Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Four-Volume Set - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780121501105, 9780080454283

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Four-Volume Set

2nd Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Benjamin Caballero
Editors: Lindsay Allen Andrew Prentice
eBook ISBN: 9780080454283
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th July 2005
Page Count: 2000
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This Second Edition is a thorough revision and 20% expansion of the 1998 release, reflecting the continuing scientific advances in the field of human nutrition. Now a four-volume set, nearly 300 articles with concise, up-to-date information are complemented by an award-winning indexing system. Included is expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, clinical nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders. Virtually everyone will find the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition an easy-to-use resource making it an ideal reference choice for both the professional and the non-professional alike.

Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.

Key Features


  • Now a four-volume set with over 250 articles
  • Expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, and gastrointestinal disorders, among other topics


  • Browse the whole work by volume, authors or article titles
  • Full and extensive subject index can be searched or browsed online, and takes you directly to the indexed paragraph, section, figure or table
  • Basic and advanced search functionality across the entire work or by specific volume
  • Users can build, save and re-run seraches, as well as combine saved searches
  • Extensive internal cross-referencing and dynamic linking from biliographic references to primary-source material, increasing the scope of your research rapidly and effectively
  • All articles available as full-text HTML files, or as PDF files that can be viewed, downloaded or printed in their original format


Nutritionists, clinical nutritionists, dietitians and allied health workers, university/medical school libraries and public libraries, managers and lawyers within the food industry, and government sectors dealing with nutritional policies

Table of Contents

Adipose tissue Adolescents: Nutritional Requirements Adolescents: Nutritional Problems Aging Alcohol: Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects Alcohol: Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects Alcohol: Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status Aluminum Amino Acids: Chemistry and Classification Amino Acids: Metabolism Amino Acids: Specific Functions Anemia: Iron-Deficiency Anemia Anemia: Megaloblastic Anemia Antioxidants: Diet and Antioxidant Defense Antioxidants: Observational Studies Antioxidants: Intervention Studies Appetite: Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects Appetite: Psychobiological and Behavioral Aspects Arthritis Ascorbic Acid: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements Ascorbic Acid: Deficiency States Behavior Bioavailability Biotin Body Composition Bone Brain and Nervous System Breast Feeding Burns Patients Caffeine Calcium Cancer: Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer Cancer: Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers Cancer: Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Cancer: Dietary Management Cancer: Effects on Nutritional Status Cancer: Carcinogenic Substances in Food Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Classification Carbohydrates: Regulation of Metabolism Carbohydrates: Requirements and Dietary Importance Carbohydrates: Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides Carotenoids: Chemistry, Sources and Physiology Carotenoids: Epidemiology of Health Effects Cereal Grains Children: Nutritional Requirements Children: Nutritional Problems Cholesterol: Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism Cholesterol: Factors Determining Blood Levels Choline and Phosphatidylcholine Chromium Cobalamins Celiac Disease Cofactors: Inorganic Cofactors: Organic Colon: Structure and Function Colon: Disorders Colon: Nutritional Management of Disorders Complementary Feeding Copper Coronary Heart Disease: Hemostatic Factors Coronary Heart Disease: Lipid Theory Coronary Heart Disease: Prevention Cystic Fibrosis Cytokines Dairy Products Dehydration Dental Disease Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology and Epidemiology Diabetes Mellitus: Classification and Chemical Pathology Diabetes Mellitus: Dietary Management Diarrheal Diseases Dietary Fiber: Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption Dietary Fiber: Potential Role in Etiology of Disease Dietary Fiber: Role in Nutritional Management of Disease Dietary Guidelines, International Perspectives Dietary Intake Measurement: Methodology Dietary Intake Measurement: Validation Dietary Surveys Dietetics Drug-Nutrient Interactions Early Origins of Disease: Fetal Early Origins of Disease: Non-Fetal Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders: Binge Eating Eggs Electrolytes: Acid-Base Balance Electrolytes: Water-Electrolyte Balance Energy: Metabolism Energy: Balance Energy: Requirements Energy: Adaptation Energy Expenditure: Indirect Calorimetry Energy Expenditure: Doubly Labeled Water Exercise: Beneficial Effects Exercise: Diet and Exercise Famine Fats and Oils Fatty Acids: Metabolism Fatty Acids: Monounsaturated Fatty Acids: Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Saturated Fatty Acids: Trans Fatty Acids Fertility Fish Folic Acid Food Allergies: Etiology Food Allergies: Diagnosis and Management Food Choice, Influencing Factors Food Composition Data Food Folklore Food Fortification: Developed Countries Food Fortification: Developing Countries Food Intolerance Food Safety: Mycotoxins Food Safety: Pesticides Food Safety: Bacterial Contamination Food Safety: Other Contaminants Food Safety: Heavy Metals Fructose Fruits and Vegetables Functional Foods: Health Effects and Clinical Applications Functional Foods: Regulatory Aspects Galactose Gall Bladder Disorders Glucose: Chemistry and Dietary Sources Glucose: Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level Glucose: Glucose Tolerance Glycemic Index Gout Growth and Development, Physiological Aspects Growth Monitoring Handicap: Downs Syndrome Handicap: Prader-Willi Syndrome Handicap: Cerebral Palsy Homocysteine Hunger Hyperactivity Hyperlipidemia: Overview Hyperlipidemia: Nutritional Management Hypertension: Etiology Hypertension: Dietary Factors Hypertension: Nutritional Management Hypoglycemia Immunity: Physiological Aspects Immunity: Effects of Iron & Zinc Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Classification and Biochemical Aspects Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria Infants: Nutritional Requirements Infants: Feeding Problems Infection: Nutritional Interactions Infection: Nutritional Management in Adults Iodine: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements Iodine: Deficiency Disorders Iron Ketosis Lactation: Physiology Lactation: Dietary Requirements Lactose Intolerance Legumes Lipids: Chemistry and Classification Lipids: Composition and Role of Phospholipids Lipoproteins Liver Disorders Low Birthweight and Preterm Infants: Causes, Prevalence and Prevention Low Birthweight and Preterm Infants: Nutritional Management Lung Diseases Lycopenes and Related Compounds Magnesium Malabsorption Syndromes Malnutrition: Primary, Causes Epidemiology and Prevention Malnutrition: Secondary, Diagnosis and Management Manganese Meal Size and Frequency Meat, Poultry and Meat Products Microbiota of the Intestine: Prebiotics Microbiota of the Intestine: Probiotics Niacin Nucleic Acids Nutrient-Gene Interactions: Molecular Aspects Nutrient-Gene Interactions: Health Implications Nutrient Requirements, International Perspectives Nutrition Policies In Developing and Developed Countries Nutrition Transition, Diet Change and its Implications Nutritional Assessment: Anthropometry Nutritional Assessment: Biochemical Indices Nutritional Assessment: Clinical Examination Nutritional Support: In the Home Setting Nutritional Support: Adults, Enteral Nutritional Support: Adults, Parenteral Nutritional Support: Infants and Children, Parenteral Nutritional Surveillance: Developed Countries Nutritional Surveillance: Developing Countries Nuts and Seeds Obesity: Definition, Etiology and Assessment Obesity: Fat Distribution Obesity: Childhood Obesity Obesity: Complications Obesity: Prevention Obesity: Treatment Older People: Physiological Changes Older People: Nutritional Requirements Older People: Nutrition-Related Problems Older People: Nutritional Management of Geriatric Patients Osteoporosis Pantothenic Acid Parasitism Pellagra Phosphorus Phytochemicals: Classification and Occurrence Phytochemicals: Epidemiological Factors Potassium Pregnancy: Role of Placenta in Nutrient Transfer Pregnancy: Nutrient Requirements Pregnancy: Energy Requirements and Metabolic Adaptations Pregnancy: Weight Gain Pregnancy: Safe Diet for Pregnancy Pregnancy: Dietary Guidelines and Safe Supplement Use Pregnancy: Prevention of Neural Tube Defects Pregnancy: Pre-eclampsia and Diet Premenstrual Syndrome Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes Protein: Synthesis and Turnover Protein: Requirements and Role in Diet Protein: Digestion and Bioavailability Protein: Quality and Sources Protein: Deficiency Refugees Religious Customs, Influence on Diet Riboflavin Seasonality Selenium Small Intestine: Structure and Function Small Intestine: Disorders Socio-economic Status Sodium: Physiology Sodium: Salt Intake and Health Sports Nutrition Starvation and Fasting Stomach: Structure and Function Stomach: Disorders Stroke, Nutritional Management Sucrose: Nutritional role, Absorption and Metabolism Sucrose: Dietary Sucrose and Disease Supplementation: Dietary Supplements Supplementation: Role of Micronutrient Supplementation Supplementation: Developing Countries Supplementation: Developed Countries Surgery: Perioperative Feeding Surgery: Long-term Nutritional Management Tea Thiamin: Physiology Thiamin: Beriberi Thirst Tuberculosis: Nutrition and Susceptibility Tuberculosis: Nutritional Management Ultratrace Elements United Nations Children's Fund Urban Nutrition Vegetarian Diets Vitamin A: Physiology Vitamin A: Biochemistry and Physiological Role Vitamin A: Deficiency and Interventions Vitamin B6 Vitamin D: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements Vitamin D: Rickets and Osteomalacia Vitamin E: Metabolism and Requirements Vitamin E: Physiology and Health Effects Vitamin K Weight Management: Approaches Weight Management: Weight Maintenance Weight Management: Weight Cycling Whole Grains World Health Organization Zinc: Physiology Zinc: Deficiency in Developing Countries, Intervention Studies


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About the Editor-in-Chief

Benjamin Caballero

Dr. Caballero is Professor of International Health at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. He has over 20 years of experience as a scholar, researcher and leader in the area of child health and nutrition. He obtained his MD from the University of Buenos Aires and his PhD (in neuroendocrine regulation) from MIT. He started his faculty career at Harvard Medical School, and moved to Johns Hopkins in 1990 to found the Center for Human Nutrition.

Dr. Caballero is a recognized expert on the nutritional needs of children and adults, and on nutrient requirements in undernourished populations. For the past 10 years, he has focused on the problem of childhood obesity in the US and in developing countries, and explored the impact of dietary transition and globalization on health indicators. He is an active participant in key scientific committees advising the US government on issues of diet and health, including the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee, the Expert Panel on Macronutrient Requirements, and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. He was a member of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee, and is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI).

Dr. Caballero is an active leader in the area of global health, specifically on diet, lifestyle and disease risk. He is Chairman of the Board of the Pan American Health and Education Foundation, in Washington, D.C., and member of the Board of Directors of the International Nutrition Foundation, in Boston, MA. He is a member of the Steering Committee of the Centers of Excellence Network of the Global Health Initiative, National Institutes of Health. Recent awards include the Ancel Keys Prize for achievements in international public health and the Thompson-Beaudette Lectureship from Rutgers University. In 2011 he was named to the Spanish Academy of Nutritional Sciences.

Dr. Caballero is the author of over 150 scientific publications. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, a 10-volume work on food production, consumption and biological effects. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, which received the Book of the Year Award from the British Medical Association. His Guide to Dietary Supplements summarizes the current scientific basis for the use of mineral and vitamin supplements. His book The Nutrition Transition: Diet and Disease in the Developing World explored the impact of demographic and economic development on diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in developing countries. His book Obesity in China summarizes research conducted in rural and urban China to track the impact of socioeconomic development on health outcomes. He is also co-editor of the most widely used textbook in human nutrition, Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, U.S.A.

About the Editor

Lindsay Allen

Lindsay Allen is the Director of the USDA's Western Human Nutrition Research Center, and Research Professor in the Department of Nutrition, at the University of California, Davis. Her research is concerned with the prevalence, causes, consequences and prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, primarily in developing countries.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, U.S.A

Andrew Prentice

Andrew Prentice is Professor of International Nutrition at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. He leads the Medical Research Council's International Nutrition Group which is based in London and The Gambia. His research interests have encompassed human energy metabolism and obesity as well as maternal and child nutrition in developing


Affiliations and Expertise

London School of Tropical Medicine, UK


"This new edition has been completely revised and expanded to accommodate the enormous growth of the scientific discipline of human nutrition. ...relevant to both general readers and health care practitioners. Essential. All Libraries; all levels." - CHOICE (2006) "The information gathered in The Encyclopedia is the goldmine of knowledge. ...a very good and comprehensive source of information and a help for an adult reader with some biological and medical knowledge. ...indispensable for scientific workers and practitioners in the field of biology, medicine, nutritionists and dietitians" - ACTA PHYSIOLOGIAE PLANTARUM (2005) From the First Edition... "A major achievement condensing current authoritative reviews on all aspects of nutrition and clinical nutrition. It is an excellent starting point for anyone initiating a research project in nutrtion and is well indexed." BMA MEDICAL BOOK COMPETITION

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