundation

    The Neural Control of Infant Sleep

    Why Do Infants Sleep So Much?

    Why Do Infants Twitch So Much During Sleep?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Evolution of Sleep (Sleep Phylogeny)

    Sleep in Mammals

    Sleep in Birds

    Sleep Amounts in Mammals and Birds

    The Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    Sleep-Like States in Other Organisms: Do All Animals Sleep Like Humans?

    Is Sleep Vital for Memory Consolidation?

    Why Do Animals Sleep?

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Amphibians and Reptiles

    Definition

    Characteristics

    State-Dependent Brain Activity

    REM Sleep

    Sleep Mechanisms

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Physiology in Reptiles and Amphibians

    Reptiles

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Birds

    Introduction

    REM Sleep

    Non-REM Sleep

    Non-REM Sleep and Connectivity

    The Slow Oscillation as a Shared Feature of Sleep in Mammals and Birds

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Aquatic Species

    Hallmarks of the Studies of Sleep in Aquatic Mammals

    Sleep in Cetaceans

    Sleep in Eared Seals (Otariids)

    Sleep in True Seals (Phocids)

    Sleep in the Walrus (Odobenids)

    Sleep in Other Aquatic and Semiaquatic Mammals

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Mammalian Sleep

    Healthy Sleep

    Basic Sleep Tips

    Introduction

    Quantity of Sleep Needed

    Quality of Sleep Needed

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Creating an Optimal Sleep Environment

    The Sleep Environment

    Sleep Hygiene Versus an Optimal Sleep Environment

    Components of the Sleep Environment

    Assessing the Sleep Environment

    Changing the Sleep Environment

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Optimal Sleep Habits in Infants and Children

    Introduction

    Models for Conceptualizing and Studying Optimal Sleep in Infants and Children

    Developmental Changes in the Sleep of Infants and Children

    ‘Optimal Sleep for Whom?’ – Individual Differences, Culture, and the Family

    ‘Optimal Sleep for What?’ – Health and Developmental Outcomes

    What Treatments Optimize Sleep in Children with Sleep Problems?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Early Childhood Pediatric Sleep Concerns for Parents: Cosleeping

    Introduction

    Sleep in Early Development and the Concept of ‘Self-Soothing’

    Cosleeping Definition and Epidemiology

    Cosleeping Associations and Outcomes

    Breastfeeding, SIDS, and Bed Sharing

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Optimal Sleep Habits in Adolescents

    See also

    Further Reading

    Optimal Sleep Habits in Middle-Aged Adults

    Introduction

    Normal Aging and Sleep

    Sleep Disorders During Middle Age

    Medical and Psychiatric Disorders

    Menopause

    Lifestyle

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Optimal Sleep Habits in the Elderly

    Introduction

    Addressing Medical and Psychiatric Conditions That Disturb Sleep

    Addressing Changes in the Biological Clock

    Optimizing the Dose and Timing of Medications to Promote Healthy Sleep

    Optimal Healthy Sleep Practices

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Healthy Aging and Sleep

    The Problem

    Short Sleep

    The Circadian Clock

    The Menopausal State

    Cognition

    Some Therapeutic Approaches

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sex Differences in Sleep

    Introduction

    Sleep Behavior and Sleep Architecture

    Sex and Age Interactions

    Subjective Versus Objective Sleep Assessments

    Sleep Under Challenging Conditions

    The Role of Sex Steroids

    Sleep Disorders

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Nutrition and Sleep

    Introduction

    Nutrition Affects Sleep

    Sleep Affects Nutrition

    Other Disturbances of Sleep Related to Nutrition

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Exercise and Sleep

    Exercise and Sleep Quality

    Mechanisms by Which Exercise Could Improve Sleep Quality

    Exercise and Sleep Disorders

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    When an Individual Should See a Physician About Sleep

    Dreaming

    History of the Study of Dreams

    The Early History of Laboratory Investigation of Dreams

    Hypothesis: Dreams are Related to REM Sleep Characteristics

    Hypothesis: Dream Images are Internally Generated

    Hypothesis: Dreams are Related to Each Other Within the Night

    Hypothesis: Dreams Relate to the Presleep Waking State

    Hypothesis: Dreams Effect Postsleep Psychological Functioning

    Hypothesis: Dreams Differ in Psychiatric Patients

    The Future of Dream Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    The Interpretation of Dreams

    See also

    Further Reading

    The Psychology of Dreams

    Introduction: What Is a Dream?

    The Psychology of Dreaming and the Physiology of REM and NREM Sleep

    What Do We Dream About?

    The Psychological ‘Meaning’ of Dreams

    The ‘Work’ of Dreams: Memory Processing in the Sleeping Brain

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Dreams, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy

    Introduction

    Historical Perspective

    Dream Content in Psychopathology and Psychotherapy

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Dreaming and Psychiatric Disorders

    Introduction

    Similarities Between Dreaming and Psychosis

    Personality Traits Shown to Affect Dream Experiences

    The Relationship of Dreaming and Psychiatric Disorders

    Psychoactive Drugs Modulate Dream Experience

    REM Rebound: Psychotropic Effects

    RBD and Psychiatric Components

    Nightmares and Nocturnal Panic Attacks

    Parasomnias: Possible Overlap with Psychiatric Disorders

    Summary: Role of Dreaming in Psychopathology

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neurobiology of Dreaming

    Sleep Deprivation/Fragmentation Paradigms

    Acute Sleep Deprivation

    Introduction

    Acute Sleep Deprivation Paradigms

    Behavioral Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    Arousal Influences

    Individual Differences

    Measuring Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation

    Physiological Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation

    Clinical Changes Associated with Total Sleep Deprivation

    Recovery Sleep

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Partial and Sleep-Stage-Selective Deprivation

    Introduction

    Partial Sleep Deprivation

    Sleep-Stage-Selective Deprivation

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Fragmentation

    Introduction

    Sleep Fragmentation as a Form of Sleep Deprivation

    Different Types of Arousal

    Neurophysiology of Sleep Fragmentation

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Nonrestorative Sleep

    Extrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation

    Effects of Light and Temperature on Sleep in Adults and the Elderly

    Introduction

    Why Support the Aging Sleep–Wake Rhythm?

    Would Support to Enhance the Sleep–Wake Rhythm Be Profitable?

    How Can the Sleep–Wake Rhythm Be Supported?

    The Effect of Light on the Sleep–Wake Rhythm of Elderly People

    The Effect of Temperature on the Sleep–Wake Rhythm of Elderly People

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Effects of Pillows and Bed Surfaces on Sleep

    The Mattress and Pillow

    Common Sleep Surfaces

    Mattress Research

    Pillows

    Pillow Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep and Mental Performance: Effects of Time-Zone Transitions

    Background

    Rhythms of Sleep and Mental Performance

    Changes to Sleep and Mental Performance After Time-Zone Transitions

    Dealing with Jet Lag

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Shift Work

    Sleepiness or Fatigue in Shift Workers

    Performance and Accidents at Work

    Special Cases

    Shift-Work (Sleep) Disorder

    Countermeasures

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medications, Drugs of Abuse, and Alcohol

    Intrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation

    Age and Individual Determinants of Cognitive Effects of Sleep Loss

    Aging and Increased Resilience to Sleep Loss

    Cognition-Based Explanations

    Sleep/Wake Regulatory Explanations

    Selection Bias

    Trait Individual Differences

    Searching for Predictors

    Clinical Implications

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Homeostatic and Circadian Influences

    Internal Mechanisms Regulate the Alternation of Wakefulness and Sleep

    Theoretical Considerations on the Nature of Internal Mechanism: Clock and Homeostat

    Investigating the Homeostat

    Total Sleep Deprivation

    Excess Sleep

    Partial Sleep Deprivation

    Selective Sleep Deprivation

    Demonstrating the Combined Influence of Circadian Rhythmicity and Homeostat on Sleep Propensity

    Separating the Circadian and Homeostatic Influence

    The Paradoxical Circadian Sleep Propensity Rhythm

    Functional Significance of the Circadian Sleep Propensity Rhythm

    Circadian Influences on Sleep Structure

    Circadian Influences on the EEG During Wakefulness and Performance

    Influence of Sustained Wakefulness on the EEG During Wakefulness and Performance

    Consequences of Disrupting the Balance Between Sleep Homeostasis and the Circadian Sleep Propensity Rhythm

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Attention and Memory Changes

    Attention Changes

    Memory Changes

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Electroencephalographic and Neurophysiological Changes

    Definition

    Some History

    The Standard Sleep Scoring System

    Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep Stages

    The Rise of Computer-Aided Methods of EEG Analysis

    Sleep Homeostasis and Sleep Regulation

    Time Course and State Transitions

    EEG Topography: Local Aspects of Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Metabolic and Endocrine Changes During Sleep

    The Pineal Hormone, Melatonin

    Key Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Thermoregulatory Changes

    Introduction

    Thermoregulation

    Sleep Regulation

    Thermoregulatory Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Rodents

    Thermoregulatory Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Humans

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Biochemical Correlates of Prolonged Wakefulness

    Glycogen

    Lactate

    Adenosine Triphosphate

    Adenosine

    Nitric Oxide

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Immunologic Changes

    The Role of Sleep in Human Immune Function

    Sleep and the Innate Immune System

    The Effects of Immune System Stimulation on Sleep

    The Role of Sleep in the Development of Immunological Memory

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Changes in Gene Expression

    Introduction

    Microarray Studies in Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Genetic Effects

    Psychiatric Associations of Sleep Loss/Deprivation

    Changes in Affect

    Effects of REM and NREM Sleep on Emotional Memory and Affective Function

    Effects of Sleep Loss on Affect

    Circadian Factors

    Psychophysiology

    Development and Sex

    Risk for Mood Disorder

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Antidepressant Effects of Sleep Manipulation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Personality and Psychopathic Changes

    Introduction

    Sleep Loss and Cognition

    The Two-Process Model

    Sleep Loss and Brain Function

    Mood

    Trait Emotional Intelligence

    Constructive Thinking Skills

    Frustration Tolerance

    Symptoms of Psychopathology in Healthy Persons

    Paradoxical Improvement in Depressed Patients

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Sleep

    Sleep Loss in Disease States

    Sleep Loss from Major Sleep Disorders

    Prevalence of Sleepiness

    Implications of Sleep Loss

    Etiologies of Sleep Loss

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep Loss Associated with Medical Conditions and Diseases

    Special Populations Affected by Sleep Loss/Deprivation

    Adolescence

    Introduction

    Changes in Sleep Duration

    Changes in Sleep Intensity

    Changes in the Homeostatic and Circadian Regulation of Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Consequences of Sleep Loss

    Sleep Loss: Impact on Self-reported Sleepiness, Effort, Performance, and Motivation

    Introduction

    Sleep Loss and Impact on Self-reported Sleepiness

    Sleep Loss and Impact on Cognitive Performance

    Sleep Loss and Behavioral Consequences

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Sleep Loss on Subjective and Objective Effort

    Overview

    Measurement of Subjective Effort

    Measurement of Objective Effort

    Subjective Effort

    Timing of the Subjective Effort Measurement

    Subjective Effort Metric

    Objective Effort

    Maintenance of Effort and Task Engagement during Sleep Deprivation

    Biological Measures of Effort

    Physiological Measures of Effort

    Cortical Compensation

    Individual Differences

    Theoretical Models

    Summary and Future Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social and Economic Impact

    Socioeconomic Group

    Financial Strain

    Marriage Status, Age, and Gender

    Social Support

    Caregiving

    The Culture of Sleeping

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Occupational Impact

    Physical Aspects

    Psychosocial Factors

    Stress as a Common Denominator

    The Connection between Stress and Sleep in Cross-Sectional Studies

    Prospective Studies

    Rumination and Anticipation

    Burnout and Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Military Operational Effectiveness

    Introduction

    Historical Perspectives

    Current Perspectives

    Total Sleep Deprivation

    Chronic Sleep Restriction

    Sleep and Responses to Combat Stress

    Current Guidelines

    Tools for Sustaining Performance

    Monitoring Sleep

    Predicting Cognitive Readiness

    Pharmacological Countermeasures

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Athletic Performance; Effects of Sleep Loss

    Observed Rhythms of Physical Performance

    Biological Causes of Rhythmicity

    Biological Causes of Physical Performance Rhythms

    Effects of Sleep Loss Upon Athletic Performance

    Advice

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medical Resident/Physician Performance

    Basic Overview of Sleep/Wake Regulation

    Laboratory Demonstrated Effects of Acute and Chronic Partial Sleep Restriction

    Laboratory Demonstrated Effects of Circadian Misalignment

    Laboratory Demonstrated Effects of Sleep Inertia

    Data on Sleep/Wake Disruption Specifically Pertaining to Physicians

    Physician Trainee Work Schedule Countermeasures

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Driving Risks and Accidents

    Factors Responsible for MVCs

    Attitudes Toward Drowsy Driving

    Sleep Disorders and MVCs

    Detecting Driving Impairment

    Managing Driving Risk

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal Implications of Sleep Loss

    Short-Term Countermeasures for Sleep Loss Effects

    Behavioral and Environmental Countermeasures of Sleep Loss

    Introduction

    Countermeasures to Prevent Sleep Loss

    Countermeasures to Combat the Effects of Sleep Loss

    Substances that Affect Fatigue or Sleepiness

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Naps

    Critical Theoretical and Practical Issues

    The Function of Sleep

    There May Be Many Functions of Sleep Across the Animal Kingdom

    Is Sleep for the Brain?

    Is Sleep for Cerebral Energy Restoration?

    Is Sleep for Synaptic Homeostasis?

    Is Memory Consolidation a Function of Sleep?

    The Processing of Memory Transcripts During Sleep

    The Relationship Between NREM and REM Sleep

    Cellular and Molecular Functions of Sleep

    See also

    Further Reading

    Recovery from Sleep Loss

    Sleep Loss

    Recovery from Sleep Loss

    Current Directions in Recovery Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Eliminating Cumulative Sleep Debt and Sleep Satiation

    Cumulative Sleep Debt

    Excess Wakefulness

    Sleep Satiation

    Eliminating Cumulative Sleep Debt

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Role of Pharmacological Interventions for Sleep Deprivation

    Stimulants for Improving Cognitive Performance and Alertness

    Comparison Among Stimulants and Executive Functioning

    Sleep-Inducing Agents for Improving Sleep

    Operational Use of Stimulants and Sleep-Inducing Agents

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep Length: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    Introduction

    Epidemiology of Sleep Duration

    Longitudinal Studies of Short and Long Sleepers

    Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Future of Sleep Research

    Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Sleep

    Background

    Overview of Physiological Processes During Sleep

    Regulation of Body Temperature

    Regulation of Circulation

    Regulation of Respiration

    Neural Networks of Sleep and Physiological Regulation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Chemical Neuroanatomy of Sleep–Wake Systems

    Historical Perspective

    Waking: Activating and Arousal Systems

    Sleep: Deactivating and SWS Systems

    Sleep: REM or PS Systems

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology of Sleep/Wake Regulations

    Chronobiology of Sleep

    Molecular and Genetic Bases for the Circadian System

    External World and Entrainment of the Circadian Clock

    Clock Genes – The Components of the Molecular Circadian Clock

    Clock Disruption and Circadian Phenotypic Effects

    Clock Genes and Sleep Homeostasis

    Clock Genes and Human Sleep Disorders

    Clock Signal Transduction Pathways and Sleep

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Homeostasis

    Introduction

    Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep Homeostasis

    REM Sleep Homeostasis

    Waking EEG Markers of Sleep Homeostasis

    Sleep Homeostasis in Special Populations

    Future Directions

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Circadian Rhythms and Physiological Processes

    Regulatory Concepts in Physiology

    Physiological Rhythms Are Regulated by a Multioscillatory Timekeeping System

    Circadian Regulation of Body Temperature

    Circadian Control of Neuroendocrine Function

    Consequences of Circadian Organization for Disease

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Chronobiology of Sleep – Circadian Rhythms, Behavior, and Performance

    Circadian Regulation of Sleep

    Circadian Rhythms

    Circadian Sleep Disorders

    Melatonin and Core Body Temperature – Markers of Circadian Phase

    Circadian Rhythms and Performance

    Circadian Disorders and Mental Health

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    The Influence of Light, Exercise, and Behavior upon Circadian Rhythms

    Introduction

    Concept of Biological Clocks

    Molecular Basis of Circadian Clocks

    Master and Peripheral Clocks

    Phase Shifts and Phase Response Curves

    Light’s Path to the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    Molecular Mechanisms of Light-Induced Phase Shifts

    Other Timing Cues: Hints from Neuromorphology

    Nonphotic Entrainment: Exercise

    Feeding Behavior as a Zeitgeber

    Outlook: Entrainment of and by the Clock

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Effects of Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists on Circadian Rhythms

    Sleep and the Nervous System

    Basic Sleep–Wake Mechanisms

    Introduction: Sleep as an Active Process

    Arousal Systems

    Thalamic–Cortical Interactions and the Generation of the Sleep EEG

    Mechanisms of Sleep Onset and Sleep Maintenance

    Sleep-Generating Neurons in the Preoptic Hypothalamus

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    NREM Sleep: Anatomy and Physiology

    Introduction

    NREM Sleep: Anatomy

    NREM Sleep Switching

    NREM Sleep Regulation: Thermoregulatory Mechanism

    NREM Sleep: Neurochemical/Homeostatic Regulation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    REM Sleep Anatomy and Physiology

    Transection Studies

    Localized Lesion Studies

    Stimulation Studies

    Neuronal Activity, Transmitter Release

    Control of Muscle Tone in Sleep

    Narcolepsy and Hypocretin

    The Functions of Sleep

    See also

    Further Reading

    NREM–REM Sleep Regulation

    Introduction: Two States of Sleep

    Hypothalamic Control of Sleep and Arousal

    Brainstem Control of REM Sleep

    Generation of NREM–REM Cycles

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Electrophysiology of Sleep–Wake Systems

    Historical Perspective

    Waking: Activating and Arousal Systems

    Sleep: Deactivating and SWS Systems

    Sleep: REM or PS Systems

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neurochemistry of Sleep

    Introduction

    Waking Systems

    Sleep Systems

    Anterior Preoptic Hypothalamus

    Posterior Hypothalamus

    Brain Stem

    Somnogens

    Sleep and Waking Interactions

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Thermoregulation and Sleep

    Introduction

    Covariation of Sleep- and Thermophysiological-Variables under Baseline Conditions

    Effects of Thermal Intervention on Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Peripheral Nervous System and Sleep

    Sleep-State-Dependent Control of Motor Neurons and Somatic Sensory Neurons

    Release of Peripheral Inhibition in the Generation of Sleep Related Penile Erection

    Sleep-State-Dependent Changes to the Autonomic Nervous System

    Autonomic Cardiovascular Changes During Sleep

    Autonomic Respiratory Changes During Sleep

    Motor and Autonomic Control of GI Enteric System During Sleep

    Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Periodic Limb Movements, and REM Behavior Sleep Disorder as Consequences of Peripheral Neuropathy, Neuromuscular disorders, and Autonomic Dysfunctions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    The Modulation of Memory by Sleep

    Sleep and the Respiratory System

    The Upper Airway Anatomy

    Introduction

    Nose

    Oral Cavity

    Pharynx

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Respiratory Physiology

    Neural Organization of the Respiratory System

    The State-Dependent Chemical Brain

    Central Control of Respiratory Network Activity

    Lung Ventilation

    Respiratory Chemoreflexes

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep and the Control of Breathing

    Control of Breathing During Wakefulness

    Normal Breathing During Sleep

    Abnormal Breathing Patterns

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Physiology and Dynamics of the Pharyngeal Airway

    Necessity for the Pharynx to Be Collapsible

    Anatomy of the Pharynx

    Neural Control of Pharyngeal Airway

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Effects of Altitude on Breathing During Sleep

    Sleep and Other Systems

    Sleep and the Cardiovascular System

    Physiology of Sleep and the Cardiovascular System

    Sleep Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Cardiovascular Disease

    Cardiovascular Function during Normal Sleep

    Clinical Consequences of Changes in Autonomic Nervous System During Sleep

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Sleep and the Peripheral Vascular System

    Cerebral Circulation

    Cutaneous Circulation

    Renal and Splanchnic Circulation

    Skeletal Muscle Circulation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep and the Immune System

    Influence of Sleep on Immune System Parameters

    Impact of Disrupting Normal Sleep Patterns on Immune System Parameters

    Functional Consequences of Sleep-Related Alterations in Immune Function

    Considerations/Confounding Factors/Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Endocrinology of Sleep

    Introduction

    Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Somatotrophic System

    Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Adrenocortical System

    Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Thyroid System

    Insulin

    Prolactin, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

    Other Peptides

    Interaction of Peptides

    Melatonin

    Neuroactive Steroids

    Gonadal Hormones

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Gastrointestinal Physiology During Sleep

    Pharmacology of Sleep

    Basic Pharmacologic Mechanisms of Sleep

    Brain Regions and Neurotransmitter Systems that Participate in the Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness

    Neurotransmitter Systems Involved in the Promotion of Wakefulness and Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Endogenous Sleep-Promoting Substances

    Introduction

    Sleep Regulatory Substances

    What Is It About Wakefulness That Causes Increased Propensity for Sleep and Enhanced SRS Levels?

    Brain Organization of Sleep

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hypnotic Substances and Medications

    Introduction

    Prescribed Drugs

    Other Drugs Used in Insomnia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Pharmacotherapeutic Principles for Hypnotic Medications

    Insomnia: Diagnostic Criteria

    Pharmacological Treatment of Insomnia

    Mechanism of Action of Hypnotic Drugs

    Pharmacokinetics of Hypnotic Drugs in Healthy Adults and in Populations at Risk

    The Effect of Hypnotic Drugs on Sleep Variables in Patients with Insomnia

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists and Sleep

    Sleep Promotion via GABAergic Inhibition

    GABAA Receptors and Sleep Promotion

    Mechanism of Action of Benzodiazepines: A Servo Mechanism for Inhibition

    Benzodiazepine-Sensitive GABAA Receptors and Their Multiplicity

    EEG Fingerprints of Benzodiazepine Site Hypnotics

    Pharmacokinetics

    Tolerance, Dependence, Withdrawal

    Benzodiazepine Site Hypnotic Drugs in Clinical Use

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Antidepressants and Sleep

    Introduction

    Antidepressants and Sleep

    Tricyclic Antidepressants

    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

    Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors

    Serotonin-2 Receptor Antagonists/Reuptake Inhibitors

    Atypical Antidepressants

    Melatonin Agonists

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Wake-Promoting Substances

    Amphetamine-Like Stimulants

    Modafinil

    Caffeine

    Nicotine

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Wake-Promoting Medications

    Introduction

    Neurobiology of Wakefulness

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medications that Disrupt Sleep

    Assessment, Methodology, Training, and Policies of Sleep

    Assessment

    History and Physical Exam

    The Structural Basis of History Taking

    Outline of the Physical Exam

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Questionnaires and Rating Scales

    Adult Questionnaires

    Questionnaires Used in the Sleep Laboratory

    Pediatric Sleep Questionnaires

    Research Questionnaires

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Rating Scales to Assess Sleep Disorders

    Why Are Rating Scales Used to Assess Sleep Disorders?

    How to Choose a Rating Scale?

    Evaluating Questionnaires: Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity

    Commonly Used Rating Scales to Assess Sleep Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Chronobiological Assessment

    Chronobiology and Circadian Rhythm

    Biological Markers

    Behavioral Tools

    AASM Guidelines

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychologic and Psychiatric Assessment

    Neuropsychological Approach

    Insomnia

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neurologic Assessment

    Chief Complaint

    History of Present Illness

    The Physical Examination

    Neurodiagnostic Testing

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Assessment

    Introduction

    History and Physical Examination

    Diagnostic Tests

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Respiratory Assessment

    Breathing and Sleep

    Respiratory Focused Medical History

    Respiratory Symptoms

    Nasal Symptoms

    Upper-Airway Anatomy

    Upper-Airway Examination

    Examination of the Chest and Lungs

    Additional Studies

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Gastrointestinal Assessment

    Instrumentation and Methodology

    Adult Polysomnography

    Definition

    History

    Clinical Polysomnography: Overview

    Clinical Polysomnography: Some Technical Details for Parameters for Sleep Staging

    Electroencephalography

    Electrooculography

    Electromyography

    Clinical Polysomnography: Some Technical Details for Sleep Physiology

    Clinical Polysomnography: Special Attention to the Patient and Equipment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pediatric Polysomnography

    Definition of Polysomnography

    General Methods of Recording in PSG

    Sleep Variables Unique to Pediatrics

    Pediatric Indications and Findings in PSG

    Night-to-Night Polysomnographic Variability

    The Pediatric PSG Report

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Portable Monitoring

    Introduction

    Classification of Portable Monitoring Devices

    Technology

    Indications and Methodology

    Scoring and Interpretation

    Literature Review

    Validity and Reliability

    Limitations of Methodology

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Electroencephalography

    Physiological Basis of EEG

    Technical Requirements

    Types of Quantitative EEG Analysis

    Sleep EEG across the Lifespan

    EEG Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Monitoring and Staging Human Sleep

    Background

    EEG–EOG–EMG Electrode Placement and Application

    Digital Recording Requirements

    EEG Bandwidths, Waveforms, and Other Activity

    Sleep Staging Rules and CNS Arousals

    Summarizing Normal Sleep

    Ambiguous Sleep Stages and Sleep Quality

    Clinical Pearls

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Respiratory Monitoring During Sleep

    Airflow Detection

    Respiratory Effort

    Other Physiologic Parameters

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Nocturnal Penile Tumescence

    Definition of Nocturnal Penile Tumescence/Sleep-Related Erection

    Neuroanatomy of Erections

    Suprasegmental Control of Erections

    Procedures

    Sleep Disorders and ED

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Overview of Objective Tests to Assess Excessive Sleepiness

    Introduction

    Laboratory Base Objective Testing

    Performance Testing

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Actigraphy

    Introduction

    What Is Actigraphy?

    Validity and Reliability of Actigraphy

    Limitations of Actigraphy

    The Use of Actigraphy

    Other Clinical Uses of Actigraphy

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Actigraphy in Children

    Placement

    Sleep Diaries

    Recording Duration

    Care and Return of Actigraph

    Reimbursement

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Performing the MSLT

    MSLT Interpretation

    Controversies

    Technical Concerns

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Maintenance of Wakefulness Test

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychomotor Vigilance Performance

    Vigilance

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Task

    Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance

    Task Advantages

    Neural Basis

    Objective Versus Subjective Measurement of Sleepiness

    Task Administration

    Outcome Measures

    ‘Real-World’ Validity

    Animal Model

    Effects of Countermeasures

    Individual Differences

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neurocognitive Testing

    Underlying Neurophysiology

    Neurocognitive Approach

    Executive Functioning

    Considerations for Laboratory Testing

    Task Complexity

    Repeated Testing

    Effects of Age

    Examples of Neurocognitive Tasks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Neuroimaging and Sleep

    Training and Research

    Sleep Technologist Requirements

    Duties and Responsibilities

    Glossary

    Relevant Websites

    Fellowship Training for Sleep Medicine

    Introduction

    Sleep Medicine Fellowship Training

    Sleep Medicine Board Examination

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Board Certification for Sleep Clinicians

    Introduction

    American Board of Sleep Medicine (1978–2006)

    American Board of Medical Specialties (2007–Present)

    Certification of Added Qualification in Sleep Medicine by an American Osteopathic Association Member Board (2009–present)

    American Board of Dental Sleep Medicine (2004–Present)

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Funding Sources for Sleep-Related Research Grants

    Extramural Funding Opportunities

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Designing and Implementing Sleep-Related Clinical Trials

    The Multifaceted Project Team

    Study Design

    Randomized Clinical Trial

    Primary and Secondary Endpoints

    Sample Size

    Enrollment and Recruitment

    Randomization

    Single or Multiple Site Studies

    Promotion and Monitoring Intervention Adherence

    Clinical Data Management

    Statistical Analysis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Setting Up a Laboratory for Sleep-Related Animal Research

    Introduction

    Mouse Model of Sleep

    Measuring Sleep in the Fly

    Biochemistry/Molecular Biology

    Uncommon Sense

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Planning Sleep-Related Animal and Translational Research

    Introduction

    Sleep Correlates in Animals

    Genetics of Sleep, Insights from Animal Studies

    Techniques to Study Sleep in Animals

    Biosafety Guidelines, Veterinary Issues, and Ethical Considerations

    Choosing an Animal Model

    Animal Model for Sleep Disorders

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Succeeding in an Academic Sleep Environment

    Policies and Procedures

    Accreditation for Sleep Disorders Centers

    Why Seek Accreditation?

    First Steps

    Self-Assessment

    Full Accreditation of Sleep Disorders Center

    Provisional Accreditation of Sleep Disorders Center

    Resources

    Important Tips and Reminders

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Public Policy, Sleep Science, and Sleep Medicine

    Introduction

    Background: What Is Public Policy?

    Sleep Science and Sleep Medicine Meets Public Policy: Problem Areas

    Public Policy Meets Sleep Science and Sleep Medicine: Interventions

    Advocating for Sleep-Related Health and Safety Issues

    Putting it all Together: Influencing Emerging Sleep-Related Public Policy Issues

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep-Related Resources for Patients and Physicians

    Insomnia and Hypersomnias

    Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Insomnia

    Ontogeny of Insomnia

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Ontogeny

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Etiology and Pathogenesis of Insomnia

    Introduction

    Psychological and Behavioral Perspectives

    Psychophysiological Perspectives on the Pathophysiology of Insomnia

    Clinical Neuroscience Perspectives

    Basic and Translational Neuroscience Perspectives

    Integration

    Persistent Methodologic Issues and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Risk Factors

    Definition and Critical Review of Methodology Used to Study Risk Factors

    Demographic Characteristics

    Modifiable Risk Factors

    Insomnia as a Risk Factor

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Familial and Genetic Factors

    Descriptions of Insomnia

    Description of Insomnia

    Conceptual Model of Insomnia

    Nocturnal Symptoms

    Duration of Insomnia Symptoms

    Daytime Impairment and Distress

    Hyperarousal

    Primary and Comorbid Insomnia

    Risk Factors

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Types of Insomnia

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychophysiological Insomnia

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology and Pathophysiology

    Predisposing, Precipitating and Perpetuating Factors

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Paradoxical Insomnia

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Idiopathic Insomnia

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology and Pathophysiology

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Insomnia Due to Mental Illness

    Introduction

    Diagnostic Nomenclature

    Assessment of IMD

    How Does Insomnia Become a Comorbid Condition?

    Presentation of Insomnia in DSM-IV Axis I Disorders

    Treatment Options

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Inadequate Sleep Hygiene

    Introduction

    Diagnostic Criteria

    Clinical Features and Guidelines for Treatment

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood

    Diagnostic Criteria, Clinical Presentation, and Prevalence

    Consequences

    Typical Sleep in Young Children

    Assessment

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Insomnia Due to Drug or Substance Abuse and Dependence

    Abbreviations

    Substance Use Disorder – Definitions, Prevalence, and Mechanisms

    Substances of Abuse and Their Physiological Effects on Sleep

    Treatment Options

    Summary and Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Conditions

    Associations and Consequences of Insomnia

    Endocrine Function and Glucose Metabolism

    Insomnia and Hyperarousal

    Insomnia and Increased Sympathetic Activity

    Insomnia and Increased HPA Activity

    Insomnia and Obesity

    Insomnia, Glucose Metabolism, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Insomnia and Lipid Metabolism

    Insomnia and Protein Metabolism

    Insomnia and Bone Metabolism

    Areas of Uncertainty, Methodological Problems, and Future Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Mood and Behavior

    The Two-Process Model of Sleep Regulation

    Behavior, Sleep Homeostasis, and Circadian Dysregulation in Insomnia

    Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depressive Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Fatigue and Sleepiness

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Health-Related Quality of Life

    Daytime Consequences of Insomnia

    Measurement of HRQoL

    HRQoL in Insomnia

    Influence of Comorbid Disorders

    Effect of Insomnia Treatment on HRQoL

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Individual and Societal Impact

    Diagnosis of Insomnia

    Insomnia: History and Physical Exam

    Introduction

    Diagnostic Assessment for Insomnia

    Clinical Interview

    Self-Report Questionnaires

    Psychological Testing

    Sleep Log

    Polysomnography

    Actigraphy

    Physical Exam

    Laboratory Assessment

    Imaging Studies

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Diagnostic Tools for Insomnia

    Introduction

    Diagnostic Systems and Insomnia

    Clinical Interview: The Essential Diagnostic Tool for Insomnia

    Subjective Assessment Tools

    Objective Measures: Alternative Tools for Insomnia

    Putting the Tools Together

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Algorithm for Insomnia

    Treatment of Insomnia

    Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia

    Why a Behavioral Approach for Treating Chronic Insomnia Should Be Considered?

    Description of Behavioral Therapies for Chronic Insomnia

    Research About Behavioral Therapies to Treat Insomnia

    Comparisons of Behavioral Therapies and Hypnotic Medication to Treat Insomnia

    Issues Surrounding the Implementation of Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Treatment Delivery Methods, Treatment Providers, and Patient Adherence

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia

    The Cognitive Model and Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia

    Case Conceptualization: Phase 1 (1–2 Sessions)

    Reversing the Maintaining Processes: Phase 2 (4–6 Sessions)

    Consolidation/Relapse Prevention: Phase 3 (1–2 Sessions)

    State of the Evidence

    Future Directions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia

    Introduction

    Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists

    Efficacy

    Safety

    Melatonin Receptor Agonist

    Antidepressant Medications

    Alternative Medications

    Over-the-Counter Medications

    Recently Approved Sleep Medication

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Insomnia

    Who Uses Adjunctive and Alternative Treatments for Insomnia and Why?

    Natural Products

    Mind–Body Interventions

    Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies

    Other Adjunctive Interventions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Special Considerations for the Nonpharmacological Treatment of Insomnia

    Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Insomnia

    Gender Differences

    Basic Biological Differences in Sleep Between the Sexes Across the Life Span

    Influence of Gender Issues upon Sleep

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Insomnia in Children

    Assessment

    Insomnia in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool Children

    Insomnia in Middle Childhood

    Adolescent Insomnia

    Psychopharmacological Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Insomnia in Older Adults

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medication Effects

    Cardiovascular Medication

    Psychotherapeutic Medication

    Sedative Hypnotics

    The Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (e.g., Olanzapine, Quetiapine)

    Antidepressants

    Stimulants

    Nicotine-Dependency Treatments

    Gastrointestinal/Genitourinary Medication

    Cholesterol Agents

    Hormones

    Analgesics

    Anti-infective Agents

    Medication to Treat Neurological Disorders

    OTC Medication

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Impact of Neurological Disorders on Insomnia

    Introduction

    Headache and Insomnia

    Stroke and Insomnia

    Epilepsy and Insomnia

    Insomnia in Neurodegenerative Conditions

    Multiple Sclerosis and Insomnia

    Insomnia in Neuromuscular Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

    Mood Disorders and Insomnia

    Anxiety Disorders and Insomnia

    Substance Use and Insomnia

    Pain Disorders and Insomnia

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal Implications of Insomnia

    Introduction

    Medical/Legal Aspects of Insomnia

    Forensic Consultations for Insomnia Cases

    Additional Principles of Risk Management

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Future Directions in Insomnia Diagnosis and Treatment

    Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Hypersomnias

    The History of Narcolepsy

    Early Observations: 400 BC–AD 1877

    Recognition of Cataplexy: 1877–1900

    Scientific Progress: 1900–50

    An Explosion of Knowledge: 1950–2011

    Brief History of Treatment

    Looking Forward

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Epidemiology of Hypersomnia

    Introduction

    Narcolepsy

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    Recurrent Hypersomnia

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Ontogeny of Hypersomnias

    Introduction

    Ontogeny of Sleep and Sleepiness

    Pathological Hypersomnia

    Ontogeny of Pathological Hypersomnia and Differential Diagnosis Considerations

    Ontogeny of Specific Hypersomnia Conditions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hypersomnia: Etiologies

    Introduction

    Observational Studies/Case Series

    EEG/Sleep Architecture Abnormalities

    Neurotransmitters in Hypersomnia

    Circadian Dysfunction

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pathogenesis of Hypersomnia

    Introduction

    Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Wakefulness and Sleep

    Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia

    Histamine and Hypersomnia

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    Recurrent Hypersomnia

    Other Causes of Hypersomnia

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Risk Factors for Hypersomnias

    Introduction

    Narcolepsy With and Without Cataplexy

    Narcolepsy-Like Symptoms Due to Other Neurological Conditions

    Recurrent Hypersomnia

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

    Hypersomnia Due to Medication

    Hypersomnia Due to a Medical Condition

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Familial and Genetic Factors of Narcolepsy

    Descriptions of Hypersomnias

    Overview of Hypersomnias

    Introduction

    Narcolepsy

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    Recurrent Hypersomnias

    Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Description of Hypersomnias

    Overview

    Mechanisms Underlying Sleepiness

    Evaluating Sleepiness

    Hypersomnia Classification Systems

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Types of Hypersomnia

    Distinguishing Features

    Unresolved Issues

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

    Clinical Features

    Associated Clinical Features

    Epidemiology and Natural History

    Clinical Neurophysiology

    Pathophysiology and Neurochemistry

    Etiology

    Diagnosis

    Differential Diagnosis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Narcolepsy without Cataplexy

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Orexin – Role in Wakefulness and Sleep

    Clinical Manifestations

    Differential Diagnosis

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Narcolepsy due to a Medical Condition

    Epidemiology

    Causes

    Clinical Features

    Diagnosis

    Clinical Subtypes

    Differential Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Recurrent Hypersomnia

    History and Nomenclature

    Key Symptoms and Signs

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia with Long Sleep Time

    Diagnostic Criteria

    Nocturnal Sleep

    Daytime Sleepiness

    Multiple Sleep Latency Test

    Associated Features

    Differential Diagnosis

    Pathophysiology

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia without Long Sleep Time

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

    Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome: Defining Features

    Differential Diagnosis

    Consequences of Insufficient Sleep

    Treatment of BIISS

    Other Considerations

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hypersomnia Due to Drug or Substance

    Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias

    Morbidity and Mortality

    Hypersomnia-Related Diagnoses

    Morbidity

    Mortality

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Effect on the Central Nervous System

    History and Nomenclature

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Course and Modifying Factors

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Complications and Consequences

    Evaluation of the Effects

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Mood and Behavior

    Introduction

    Psychiatric Disorders and Hypersomnia

    Mood and Behavior in Central Hypersomnias

    Hypersomnia Due to a Medical Condition and its Association with Mood and Behavior

    Sleep Deprivation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleepiness

    Introduction

    Sleepiness Classifications

    Interindividual Differences in Susceptibility to EDS

    Biological Underpinnings and Predisposing Factors

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hypersomnia

    Hypersomnia

    Narcolepsy

    Recurrent Hypersomnia

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Economic Impact of Sleep Deprivation

    Economic Consequences of Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders

    Sleep Deprivation and Other Health Effects

    See also

    Further Reading

    Individual and Societal Impact of Hypersomnias

    Diagnosis of Hypersomnias

    Diagnosis of Hypersomnia in Children: Screening and Case Finding

    Onset, Ontogeny and Clinical Course

    Predisposing and Precipitating Factors

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Tools for Hypersomnias

    Introduction

    Clinical History

    Physical Examination

    Diagnostic Testing

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Algorithm for Hypersomnias

    Treatment of Hypersomnias

    Treatment of Hypersomnia

    Therapeutic Approach to the Hypersomnia Patient

    Basic Principles of Pharmacologic Therapy for Hypersomnia

    Clinical Pharmacology of Stimulant and Anticataplectic Therapies

    Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Hypersomnia

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Special Considerations for Treatment of Hypersomnias

    Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Hypersomnias

    Hypersomnias in Children

    Introduction

    Hypersomnia due to Insufficient Sleep (Decreased Amount of Sleep)

    Hypersomnia due to Fragmented Sleep (Decreased Quality of Sleep)

    Hypersomnia due to Increased Need for Sleep

    Assessment of Hypersomnia in Children

    Management of Hypersomnia in Children

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hypersomnias in the Elderly

    Introduction

    Sleep Architecture in the Elderly

    Circadian Rhythm Changes in the Elderly

    Differential Diagnoses for Daytime Hypersomnia in the Elderly

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medications and Sleep

    Sedative–Hypnotics

    Medications Altering Sleep-Associated Diagnoses

    Medications Affecting Dreaming

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Other Sleep Disorders

    Introduction

    Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Restless Legs Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    NREM Parasomnias

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Neurological Diseases

    Introduction

    Hypersomnias of Central Origin

    Hypersomnia Due to Medical Condition

    Narcolepsy Due to Medical Condition

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Due to Medical Condition

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Medical Disorders

    History

    Sleep and the Clinical Course of Medical Conditions

    Acute Medical Conditions

    Chronic Medical Conditions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Schizophrenia

    Anxiety Disorders

    Eating Disorders

    Substance Use and Abuse

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal Implications of Hypersomnias

    Drowsy Driving

    Narcolepsy

    Statutory and Case Law

    Ethical and Legal Responsibilities for Reporting Sleepy Drivers

    Flying

    Sleepiness and the Workplace

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Future Directions in Hypersomnias: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Sleep in Special Populations

    Pediatric Sleep

    Key Differences in Pediatric versus Adult Sleep

    Introduction

    Sleep Stages

    Sleep Regulation: Circadian Rhythm and Homeostatic Sleep Regulation

    Sleep Efficiency

    Sleep Latency

    Total Sleep Time

    Sleep Consolidation

    Neuroendocrine Activity During Sleep

    Key Differences in Sleep Pathology with Age

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Electrophysiological Changes in Sleep During Childhood

    Introduction

    Premature Newborn

    Term to 3 Months of Age

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neonates and Infants

    Day–Night Distribution and Consolidation of Sleep

    Proximal and Distal Care of the Babies

    Variability of Sleep Duration

    Sleep Architecture in the First Year

    The Development of Circadian Rhythms

    Sleep Homeostasis During the First Year of Life

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Newborn and Infant Sleep

    Sleep Architecture

    Maturation of the Sleep Stages

    Maturation of Sleep State Organization

    Control of Breathing

    Periodic Breathing

    Apnea of Prematurity

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Children

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Infants and Children with Medical Disorders

    Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, and Atopic Dermatitis

    Cancer

    Congenital Heart Disease

    Craniofacial Disorders

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Down Syndrome

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Sickle Cell Anemia

    Renal Disease

    Visual Impairment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Children with Genetic Disorders

    Down Syndrome

    Prader–Willi Syndrome

    Joubert Syndrome

    Rett Syndrome

    Fragile X Syndrome

    Craniofacial Syndromes

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Smith–Magenis Syndrome

    Costello Syndrome

    Niemann–Pick Type C

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Williams Syndrome

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Children with Neurological and Neuromuscular Disorders

    Epilepsy

    Chiari Malformations and Myelomeningocele

    Traumatic Brain Injury

    Cerebral Palsy

    Poststroke

    Blindness

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Disturbance in Children with Intellectual and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Overview of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Intellectual/Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Contributors to Sleep Problems in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Specific Sleep Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Treatment of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Medically Based Treatment

    Medication-Based Treatment

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing and Precipitating Factors

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Infants and Children with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

    Asthma

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Special Considerations for Performing and Interpreting PSG in Children with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Children with Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases

    Relevance

    Contributors to Sleep Disturbance

    Common Sleep Complaints

    Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Importance of Interventions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Sleep in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Sleep in Children with Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: From Epidemiology to Pathophysiology

    Definition

    Pathologic Examinations

    Incidence

    Risk and Protective Factors

    Model for SIDS

    Mechanisms Implicated in SIDS Deaths

    Physiopathology

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Chronic Pain and Other Pediatric Conditions

    Sleep in Other Age Groups

    Sleep in Middle Age

    Sleep in the Middle Years of Life

    Sleep Disorders in Middle Age

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Older Adults

    Introduction

    Circadian Rhythm Disturbances

    Major Sleep Disorders

    Consequences of Poor Sleep

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Pathology in the Elderly

    Introduction

    Insomnia in the Elderly

    Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Parasomnias

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Hypersomnias

    Environmental and Psychosocial Factors

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Disturbances in Nursing Homes

    Sleep in Women

    Normal Sleep in Women

    Introduction

    Hormonal Transitions

    Psychosocial Aspects of Sleep in Women

    Mood Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Pregnancy and the Postpartum

    Sleep During Pregnancy

    Common Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances

    Sleep by Trimester

    Frequent Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep During Perimenopause

    Sleep and Ethnicity

    Ethnicity and Prevalence of Sleep Disorders

    Introduction

    ‘Short’ Sleep and ‘Long’ Sleep

    Insomnia

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Narcolepsy–Cataplexy

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep, Sleepiness, and Sleep Disorders: Principles for Examining Differences by Ethnicity

    Sleep in Other Conditions

    Sleep in Other Conditions: Sleep in the Caregiver

    Introduction

    Sleep in Caregivers for Persons with Dementia

    Sleep Characteristics of Caregivers for Persons with Dementia

    Factors Contributing to Poor Sleep in Caregivers for Persons with Dementia

    Sleep in Caregivers for Cognitively Intact Persons

    Caregivers of Adults

    Caregivers of Children

    Caregiver Sleep Disturbance as Chronic Insomnia

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep and Anesthesia

    Sleep and Anesthesia: Distinct States with Shared Characteristics

    Unconsciousness in Sleep and Anesthesia: A Common Narcotic Switch

    Physiological Changes During Sleep and Anesthesia Affecting Respiration

    Sites and Genesis of Upper Airway Obstruction During Anesthesia and Sleep

    Clinical Interrelationships Between Sleep and Anesthesia

    The Use of Anesthesia in the Investigation of Patients with Suspected or Known Sleep Disorders

    Sleep in the Postoperative Period

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep and Athletes

    Sleep

    Circadian Rhythms

    Jet Lag

    Sleep Loss

    Best Practices for Athletes

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep and Shift Work

    Circadian Rhythms

    Sleep

    Shift Work Sleep Disorder

    Shift Work and Health

    Shift Work, Performance, and Safety

    Best Practices for Shift Work

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep at High Altitudes

    Introduction

    Changes in Sleep at High Altitudes

    Acute Mountain Sickness

    Treatment of Sleep Disturbance at High Altitude

    OSA at High Altitudes

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Chronic Mountain Sickness and Sleep

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep in Aviation and Space

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders (CRSD)

    Features, Factors, and Characteristics of CRSD

    A Brief History of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Introduction

    Identification and Characterization

    Classification

    Treatment

    Genetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Descriptions of CRSD

    Overview and Description of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Introduction

    Delayed Sleep-Phase Disorder

    Advanced Sleep-Phase Disorder

    Irregular Sleep–Wake Disorder

    Free-Running Disorder

    Jet Lag Disorder

    Shift Work Disorder

    CRSD Due to Medical Condition

    Other CRSD (Circadian Rhythm Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified)

    Other CRSD Due to Drug or Substance

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

    Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

    Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

    Irregular Sleep–Wake Rhythm Disorder

    Free-Running Disorder

    Jet Lag Disorder

    Shift Work Sleep Disorder

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Delayed Sleep-Phase Type

    Description and Diagnostic Criteria

    Treatment of DSPD

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Advanced Sleep Phase Type

    Description and Diagnostic Criteria

    Etiology/Pathophysiology

    Sleep Disturbance in Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

    Treatment of Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Irregular Sleep–Wake Type

    Introduction

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

    Assessment

    Treatment Options

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder (Free-running Type, Nonentrained Type, Hypernychthemeral Syndrome) in Sighted and Blind Patients

    Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder in Sighted Patients

    N24HSWD in Totally Blind Patients

    See also

    Further Reading

    Jet Lag Type

    Travel Fatigue Versus Jet Lag

    The Body Clock and Jet Lag

    Measurement of Jet Lag

    Factors Affecting Jet Lag

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Shift Work Type

    Associations and Consequences of CRSD

    Health Consequences of Circadian Disruption

    Overview

    Circadian Rhythms

    Shift Work and Health

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Fatigue and Sleepiness in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Description

    Sleepiness in CRSDs – Contributing Factors

    Treatment of Sleepiness in CRSDs

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Individual and Societal Impact

    Diagnosis of CRSD

    History and Physical Examination

    Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

    Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

    Free-Running Disorder

    Irregular Sleep–Wake Rhythm Disorder

    Jet Lag Disorder

    Shift Work Disorder

    Assessment of CRSDs

    Assessment of Sleepiness

    Assessment of Insomnia and Sleep

    Assessment of Chronotype

    Sleep Diaries

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Algorithm for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Treatment of CRSD

    Light and Melatonin Treatment for Jet Lag Disorder

    Circadian Timing System

    Circadian Phase Shifting Responses to Bright Light

    Circadian Phase Shifting Effects of Exogenous Melatonin

    Treating Jet Lag with Bright Light and Melatonin

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Light and Melatonin Treatment for Shift Work

    Shift Work: Description, Prevalence, and Safety Concerns

    Adverse Effects of Shift Work

    Light Treatment for Shift Workers

    Melatonin Treatment for Shift Workers

    Considerations and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for CRSD

    Circadian Rhythm Disorders: Does Sex Matter?

    Introduction

    Methodology

    Sex Differences in Sleep–Wake Timing

    Sex Differences in Circadian Phase

    Sex Differences in Circadian Amplitude

    Sex Differences in Circadian Period

    Sex Differences in Light Sensitivity and Phase Angle of Entrainment

    Significance of Sex Differences in the Circadian Timing System

    Mechanisms Behind a Sex Difference in Circadian Regulation

    Impact of the Menstrual Cycle on Circadian Rhythms

    Sex Differences in Circadian Rhythm Disorders

    Impact of Shiftwork on Women’s Health

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Adolescents

    Sleep Regulation

    Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Age-Related Changes in Circadian Rhythms During Adulthood

    Introduction

    Age-Related Changes in Sleep Timing and Sleep Maintenance

    Age-Related Changes in Circadian Regulation of the Sleep–Wake Cycle

    Age-Related Changes in Circadian Entrainment

    Molecular Mechanisms of Age-Related Changes in Circadian Rhythms

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medication Effects

    Hypnotics

    Stimulants

    Melatonin Agonists

    Lithium

    Nonclinical Compounds

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Neurological and Medical Disorders

    Neurological Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Endogenous and Exogenous Melatonin, the Sleep–Wake Cycle, and the Circadian Component of Affective Disorders

    Introduction: The Phase Advance Hypothesis and the Phase Shift Hypothesis

    Phase-Typing Using the Dim Light Melatonin Onset

    Phase-Typing Seasonal and Nonseasonal Depression

    Successful Melatonin Treatment of Summer SAD: A Case Report

    The Hawaiian Earring Model

    Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Disorders Using Bright Light and Low-Dose Melatonin

    Determination of Tau in Humans

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Special Considerations and Future Directions in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders Diagnosis

    The Circadian System

    Light and Circadian Rhythms

    Regulation of Sleep–Wake Cycles

    Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Measurement of Circadian Rhythms in the Diagnosis of CRSD

    See also

    Further Reading

    Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep: Role in Carcinogenesis

    Introduction

    Circadian Disruption and Cancer Risk

    Circadian Disruption in Cancer Patients: Therapeutic Implications

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal Implications of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD)

    Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRBD

    The History of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) from the Beginning of Mankind to the Nineteenth Century

    SDB in the Twentieth Century

    The Therapeutic Revolution for SDB

    From the EEG 8 Channel Paper Graph to Miniature Polysomnographs – Developments in Diagnostic Options

    Gaining Ground in the Public Interest: Epidemiologic Research in SDB

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Epidemiology

    Introduction

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome

    Snoring

    Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes

    Special Populations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Ontogeny of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Airway Anatomy in Infants and Children

    Consequences of Pediatric OSA

    Diagnostic and Treatment Paradigm

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Phylogeny and Animal Models

    Introduction

    Phylogeny Involved in Animal Research

    Animal Models of SDB

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Upper Airway Pathology

    Introduction

    Tissue Changes Potentially Influencing Upper Airway Mechanics

    Tissue Changes Potentially Affecting Upper Airway Neuromechanical Function

    See also

    Further Reading

    Arousals

    Arousal Phenomenon

    Definitions of Arousal

    Arousal Scoring Rules

    Reliability of Scoring ASDA (AASM) Arousals and Night-to-Night Variability

    Arousal Index

    Significance of Arousals

    Arousal and Daytime Sleepiness in OSA

    Respiratory Arousal and Event Termination

    Mechanisms of Respiratory Arousal

    PLMS and Arousal

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pathophysiology/Pathogenesis of OSA

    Introduction

    Airway Anatomy

    Pharyngeal Muscle Function

    Respiratory Control Stability

    Arousal from Sleep

    Lung Volume

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Introduction

    Prevalence of OSA

    Risk Factors for OSA

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Familial and Genetic Factors – Sleep Apnea

    Familial Aggregation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Linkage Analysis

    Intermediate Phenotypes

    Candidate Gene Studies of OSA

    Genome-Wide Association Studies

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Associations and Consequences of OSA

    Descriptions of SRBD

    Overview, Description, and Types of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Introduction

    Terminology, Definitions, and Classification

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes

    CSA Syndromes

    Primary CSA (Idiopathic CSA)

    Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne–Stokes Respiration (CSA–CSR)

    CSA Due to High Altitude Periodic Breathing

    CSA Due to Drug or Substance

    Primary Sleep Apnea of Infancy

    Sleep-Related Hypoventilation Syndromes

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Primary Central Sleep Apnea

    Introduction

    Definition

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Risk Factors

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne–Stokes Breathing Pattern

    Introduction

    Pathogenesis of CSR

    Adverse Consequences of CSR

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Central Sleep Apnea due to a Medical Condition Not Cheyne–Stokes

    Introduction

    Anatomy and Physiology of the Control of Breathing

    Medical Conditions that May Contribute to Central Sleep Apnea

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Central Sleep Apnea Due to Drug or Substance

    Introduction

    Scoring and Classification of Breathing Disturbances Associated with Chronic Opioids

    Opioids and Control of Respiration (Basic Neurophysiology)

    Effects of Opioids on Breathing (Clinical Studies)

    Review of Clinical Data Concerning Opioids and SDB

    Assessing Individual Risk and Indications for Polysomnography in Patients Receiving Chronic Opioids

    Therapy of SDB Associated with Opioids

    Summary Comments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Snoring

    Epidemiology

    Risk Factors

    Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Features

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Primary Sleep Apnea in Infants

    Incidence

    Pathophysiology

    Risk Factors

    Clinical Symptoms

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    Complications

    Special Considerations

    Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome or Ondine’s Curse

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Pathogenesis/Pathophysiology

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Features

    Assessment

    Associations and Consequences of OSA

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    History and Definition of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Pathophysiology

    Clinical Features of OSA

    Physical Features Related to OSA

    Risk Factors and Associated Conditions

    Diagnosis of OSA in Children

    Treatment of OSA in Children

    Long-Term Clinical Consequences of OSA

    Burden of Disease/Health Care Utilization

    Knowledge Gaps and Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Complex Sleep Apnea

    Introduction

    Definitions

    The Clinical Impact of Complex Apnea

    Pathophysiology of Complex Sleep Apnea

    The Problem of Identifying Complex Sleep Apnea

    Is Complex Apnea a Trait or a State?

    Occurrence and Persistence of Complex/Chemoreflex-Modulated Sleep Apnea

    The Concept of a Dynamic Spectrum of Chemoreflex Influences on Sleep Respiration

    An Important Destabilizing Role for Arousals

    Treatment of Complex/Chemoreflex-Modulated Sleep Apnea

    Integrating Management Options

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Idiopathic Nonobstructive Alveolar Hypoventilation

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Introduction

    Genetics

    Late-Onset Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep and Obstructive Lung Disease

    Introduction

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Asthma

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia Due to Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology

    Prevalence

    Specific Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Associations and Consequences of SRBD

    Morbidity and Mortality of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Cardiovascular Morbidity in OSA

    OSA Progression to Heart Failure

    Increased Prevalence of OSA in Stroke

    COPD and OSA: the Overlap Syndrome

    The Behavioral Morbidity of OSA

    Type 2 Diabetes and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Associations with OSA

    Increased Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) – Attention and Vigilance

    Introduction

    Etiology and Mechanism

    Clinical Findings

    Sleep–Wake Physiology

    EEG Effects

    Neuroimaging Findings

    Event-Related Potential Findings

    Effects of Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Executive and Frontal Lobe Function

    Executive Function Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Mechanisms of the Neurocognitive Dysfunction in OSA

    Neuroimaging Findings Associated with Executive Deficits in OSA

    Reversibility of Executive Deficits after Treatment

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Physiology

    Hypertension

    Coronary Artery Disease

    Heart Failure

    Arrhythmia

    Stroke

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sleep

    Sleep and Cardiac Electrophysiology

    Arrhythmia: Epidemiology and Public Health Impact

    OSA: Pathophysiologic Consequences Potentially Leading to Arrhythmogenesis

    OSA and Cardiac Arrhythmias: Epidemiologic and Clinical Perspectives

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Heart Failure

    Introduction

    Prevalence of SA in Consecutive Patients of HF, the Recent Studies

    In Patients with HF, SA Is Occult, But Certain Risk Factors Help in Identifying Patients at High Risk of OSA and CSA

    Mechanisms of SA in HF

    Pathological Consequences of SA in HF

    The Mechanisms and Consequences of Increased Sympathetic Activity in HF: The Role of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    OSA and CSA Are Independently Associated with Excess Mortality in Patients with HF

    Treatment of SA in HF

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cardiovascular Effects

    Introduction

    OSA and Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease

    OSA and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    Mechanisms of the Cardiovascular Effects of OSA

    Effect of CPAP Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Hypertension

    Arterial Hypertension

    Sleep-Related CV Control

    Sleep Disruption as a Cause of HTN

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Evidence Linking OSA to HTN

    CV Complications of OSA

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Apnea and Stroke

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

    OSA and Cerebrovascular Disease Association

    Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea and Cerebrovascular Disease

    Short Sleep Duration and Metabolic Dysregulation

    Snoring and Carotid Plaques

    Sleep Apnea Treatment and Cerebrovascular Disease

    Secondary Prophylaxis: Sleep Apnea Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Background

    Definitions

    OSA and Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Mechanisms of Altered Glucose Metabolism in OSA

    Summary and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Sleep and Obesity

    Obesity – Definitions and the Scope of the Problem

    Obesity and OSA

    Sleep Debt/Deprivation, Interactions with OSA and Metabolic Dysregulation

    Cardiovascular Consequences of Obesity

    The Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Weight Loss as a Treatment for OSA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Mood and Behavior

    Daytime Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Mood Problems in OSA

    Behavioral Problems in Children with OSA

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleepiness

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Health-Related Quality of Life in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Introduction

    HRQoL Measures in OSAS

    HRQoL in Untreated OSAS

    Predictors of HRQoL in OSAS

    OSAS Therapy and HRQoL

    Final Thoughts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Individual and Socioeconomic Impact of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Introduction

    Individual Consequences

    Societal Consequences

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Commercial Transportation

    Diagnosis of SRBD

    History and Physical Examination – Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    History

    Physical Examination – SRBDs

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Screening and Case Finding for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    What Is Screening and How Is It Different from Case Finding?

    Current Tools for Screening and Case Finding for OSA

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Tools for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD)

    Diagnostic Tools for OSAHS

    Portable Monitoring

    Daytime (Nonsleep) Measurement Tools for Diagnosis of OSAHS

    Diagnosis of SDB in Children

    CSA Syndrome/Cheyne–Stokes Respiration

    Nocturnal Hypoventilation

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Future Directions for Diagnosis Based on Physiological Phenotype

    Limitations

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    History and Physical Examination

    Subjective Assessment Tools

    Objective Testing

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Polysomnography

    Techniques

    Scoring Polysomnography

    Portable Polysomnogram

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Home Sleep Apnea Testing

    Introduction

    Terminology

    History of Home Diagnosis of OSA

    Classification of Technology

    Recent Trends in Home Sleep Apnea Testing

    Evidence for HSAT

    Current Guidelines

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Upper Airway Imaging and Endoscopy

    Treatment of SRBD

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Introduction

    History

    Indications for CPAP

    Benefits of CPAP Therapy

    Side Effects of CPAP Therapy

    Contraindications to CPAP Therapy

    CPAP Adherence

    Future Directions and Challenges

    See also

    Further Reading

    Bilevel Pressure

    Introduction and Rationale

    Bilevel Pressure

    SRBD with Hypercapnia

    Reimbursement Issues

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Autotitrating Positive Airway Pressure

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Adaptive Servoventilation in Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Background

    VPAP-AdaptSV

    BIPAP autoSV

    BIPAP autoSV Advanced

    SOMNOvent CR

    Clinical Applications of ASV

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Upper Airway Surgery in the Adult

    Should Surgery Be Considered?

    Physical Examination

    Overview of Surgical Procedures

    Perioperative Management

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Oral Appliances

    Introduction

    Types of Oral Devices and Design Issues

    Mechanisms of Action

    Titration Protocols

    Efficacy and Effectiveness

    Prediction of Treatment Outcome

    Side Effects, Adherence, and Contraindications

    Clinical Practice Guidelines

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Adjunctive and Alternative Therapies for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRBD

    Gender-Specific Differences in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea Syndrome

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Symptom Presentation

    Impact of OSA

    Polysomnogram Features

    Treatment of OSA

    Pregnancy

    Gender and Other Sleep Disordered Breathing Syndromes

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pediatric Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Prevalence of Pediatric SDB

    Definition of Pediatric SDB

    Symptoms of Childhood SDB

    Children at Risk for SDB

    Consequences of Untreated SDB

    Diagnosis of Childhood SDB

    Treatment of Pediatric SDB

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in the Elderly

    Introduction

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Etiology and Pathophysiology

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medication Effects on Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Introduction

    Hypnotics

    Sodium Oxybate

    Opioid Medications

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Other Respiratory Conditions and Disorders During Sleep

    Introduction

    Effects of Sleep on Respiration

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Nocturnal Asthma

    Interstitial Lung Disease

    See also

    Further Reading

    Impact of Medical and Other Sleep Disorders

    Disorders Affecting Treatment Compliance

    Other Medical Disorders and Treatment

    Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment

    Sleep Disorders and Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

    A Bidirectional Relationship

    Treatment Effects

    Potential Mechanisms

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal Aspects of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Sleep Related Movement Disorders (SRMD) and Parasomnias

    Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRMD

    The Evolution of Diagnostic Rules and Standards for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Rhythmic Movement Disorder

    Sleep Bruxism

    Hypnic Jerks (Sleep Starts)

    Benign Sleep Myoclonus of Infancy

    Propriospinal Myoclonus at Sleep Onset

    Excessive Fragmentary Myoclonus

    Nocturnal Leg Cramps

    Hypnagogic Foot Tremor and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation

    Drug-Related Movement Disorder During Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Epidemiology of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Epidemiology of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

    Sleep-Related Bruxism

    Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

    Hypnagogic Foot Tremor

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Etiologies of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMD)

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Sleep-Related Bruxism

    Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

    Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Familial and Genetic Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome

    Descriptions of SRMD

    Description of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Introduction

    Physiological and Benign Sleep-Related Motor Manifestations

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Isolated Motor Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Introduction

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

    Sleep-Related Bruxism

    Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

    Onset, Clinical Course, and Ontogeny

    Other SRMDs

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Definition and Diagnostic Criteria

    Prevalence and Comorbidity

    Prevalence of PLMS in Other Sleep Disorders

    Pathophysiology

    Genetics

    Polysomnographic and Other Objective Findings

    PLMD in Children and Adolescents

    Management of PLMD

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

    Nocturnal Leg Cramps

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Bruxism

    Classification and Epidemiology of Sleep Bruxism

    Etiology and Pathophysiology of Sleep Bruxism

    Consequences of Sleep Bruxism

    Assessment of Sleep Bruxism

    Management of Sleep Bruxism

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Pathology and Pathophysiology

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hypnagogic Foot Tremor (HFT)

    Associations and Consequences of SRMD

    Morbidity in the Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    RLS and Cardiovascular Disease

    Obesity and RLS

    RLS and Neurological Diseases

    RLS and Erectile Dysfunction

    RLS and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    RLS and Mood/Anxiety Disorders

    RLS and Other Morbidities

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Mood, Behavior, and Sleepiness of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Introduction

    Effects of RLS on Wellbeing

    Effects of RLS on Patients’ Mental Health

    Cognitive Effects of RLS

    Treatment of RLS and Impact on Mood and Behavior

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders: Health-Related Quality of Life

    Introduction

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    RLS and Sleep Quality

    Impact of Treatment on QoL

    Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Bruxism

    See also

    Further Reading

    Economic Impact, Associations, and Consequences of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Diagnosis of SRMD

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorder: History and Physical Examination

    Sleep History

    Physical Examination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMDs)

    Treatment of SRMD

    Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Introduction

    RLS and PLMD

    Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

    Sleep-Related Bruxism

    Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Special Considerations for Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRMD

    Gender Differences in Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Periodic Limb Movements

    Bruxism

    Other Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders in Children

    Approach to Sleep-Related Movement Disorder in Children

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    Pathophysiology and Pathology of RLS and PLMS

    Risk Factors for RLS

    Differential Diagnosis

    Evaluation of RLS and PLMS

    Management of RLS and PLMS

    Consequences of RLS and PLMS

    Prognosis

    Sleep Bruxism

    Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movements: Head Banging, Head Rolling, and Body Banging

    Benign Sleep Myoclonus

    Sleep Starts (Hypnic Jerks, Hypnagogic Jerks)

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Age-Related Changes in PLMS Characteristics of RLS Patients

    RLS in the Elderly

    Periodic Limb Movements Disorder in the Elderly

    Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

    Sleep-Related Bruxism in the Elderly

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Medication Effects and Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement in Sleep

    Bruxism

    REM Sleep Without Atonia

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Restless Legs Syndrome in Internal Medicine

    Introduction

    Hematological Disorders

    RLS and Chronic Kidney Disease

    RLS and Diabetes

    RLS and Periodic Limb Movement in Rheumatic Diseases

    RLS and PLM in Cardiovascular Disease

    Gastrointestinal Disturbances

    Pneumological Disturbances

    Neoplastic Diseases

    Thyroid Disorders

    Pathophysiological Considerations and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias

    History – Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias

    Parasomnias in Ancient Times

    Early Neuropsychiatric and Organic Theories Regarding Parasomnias

    The Identification of Parasomnias during the Nineteenth Century

    Alternative Approaches during the Romantic Period: Nocturnal Enuresis and Somnambulism

    The Birth of Sleep Medicine and the Definitive Acknowledgement of Parasomnias

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Parasomnias

    Parasomnias Are Most Common in Children

    Risk Factors for NREM Arousal Parasomnias in Children

    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Parasomnias in Young Adults

    Parasomnias Which Most Often Occur in Wake–Sleep Transitions

    Parasomnias During REM Sleep

    Tidbits

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Ontogeny of Parasomnias

    Ontogeny of Sleep-Related Motor Behaviors in Fetus and Premature Infants

    Ontogeny of Motor Movements During Sleep Across the Lifespan

    Ontogeny of Parasomnias Across Childhood

    What Provokes Parasomnias in Children?

    Parasomnias Common in Adults

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Pathogenesis and Etiologies

    Disorders of Arousal (from NREM Sleep)

    REM Parasomnias

    Miscellaneous Parasomnias

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Familial and Genetic Factors

    Descriptions of Parasomnias

    Parasomnias in Children

    Introduction

    NREM Parasomnias

    REM Sleep Parasomnias

    Transitional Sleep Disorders

    See also

    Further Reading

    Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Parasomnias

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Classification of Parasomnias and Diagnostic Criteria

    Classification Based on Sleep Stage

    Disorders of Arousal (NREM)

    Sleep Studies in Disorders of Arousal

    REM-Related Parasomnias

    Differential Diagnosis: Disorders of Arousal Versus REM-Related Parasomnias

    Differential Diagnosis: Other Medical/Psychiatric Disorders

    Common Diagnostic Classification Problems

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Confusional Arousals

    History and Definition

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Clinical Features and Course

    Triggering Factors

    Comorbid Diseases

    Differential Diagnosis

    Pathophysiology

    Evaluation

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleepwalking

    Description

    Risk Factors

    Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

    Management

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Terrors

    Description

    Risk Factors

    Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

    Management

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Clinical Management and Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Severity: Episodic Frequency and Intensity

    Onset and Ontogeny

    Neurophysiology

    Subjective Associated Factors (Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations)

    History and Nomenclature

    Cross-Cultural Issues

    Predisposing and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Nightmare Disorder

    Introduction

    Definition

    Differentiating Nightmares from other Sleep-Related Anxiety Phenomena

    Nightmare Disorder

    Prevalence

    Nightmares and Sleep Quality

    Nightmare Frequency versus Nightmare Distress

    Nightmares and Sleep Physiology

    Etiology

    Therapeutic Principles

    Case Report: Adult

    Case Report: Child

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Dissociative Disorders

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep Enuresis

    Introduction

    Etiology and Pathogenesis

    Treatment: Theoretical Considerations

    Comorbidity and Consequences

    Practical Guidelines

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Catathrenia: Sleep-Related Groaning

    History and Nomenclature

    Demography and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Diagnosis

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Exploding Head Syndrome

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

    Normal Metabolic Physiology During Sleep

    Definition of Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

    Historical Background

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Characteristics

    SRED and BRAs

    SRED and Amnesia

    The Relationship Between SRED and RLS

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sexsomnia

    Associations and Consequences of Parasomnias

    Mood and Behavior

    Introduction

    Mood and Behavioral Changes as Part of the Clinical Manifestations of Parasomnias

    Reactions of Patients Themselves to Their Parasomnia Experiences, and the Reactions (Including Misinterpretations) of Those Witnessing the Episodes

    Effects of Sleep Disruption Caused by Parasomnias

    Medication Effects

    Consequences of Misdiagnosis and Mismanagement

    Comorbidity with Other Sleep Disorders, Medical Conditions, or Psychiatric Illness of Which the Parasomnias are Symptomatic

    See also

    Further Reading

    Health-Related Quality of Life

    Diagnosis of Parasomnias

    History and Physical Examination, Screening and Case Finding

    History and Description

    Physical Examination

    Screening and Case Finding

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Value of Polysomnography and Other Diagnostic Tools to Diagnose and Treat Parasomnias

    Indications for Video-PSG in Parasomnias

    Technical Considerations When Evaluating Parasomnias Using Video-PSG

    Diagnosing a Parasomnia with Video-PSG

    Video-PSG is Required to Confirm RBD

    Other Diagnostic Tests Used When Diagnosing Sleep Disorders in Patients with Parasomnias

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Diagnostic Algorithms for Parasomnias

    Treatment of Parasomnias

    Treatment of Parasomnias

    Generalized Treatment Modalities Common to Parasomnias

    Specific Treatment Modalities for Selected Parasomnias

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Special Consideration for the Treatment of Parasomnia

    Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of Parasomnias

    Parasomnias of Childhood

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Classification

    Parasomnias of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep

    Miscellaneous Parasomnias

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Effect of Medications and Substances on Parasomnias

    Background

    Sleepwalking and the Treatment of Psychiatric Patients

    Lithium Carbonate and Sleepwalking

    Benzodiazepines and Sleepwalking

    Nonbenzodiazepines and Sleepwalking, Sleep Eating, and Sleepsex

    Other Substances

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Impact of Medical and Neurological Disorders on Parasomnias

    NREM Arousal Disorders More Common in Certain Medical or Neurological Disorders

    REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Often Heralds a Neurodegenerative Disease

    Parasomnia Overlap Disorder

    Sleep Bruxism

    Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Parasomnia: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

    Introduction

    Sleepwalking and Psychiatric Disorders

    Sleep-Related Eating Disorder and Psychiatric Disorders

    REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Psychiatric Disorders

    Nightmares and Psychiatric Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal Implications of Parasomnias

    Sleep and Other Conditions or Disorders

    Neurologic Disorders

    Neurological Conditions and Sleep

    Introduction

    Parkinson’s Disease

    Neuromuscular Disease

    Stroke

    Epilepsy

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Headache and Sleep

    History and Nomenclature

    Demographics and Prevalence

    Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

    Complications and Consequences

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Epilepsy and Sleep

    Introduction and Definitions

    Seizure Occurrence in Relation to the Sleep–Wake Cycle

    Effect of Sleep on Interictal Epileptic Discharges

    Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Seizures and the EEG

    Effects of AEDs on Sleep

    Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Sleep and Wakefulness

    Sleep Organization in Epilepsy

    Sleep Complaints and Sleep Disorders in Epilepsy

    Differentiating Nocturnal Seizures, Parasomnias, and other Nonepileptic Events

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Cerebrovascular Disorders and Sleep

    Evidence that SDB is a Risk Factor for Stroke

    Prevalence of Type of SDB Poststroke

    Which Patients with Stroke are More Likely to Have Obstructive Apnea?

    What Apnea Subtype Occurs Poststroke?

    The Effect of SDB on Poststroke Functional Recovery and Prognosis

    Mortality Poststroke is Related to Presence of SDB

    How are Patients Able to Tolerate CPAP After Stroke?

    Mechanisms Linking SDB and Stroke

    Practical Tips

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep

    History and Nomenclature

    Diagnosis of PD

    Basic Epidemiology and Clinical Course

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Insomnia and Insomnia Secondary to Motor Dysfunction in PD

    Periodic Leg Movements of Sleep and Restless Legs Syndrome

    Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Excessive Daytime Somnolence

    Approach to Sleep Disorders in PD

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    CNS Disease from Toxins, Alcohol, and Cannabis: Effects on Sleep

    Introduction

    Environmental Toxins and Sleep

    Effect of Alcohol on Respiration During Sleep

    Cannabis and Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Demyelinating Diseases and Sleep

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Insomnia

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Periodic Limb Movement of Sleep

    REM Behavior Disorder

    Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Narcolepsy in MS

    Circadian Rhythm Abnormalities

    Effect of MS Medications on Sleep

    Sleep and Fatigue

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Neurodegenerative Diseases and Sleep

    Introduction

    Sleep Disorders Preceding the Classic Symptoms of the Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Sleep in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Dementia and Sleep

    Psychiatric Disorders

    Overview of the Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep

    Introduction

    Psychiatric Disorders and Potential Sleep Effects

    Mood Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Schizophrenia

    Substance Abuse Disorders

    Psychotropic Medications and Sleep

    Sleep Disturbance and Psychiatric Illness: Treatment Implications

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Mood Disorders and Sleep

    Insomnia and Hypersomnia

    Sleep Continuity Disturbances

    Sleep Architecture Abnormalities

    Sleep Microarchitecture

    Overall Relationship Between Sleep and Depression

    Clinical Correlates of Disturbed Sleep in Depression

    Clinical Relevance of Sleep Architecture Findings

    Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Anxiety Disorders and Sleep

    Demographics

    Diagnosis

    Pathophysiology

    Common Comorbidities

    Complications and Consequences

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Trauma Exposure and Sleep

    PTSD and Sleep

    Clinical Relevance of Sleep in PTSD and Other Trauma-Related Disorders

    The Role of Sleep in PTSD Using Animal and Human Models

    Treatments of Sleep Disturbances in PTSD

    Psychological Treatments

    Pharmacological Treatments

    Future Directions: Translational Studies of Sleep in PTSD

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Schizophrenia, Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Sleep

    Emotional Memory, Mood Disorders, and Sleep

    Sleep and PTSD

    Sleep and ADHD

    Sleep and ASD

    Bidirectional Relations Between Sleep and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Sleep and Schizophrenia

    General Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Eating Disorders and Sleep

    Introduction

    Peptides Linking Food Consumption and Sleep

    Primary Eating Disorders and Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Substance and Alcohol-Related Disorders and Sleep

    Other Medical Conditions or Disorders

    Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Sleep Length

    Introduction

    Sleep and Diabetes

    Sleep and Obesity

    Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease

    Sleep and Depression

    Sleep and Mortality

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Pain and Sleep

    Introduction

    Association of Pain and Disturbed Sleep

    Sleep Deprivation, Specific Sleep Stage Deprivation, and Pain Sensitivity

    Sleep Deprivation and Sleepiness

    Sleep Loss, Cytokines, and Pain

    Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments of Sleep in Chronic Pain

    Clinical Significance

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Fibromyalgia/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Sleep

    Introduction

    Fibromyalgia and Sleep

    Poor Sleep May Lead to Pain

    Pain May Lead to Poor Sleep

    Improving Sleep May Improve Analgesia in FM

    Potential Pathophysiology of FM and Sleep

    Pharmacologic Treatment Approaches to FM and Poor Sleep

    CFS and Sleep

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Visual Impairment and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    The Role of Light in Circadian Entrainment

    The Effect of Visual Impairment on Circadian Entrainment

    The Effect of Light in the Blind

    The Effect of Nonphotic Time Cues in the Blind

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cancer and Sleep: Cancer is a Circadian Rhythm Disorder

    Basic Science – Circadian Rhythm and Oncogenesis

    Clinical Science – Sleep Dysfunction and Cancer

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension and Sleep

    Introduction

    Systemic Influences of Sleep

    Differences between Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation

    SHTN and Sleep

    PHTN and Sleep

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Alterations in Gastrointestinal Functioning During Sleep: Clinical Applications

    Introduction

    Upper GI Functioning

    Clinical Aspects of Sleep-Related GER

    Sleep and Functional Bowel Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Infectious Diseases and Sleep

    Introduction

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Epstein–Barr Virus

    Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Renal Disorders and Sleep

    Impact of Kidney Failure on Sleep

    Impact of Sleep on the Kidney

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Nocturia

    Prevalence

    Etiology

    Complications

    Diagnosis

    Treatments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Index

    Author Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2736
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: December 31, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123786104

About the Editor in Chief

Clete Kushida

Clete Kushida
Clete A. Kushida, M.D., Ph.D. is a neurologist who is a professor in the department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Stanford University Medical Center, medical director of the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, and director of the Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research. He is president of the World Sleep Federation, past president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and founding president of the California Sleep Society. He has conducted basic and clinical sleep research since 1977, has served as principal investigator for numerous federally and industry supported research studies, and has authored or edited over 150 publications, including six books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Principal Investigator, Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, Stanford University, USA

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