Encyclopedia of Human Behavior

Encyclopedia of Human Behavior

2nd Edition - January 31, 2012

Write a review

  • Editor-in-Chief: V. S. Ramachandran
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080961804

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, Second Edition, Three Voluime Set is an award-winning three-volume reference on human action and reaction, and the thoughts, feelings, and physiological functions behind those actions. Presented alphabetically by title, 300 articles probe both enduring and exciting new topics in physiological psychology, perception, personality, abnormal and clinical psychology, cognition and learning, social psychology, developmental psychology, language, and applied contexts. Written by leading scientists in these disciplines, every article has been peer-reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. The most comprehensive reference source to provide both depth and breadth to the study of human behavior, the encyclopedia will again be a much-used reference source. This set appeals to public, corporate, university and college libraries, libraries in two-year colleges, and some secondary schools. Carefully crafted, well written, and thoroughly indexed, the encyclopedia helps users—whether they are students just beginning formal study of the broad field or specialists in a branch of psychology—understand the field and how and why humans behave as we do.

Key Features

  • Named a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication
  • Concise entries (ten pages on average) provide foundational knowledge of the field
  • Each article features suggested further readings, a list of related websites, a 5-10 word glossary and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedi
  • Newly expanded editorial board and a host of international contributors from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

Readership

Undergraduate and graduate students in psychology and the behavioral sciences, as well as researchers in various psychological subdisciplines and psychiatry; the encyclopedia is also useful for the lay public who may have an interest in topics related to human behavior

Table of Contents

  • Editorial Advisory Board

    About the Editor-in-Chief

    About the Editorial Advisory Board

    Reviewers

    Preface

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Article Titles

    Academic Achievement

    Importance of Academic Achievement

    Indicators of Academic Achievement

    Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Equal Opportunities and Academic Achievement

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Addictions and Adolescence

    Introduction

    Developmental Issues

    Applicability of Addiction Diagnostic Criteria for Adolescents

    Three Adolescent Addictive Disorders

    Nicotine Dependence

    Epidemiology

    Etiology

    Other Substances Use Disorders (Excluding Nicotine)

    Pathological Gambling

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Readings

    Relevant Websites

    Adolescence

    Primary Changes in Adolescence

    Contextual Areas of Interest Regarding Adolescent Development

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Adrenal Glands

    Introduction

    Anatomy and Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Aggression

    What Is Aggression?

    Why Do We Use Aggression?

    What Causes Aggression?

    What Reduces Aggression?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Aging and Cognition

    Introduction

    Declarative Memory

    Nondeclarative Memory

    Executive Function

    Decision-Making

    Processing Speed

    The Relationship Among Cognitive Functions

    Cognitive Rehabilitation: Behavioral Interventions and Their Impact on Cognition

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Aging and the Brain

    Major Neuronal Theories of Brain Aging

    Systems-Level Anatomical Changes in the Brain with Age

    Age-Associated Neurological Disorders

    Maintaining a Healthy Brain

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Agnosia (including Prosopagnosia and Anosognosia)

    Visual Agnosia: Overview

    Object Agnosia

    Face Agnosia (Prosopagnosia)

    Color Agnosia

    Tactile Agnosia

    Agnosia for Words

    Agnosia for Landmarks and Environment (Topographic Agnosia)

    Anosognosia

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder

    Agoraphobia and Panic: Past and Present

    Descriptive Psychopathology, Diagnosis, and Epidemiology

    Theories of Etiology and Maintenance

    Clinical Assessment

    Treatment

    Conclusions and Prospects

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Agraphia and Alexia

    Peripheral Dyslexias

    Pure Alexia (Alexia Without Agraphia)

    Attentional Dyslexia

    Neglect Dyslexia

    Central Dyslexias and Dysgraphias

    Phonological Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

    Surface Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

    Deep Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

    Semantic Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

    Graphemic Buffer Impairment

    More Peripheral Agraphias

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Alcohol: Psychosocial Effects

    Introduction

    Acute and Chronic Effects of Alcohol

    Moderators of Alcohol Effects

    Individual Differences in Moderating Effects

    Beliefs and Expectancies

    Personality Differences

    Family History of Alcoholism

    Selected Important Acute and Chronic Effects of Alcohol

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Alexithymia

    History

    Measurement of Alexithymia

    Related Constructs

    Cognitive Aspects

    Physiological Aspects

    Neurological Aspects

    Alexithymia and Emotional Expression/Regulation

    Alexithymia and Physical Health

    Alexithymia and Mental Health

    Treatment

    Controversial Issues

    Future Directions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Altruism and Helping Behavior

    Forms of Helping

    A Process Model of Helping

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Alzheimer’s Disease

    History

    Symptoms

    Prevalence and Mortality

    Causes

    Diagnosis

    Genetics

    Risk Factors and Prevention

    Treatment

    Societal Impact

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Amnesia

    Amnesia

    The Amnesic Syndrome

    Traumatic RA

    Functional Amnesia

    Amnesia Through the Life Span

    Amnesias of Everyday Experience

    Theoretical and Practical Implications

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Amnesia and the Brain

    The Amnesic Syndrome

    Etiologies of Amnesia

    Information-Processing Descriptions of Amnesia

    Theoretical and Clinical Implications

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Analogical Reasoning

    Introduction

    Mapping

    Evaluation

    Analogical Retrieval

    Factors that Influence Mapping

    Neuropsychology of Analogical Reasoning

    Analogy in Naturalistic Settings

    Analogical Reasoning Without Awareness

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Anger

    Generic and Specific Uses of the Concept of Anger

    Anger in Historical Perspective

    Anger in Courts of Law

    Anger in Everyday Affairs

    Rules of Anger

    Anger and the Social Order

    Anger in Health and Disease

    Gender Differences

    Wrongful Anger

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Animal Cognition

    The Science of Animal Cognition

    Numerical Processing

    Memory

    Conceptualization

    Metacognition

    Final Comments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Introduction

    Conceptualizations of ASPD and NPD

    Comorbidity

    Relationship to Normal Personality Traits

    Etiological Influences: Genes and Environment

    Treatment

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Anxiety and Fear

    What Is Anxiety and What Is Fear?

    What Makes Human Beings Anxious and/or Fearful?

    Theories of the Development and Maintenance of Anxiety and Fear

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Anxiety Disorders

    What Is Anxiety?

    The Anxiety Disorders

    Etiology

    Treatment

    Issues in Diagnosis

    Special Populations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Aphasia

    Introduction

    Evaluation of Aphasia

    Classification of Aphasias

    Recovery of Aphasia

    Miscellaneous Topics in Aphasia

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Appetite

    Introduction

    Eating and Homeostasis

    Within-Meal Controls of Eating

    Across-Meal Controls of Eating

    Brain Mechanisms

    Sex Differences

    Anorexia

    Psychiatric Eating Disorders

    Genetics of Eating

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Asperger’s Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disorder

    Introduction

    Diagnosis of Asperger’s Syndrome

    Diagnosis of NLD

    Common Characteristics of AS and NLD

    Distinguishing Characteristics of AS and NLD

    Etiology

    Prevalence

    Treatment Considerations

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Associative Learning

    Basic Concepts

    Habituation

    Complex Phenomena

    Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Learning

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Attention

    Introduction

    The Theory of Perceptual Load

    Working Memory and Selective Attention

    Inattentional Blindness, Change Blindness, and Change Detection

    Spatial Attention

    Exogenous Spatial Attention

    Endogenous Spatial Attention

    Endogenous Versus Exogenous Spatial Orienting: One Mechanism or Two?

    Crossmodal Spatial Attention

    The Attentive Brain

    Feature Integration Theory

    Temporal Attention

    Attention: The Future

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Historical Overview

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Etiology

    Assessment Issues

    Developmental Course

    Treatment Issues

    Challenges and Perspectives

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Attitude Change

    Overview of Attitudes and Attitude Change

    Two Routes to Attitude Change

    Central Route Approaches to Attitude Change

    Peripheral Route Approaches

    A Dual Process Approach to Understanding Attitude Change

    Consequences of Attitude Changes Produced by Different Processes

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Attitude Formation

    Introduction and Relevant Distinctions

    Origins

    Additional Considerations

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Attribution

    Introduction

    Classical Theories

    Biases

    Automatic and Controlled Components

    Perceiver Differences

    Implications

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Perspective

    Diagnosis

    Prevalence

    Etiology

    Treatment Challenges

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Autobiographical Remembering and the Self

    Is Autobiographical Memory Necessary for Individuals to Experience a Sense of Personal Identity?

    Does the Self Direct, Affect, or Alter the Content of the Autobiographical Memories That Can Be Recalled?

    Mechanisms that May be Related to the Recall of Events from the Personal Past

    Coda

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Introduction

    Diagnosis

    DSM Definition and Criteria

    ICD Definition and Criteria

    ICD-11, DSM-5, and the Future of APD

    Comorbidity

    Are APD and Social Phobia Separate Disorders?

    APD and Other Personality Disorders

    Stability and Course

    Interpersonal Experiences, Development, and Risk for APD

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Behavior Analysis

    Introduction

    Basic Principles of Behavior

    The Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Applied Behavior Analysis

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behavior Genetics of Personality

    Introduction

    Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality Traits

    Multivariate Modeling of Personality

    Environmental Influences

    Summary

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Behavior Measurement in Psychobiological Research

    Introduction

    Some Principles of Multilevel Measurement of Behavior

    Application of Psychophysiological Measurement

    Measurement of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Neurobehavioral Processes

    Psychophysiological Relations

    Inference in Psychophysiological Measurement

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behavioral Economics

    Introduction

    Decision Theories

    Heuristics and Biases

    Mental Accounting and Framing

    Emotions

    Fairness and Reciprocity

    Time Discounting

    Neuroeconomics

    Behavioral Game Theory

    Liberalism and Paternalism

    Brief Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behavioral Genetics

    Introduction

    Evolution and Mendelian Genetics

    Population Genetics

    Quantitative Genetics

    Molecular Genetics

    Behavioral Genetics and Psychology

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behavioral Medicine

    Introduction

    Brief Historical Context

    Understanding Interactive Pathways of Disease

    Behavioral Interventions

    Challenges in Behavioral Medicine

    Innovations in Behavioral Medicine

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Behavioral Pharmacology

    History of Behavioral Pharmacology

    Environmental Influences on Drug Effects

    Drugs as Discriminative Stimuli

    Drugs as Reinforcing Stimuli

    Conditioned Drug Effects

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    The Behavior-Genetics of Intelligence

    Behavioral Genetics Methods

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Big Five Model and Personality Disorders

    Advantages of Integrating DSM-IV-TR with the Big Five

    Scientific Foundation

    FFM Personality Disorder Diagnosis

    Feasibility

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Bilingualism and Multilingualism

    Introduction

    Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism

    Factors Contributing to the Success or Failure of Becoming Bilingual and Multilingual

    What Does it Mean to Be Bilingual or Multilingual?

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Biofeedback Therapy

    Underlying Learning Theory and Biologic Mechanism

    Early Development

    Methods

    Clinical Applications

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Bipolar Disorder

    Mechanism

    Prevention

    Medications

    Mood Stabilizers

    Age of Onset

    Medication and Mood Stabilization

    Perceptual Rivalry and Interhemispheric Switching

    Jet Lag

    Bipolar I Versus Bipolar II

    Famous Bipolars

    fMRI

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Birth Order, Effect on Personality, and Behavior

    Introduction

    Parental Investment

    Sibling Competition

    Personality: The Big Five

    Birth Order and Behavior

    Some Methodological Issues

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Review

    Introduction

    Clinical Characteristics

    Gender Differences

    Diagnosing BDD

    Comorbidity

    Relationship to Other Mental Illnesses

    Neurobiology

    Treatment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Body Image

    Introduction

    History

    Theories of Body Image Disturbance

    Risk Factors for Negative Body Image

    Gender Differences

    Assessment of Body Image and Body Image Disturbance

    Treatment and Prevention

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Borderline Personality Disorder

    Clinical Features and Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Epidemiology and Cross-Cultural Prevalence

    Etiology: Biological, Psychological, and Social

    Course and Prognosis

    Treatment

    Chronic Suicidality in BPD

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    The Brain

    Anatomical Organization of the Brain

    Functional Organization of the Brain

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Brain and Behavior Relationships

    Historical Background

    Principles of Behavioral Neuroanatomy

    Chemical and Neural Basis of Behavior

    Cognitive–Behavioral Neuroanatomy

    Neuropsychiatry

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Brain Chemicals: Global Projections of Ancient Aromatic Neurotransmitters

    Introduction

    Aromatic Chemicals

    Biosynthesis of Aromatic Amino Acids

    Derivatives of Aromatic Neurotransmitters

    Homeostasis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Brainwashing and Totalitarian Influence

    Uses of the Term

    The Mythic Definition: Induced by Exotic Techniques

    The Social–Psychological Definition: Coercive Persuasion Through Mundane Social Influences

    Theories of Brainwashing

    Difficulties with the Scientific Study of Brainwashing

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Bulimia Nervosa

    Introduction

    Clinical Characteristics

    Epidemiology

    Longitudinal Course

    Psychotherapy

    Pharmacothearpy

    Psychobiology

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Bullying

    Definition

    Prevalence

    Development

    Impact

    Gender Differences

    Cyberbullying

    Workplace Bullying and Sexual Harassment

    Intimate Partner Aggression

    Cycle of Aggression

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Caffeine

    Introduction

    Sources and Consumption of Caffeine

    Physiology of Caffeine

    Affective, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of Caffeine

    Caffeine as a Tool for Psychological Research

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Career Development

    How It Began

    History of Career Development

    Life Stages and Career Theories

    Measuring Vocational Interests

    Holland’s Approach to Career Development

    Values and Career Development

    Life Stages

    The Theory of Work Adjustment

    Social, Economic, and Technological Influences on Career Development

    Issues Involved in Choice

    Comparison of Theories

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Catecholamines and Behavior

    Introduction

    What are Catecholamines?

    Measurement of Catecholamines

    Catecholamines and Stress

    Catecholamines and Mood

    Learning and Reward

    Movement

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Central Auditory Processing Disorders

    Introduction

    Neural Architecture of Central Auditory Processing

    CAPD: Diagnostic Considerations

    Central Deafness

    General Auditory Agnosia

    Verbal Auditory Agnosia

    Nonverbal Auditory Agnosia

    Idiopathic Acquired CAPD

    Etiologic Heterogeneity/Diversity

    Developmental CAPD

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Central Nervous System

    Neuroanatomy

    Behavior

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Child Abuse

    Introduction

    Attachment

    Types of Child Abuse

    Human Trafficking and Exploitation

    Risk Factors and Protective Factors

    Treatment and Support

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Childhood Mental Disorders

    Introduction

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chunking

    Introduction

    What Is Chunking?

    The Purpose of Chunking

    How Chunking Works

    How Chunks Are Measured

    Unresolved Issues

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Classical Conditioning

    Introduction

    Terminology

    Forms of Classical Conditioning

    Human Examples

    The Acquisition of Associative Strength in Classical Conditioning

    Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    The Clinical and Cognitive Psychology of Conflict

    The Motivational Aspects of Conflicts

    The Unconscious and Emotional Aspects of Conflicts

    The Bodily Effects of Stressful Conflicts

    The Cognitive and Executive Aspects of Conflict

    Positive Psychology

    Resolving Social Conflict

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Clinical Assessment

    The Guiding Role of Practice Theories

    Sign and Sample Approaches: Diagnosis and Assessment

    A Contextual Evidence-Informed Assessment

    Sources of Influence

    Sources of Information

    Assessing the Value of Data

    The Social Context of Assessment

    Common Assessment Errors and Their Sources

    Ethical Issues and Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Clinical Psychology: An Information Processing Approach

    Introduction

    Overview of the Information Processing Paradigm

    Evolution of the IP Paradigm Within Clinical Psychology

    Significance of the IP Paradigm to Clinical Psychology

    Emotional Disorders and Information Processing Biases

    Clinical Applicability of Information Processing Models and Treatments

    The Self-Regulatory Model of Executive Dysfunction in Emotional Disorders

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Cognition and Personality

    Introduction and Historical Context

    Personality Traits, Information Processing, and Performance

    Toward Cognitive Theories of Personality Effects

    Further Research Directions

    An Integrative Perspective on Personality and Cognition

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Introduction

    What Is CBT?

    The Third Wave of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Cognitive Bias

    Heuristics and Biases: A Short History of Cognitive Bias

    Ecological Rationality: Putting Cognitive Biases in an Environmental Context

    Evolutionary Rationality: Understanding Why Cognitive Biases Occur

    Examples of Research on Cognitive Biases

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Cognitive Disorders

    What Are Cognitive Disorders?

    How Do We Recognize and Treat Delirium?

    How Do We Recognize and Treat Amnestic Disorders?

    How Do We Recognize and Treat Dementia?

    Differential Diagnoses of Cognitive Disorders

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory

    The Original Version of the Theory

    Experimental Paradigms Used to Test the Theory

    Challenges to the Research and Original Theory

    Action-Based Model of Dissonance

    Experimental Tests of the Action-Based Model

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Comparative Primate Psychology

    Evolutionary Foundations of Comparative Primate Psychology

    History of Comparative Primate Psychology

    Comparative Primate Cognition

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Competition

    Competition

    The Social Function of Competition

    Dominance and Competition

    Sex Differences in Competition

    Competition and Behavioral Economics

    Conclusions and Current Research Trends

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Confabulation and Reality Filtering

    Definition

    Forms of Confabulation

    Disorders Associated with Confabulation

    Etiologies and Anatomy of Confabulations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Conflict Communication

    The System–Behavior–Interactionist Approach to the Study of Conflict Communication Behavior

    The Rules–Interventionist Approach to Mediated Conflict Communication Rules

    The Cognitive Approach to the Study of Conflict Communication Strategies

    The Qualitative Research Approach to the Study of Conflict Communication Perceptual and Evaluative Processes

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Conformity and Obedience

    Conformity

    Mechanisms Underlying Conformity

    Minority Influence

    Mechanisms Underlying Nonconformity

    Types of Conformity and Nonconformity

    General Relational Norms Versus Context-Specific Norms

    Obedience

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Consumer Psychology

    Core Principles of Consumer Psychology

    Managerial Applications of Consumer Psychology

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Coping

    Introduction

    Theories of Coping

    Coping Strategies

    Coping Resources

    Some Additional Factors

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Creative and Imaginative Thinking

    Introduction

    Defining Creativity and Imagination

    Stage Theories

    Uncontrolled Cognition and Creative Syntheses

    Extra- and Meta-Cognitive Processes

    Conclusions

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Creativity

    Definitions of Creativity

    Methods of Studying Creativity

    Stages of Creativity

    Intelligence and Creativity

    Divergent and Convergent Thinking in the Assessment of Creativity

    Neurological Diseases, the Right Hemisphere, and Creativity

    The Role of the Frontal Lobes and the Influence of Dopamine on Creativity

    The Role of White Matter Connectivity in Creativity

    Relaxation, Depression, and Creativity

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Crisis Management

    Introduction

    Definition of Crisis

    Detection of Potential Crises

    Preparation and Prevention of Crises

    When a Crisis Happens

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    Background

    The Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    Factors Influencing the Process

    Facets of Adaptive Change

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Crowd Psychology

    Introduction

    Classic Crowd Science: A Tale of Loss

    Crowd Patterns and Crowd Norms

    The Social Identity Model and Intragroup Dynamics in Crowds

    The Elaborated Social Identity Model and Intergroup Dynamics in Crowds

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Crowding: Effects on Health and Behavior

    Distinction Between Density and Crowding

    Role of Social and Personal Characteristics

    Effects of Crowding on Health and Behavior

    Explaining the Negative Effects of Crowding

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Cultural Psychology

    Core Premises of Cultural Psychology

    Research Traditions and Findings

    Cultural Neuroscience

    Challenges

    Promise of Cultural Psychology

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Decision Making (Individuals)

    Introduction

    History: Expected Value, Expected Utility, and Prospect Theory

    Contemporary Approaches

    Emotional Influences on Decision Making

    The Neuroscience of Decision Making

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Defense Mechanisms

    Freud’s Discovery of the Concept of Defense

    Modern Conceptualizations of Defense

    Identification of Defenses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Delusions

    Introduction

    Delusions Defined?

    Perception

    Cognition

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Dependent Personality (Disorder)

    Antecedent Validators for Dependent Personality Disorder

    Predictive Validators and Treatment for Dependent Personality Disorder

    Concurrent Validators for Dependent Personality Disorder

    Dependent Personality Disorder and Trait Dependency

    Trait Dependency, Temperament, and Normal Personality

    Models of Dependency

    Detachment/Autonomy

    Dependency and the DSM

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Depression

    Depression

    Definition of Depression

    Classification of Mood Disorders

    Epidemiology

    Theories of Depression

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Depth Perception

    Introduction

    Specialized Mechanisms for Near Distance

    General Mechanisms for Near and Far Distance

    Depth Perception in the Brain

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Developmental Psychopathology

    Introduction

    Key Concepts, Principles, and Challenges

    Applied Example: Antisocial Behavior

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Disgust

    Introduction

    Attempts at Explanation

    The Problem of Parasites

    Disgust of Unfamiliar Food

    Moral Disgust

    Explaining Disgust

    Disgust and Its Uses

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Dissociative Disorders

    Dissociation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Divorce

    The Extent of Divorce

    The Causes of Divorce

    Consequences of Divorce

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior

    Introduction

    Caffeine

    Nicotine

    Sedative-Hypnotics

    Cocaine

    Amphetamine

    Opioids

    Cannabinoids

    Psychedelics or Hallucinogens

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    Nitrous Oxide

    Dissociative Anesthetics

    Anticholinergics

    Salvia divinorum

    Antipsychotics

    Antidepressants

    Mood Stabilizers

    Drugs and the Brain

    Withdrawal, Dependence, and Addiction

    Drugs and the Mind

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Dyslexia

    Models of Reading

    What Is Dyslexia?

    The Discrepancy Definition

    What Is Reading Comprehension Impairment?

    Prevalence

    Referral Routes and Assessment

    Causes of RDs

    Cognitive Explanations

    Biological Bases

    Environment

    Development

    Comorbidities

    Interventions

    Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    A Brief History of EDNOS

    Current Definition of EDNOS

    Epidemiology and Significance of EDNOS

    Assessment of EDNOS

    Treatment of EDNOS

    Problems with the EDNOS Diagnosis

    Current Trends

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Ecological Psychology

    Ecology in the Biological Sciences

    Ecological Approaches in Psychology

    Gibson’s Ecological Psychology

    Barker’s Ecological Psychology

    Future of Ecological Psychology

    Present Status and Future of Gibson’s Approach

    Present Status and Future of Barker’s Approach

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Electroconvulsive Therapy and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Electroencephalography

    Window on the Mind

    Sources of Scalp Potentials

    Volume Conduction of Head Currents

    Recording Methods

    Time Dependence

    Topography

    Dynamic Behavior of Sources

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Embarrassment and Blushing

    Introduction

    Theoretical Explanations for Embarrassment and Blushing

    Causes of Embarrassment and Blushing

    Blushing and the Expression of Embarrassment

    Individual Differences in Embarrassment

    Face Saving and Embarrassment

    Observer Reactions

    Coping with Blushing

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Empathy

    Empathy as Knowing or Understanding Another’s Internal States

    Empathy as Feeling What Another is Feeling

    Empathy as Being Upset by Another’s Situation

    Empathy as Feeling for Another

    Empathy as Matching Another’s Overt Responses

    Empathy as a Personality Characteristic

    Sex Differences in Empathy

    Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Consequences of Empathy

    Empathy, Accuracy, and Social Relationships

    Empathy and Attributions

    Empathy and Attitudes

    Implications and Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Empirical Challenges to Conventional Mind–Brain Theory

    Introduction

    Extreme Psychophysiological Influence

    Extremes of Informational Capacity and Precision

    Memory

    Psychological Automatisms and Secondary Centers of Consciousness

    Psi Phenomena

    Genius-Level Creativity

    Mystical Experience

    The Unity of Conscious Experience

    The Heart of the Mind

    Conclusion: Toward an Expanded Scientific Psychology

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Environmental Cognition

    Introduction

    The Nature of Stored Spatial Information: Analog, Propositional, or Both?

    The Way the Brain Acquires, Stores, and Handles Environmental Information. Can We Identify Key Structures?

    Cognitive Maps in Animals and Humans as Drivers of Action

    Direct and Indirect Sources of Information About the Person’s Environment

    Communicating and Sharing Environmental Information

    The Development of Environmental Competence

    Wayfinding, Becoming Lost, and Signage

    The Legibility of Places

    Environmental Cognition Without Sight; and Devices for the Blind

    Individual, Specialist, and Cultural Differences in Environmental Cognition

    Electronic and Other Devices for Storing and Using Environmental Information

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Environmental Psychology

    Background, Theory, and Method

    Environmental Perception

    Environmental Cognition

    Environmental Appraisal

    Environmental Assessment

    Environmental Personality

    Personal Space

    Human Territoriality

    Crowding and Population Density

    Privacy

    Home and Community Settings

    Work and Travel Settings

    Learning Environments

    Architectural Psychology

    Resource Management

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Episodic and Semantic Systems of Autobiographical Memory

    Episodic Versus Semantic Autobiographical Memories

    Basic Phenomena in Autobiographical Remembering

    Maintaining and Updating Semantic Self-Knowledge

    Coincidental and Motivated Autobiographical Memory Errors

    Sources of Inaccuracy in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Episodic Memory

    The Episodic Memory System

    Episodic Memory Tasks

    Episodic Memory Processes and Subjective Awareness

    The Past Orientation of Episodic Memory

    Emotions

    Dissociations among Memory Systems

    The Neuroscience of Episodic Memory

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Equity Theory

    The Nature of Equity

    Equity Theory

    Current Research: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Equity in Love Relationships

    Equity in Work Settings

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)

    Introduction

    The Neurophysiological and Physical Origins of ERPs

    Measurement and Analysis of ERPs

    ERPs and Psychological Processes

    Source Analysis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Evidence-Based Practice

    Introduction

    Terminology, Rationale, and Tools for EBP

    Conceptual Model of EBP: Three Circles

    Roles in EBP

    The EBP Process

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Evolutionary Clinical Psychology

    Introduction

    Defining Psychopathology

    Etiology of Psychopathology

    Specific Disorders

    Evolutionary Informed Psychological Treatments

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

    Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

    Evolutionary Psychology and Developmental Systems Theory

    Applications of EDP

    Adaptive Individual Differences

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Evolutionary Personality Psychology

    Introduction

    Directional Social Selection

    Disruptive Social Selection

    Genetic Diversification

    Developmental Plasticity

    Behavioral Flexibility

    Conclusion: An Integrated Overview

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Evolutionary Psychology

    Principles of EP

    Research in EP

    Controversies in EP

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Evolutionary Social Psychology

    Evolutionary Social Psychology

    Multiple Levels of Causal Analysis

    Historical Background of Evolutionary Social Psychology

    Life History, Parental Investment, and Sexual Selection

    Evolutionary History and Human Relationships

    Evolution and Social Information Processing

    Social Dynamics and the Emergence of Culture: The Mind as a Coloring Book

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Exercise and Sport Psychology

    Introduction

    A Definition of Exercise and Sport Psychology

    The Origins of Sport Psychology

    Sport Psychology Professional Organizations

    What Do Sport Psychologists Do?

    Why Sport Psychology?

    Major Challenges Within Sport Psychology

    The Future of Sport Psychology

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Expectation

    Definition and Types of Expectations

    Role of Expectations in Human Behavior

    Sources

    Measurement

    Accuracy and Biases

    Meta-Characteristics

    Cognitive Effects of Expectations

    Expectations and Verbal Communication

    Expectations Affect Reality

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Extraversion–Introversion

    Extraversion: An Overview

    History

    Contemporary Views of Extraversion

    The Measurement of Extraversion

    The Basis of Extraversion

    Hereditary Influences

    The Link Between Biology and Extraversion

    Cross-Cultural Research into Extraversion

    Drug Studies and Extraversion

    Extraversion and Other Personality Factors

    Extraversion and Social Behavior

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Eye Movements

    Functions of Eye Movements

    Types of Eye Movements

    Eye Movements and Attention

    Evolution and Anatomy of the Eye Movement System

    Eye Movements in Sleep

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Eyewitness Identification

    Introduction

    Memory

    General Overview

    Weapon Focus

    Stress

    Confidence/Malleability

    Facial Recognition

    Lineups

    Court Remedies

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Facial Expression of Emotion

    Introduction

    Emotion: A Complex and Multidimensional Phenomenon

    From the Brain to the Face: An Emotional Journey

    Facial Expression: From Universality to Cultural Influences

    Facial Expression: Its Contribution to the Study of the Emotions

    Emotion Manifested on the Face: Some Theories Compared

    Macroexpression and Microexpression

    Neuromuscular Structure and Facial Expression

    The Face: Moderating Variables

    Truth and Falsehood in Facial Expression

    Psychosocial Implications and Applications

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Family Systems

    Family Systems Theory

    Systems Theory

    The Development of Family Systems Theory

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Forensic Psychology in Contemporary Society

    Forensic Psychology: Background and Contributions

    Professional Training

    The Role of the Forensic Psychologist

    Predictions of Dangerousness

    Commitment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Free Will

    Libertarianism

    Determinism

    Compatibilism

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Friendship

    Friendship Formation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Overview

    Phenomenology of GAD

    Conceptual Models of GAD

    Treatment of GAD

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Genius, Eminence, and Giftedness

    Historical Legacies

    Childhood Giftedness

    Adulthood Genius

    Adulthood Eminence

    Putting the Pieces Together

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Gerotechnology

    Introduction

    Gerontechnology Defined

    The Time for Gerontechnology Has Arrived

    The Technology and Aging Imperative

    Theoretical Contexts for Technology and Aging

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Gestalt Psychology and the Development of Perceptual Organization

    Traditional Views on the Development of Perceptual Organization

    Initial Empirical Efforts and Their Theoretical Implications

    Progress on the Classic Grouping Principles

    Progress on New Grouping Principles

    Progress on the Special Case of Form Similarity

    Progress on Understanding the Deployment of Lightness and Form Similarity: Automatic Versus Constructivist Grouping

    Theoretical Progress

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Gestures

    Introduction

    Gesture and Speech

    Emotions and Interpersonal Attitudes

    The Role of Gesture in Interpersonal Communication

    Conclusions

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Glial Cells

    The Predominant Cells in the Brain are Glia

    Functions of Glia

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Grandparenthood

    Introduction

    A Life Course Perspective on Grandparents

    Grandparents and Divorce

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Grief and Bereavement

    Introduction

    Symptoms and Course of Grief

    Health Consequences

    Risk Factors

    Measurement: Normal and Complicated Grief

    Forms of Intervention: Counseling and Therapy

    The Efficacy of Intervention

    Theoretical Approaches

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Group Dynamics

    Major Characteristics of Groups

    Influence Processes in Groups

    Working in Groups

    Group Decision-Making

    Influence of Individuals on Groups

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hallucinations

    Introduction

    Classification of Hallucinations by Proposed Mechanism

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Handedness

    Historical and Sociological Overview

    Early Research on Handedness

    Modern Research on Handedness

    Measurement of Handedness

    Handedness and Other Lateral Preferences

    Handedness in Nonhumans

    A New Approach to Handedness: Degree, Not Direction

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Hippocampal Formation

    Introduction

    A Seahorse in the Brain: Anatomy

    Spikes and Waves: Physiology

    Maps and Compasses: Neural Coding

    Mapping, Declaring, Relating, Binding, Constructing: Theories of Function

    Dying Cells: Pathology

    New Birth: Adult Neurogenesis and Morphological Change

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    History of Film and Music

    Introduction

    Semantic Differential

    Visual Information

    Auditory Versus Visual Information

    Music, Film, and Association

    Music, Film, and Structure

    Music, Film, and Emotion

    Music, Film, and Memory

    Music, Film, and Closure

    Music, Film, and Plot Continuation

    Music, Film, and Sound Quality

    Physiological Affect

    Music, Film, and Affect

    Music, Film, and Meaning

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Description

    History

    Prevalence and Demographics

    Co-occurrence and Comorbidity

    Assessment

    Etiology

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    HIV/AIDS: The Role of Behavior and the Social Environment in a Global Pandemic

    Introduction

    History and Epidemiology of HIV

    Understanding the Role of Behavior

    Evolving Prevention Responses

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Homeostasis

    Introduction

    History of Homeostasis

    Current Concepts in Homeostasis

    Homeostatic Control Systems

    Examples of Homeostasis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Homicide

    The Epidemiology of Homicide

    Theories of Homicide

    Deterring Homicide

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Hope and Optimism

    Definitions

    Leading Standardized Measures

    Adaptive Consequences

    Possible Risks

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Hormones and Behavior

    Introduction

    Sexual Behavior

    Male Sexual Behavior

    Female Sexual Behavior

    Sexual Dysfunction

    Testosterone and Aggression

    Parental Behavior

    Sex Differences in Energy Homeostasis

    Feeding Regulation by Estradiol

    Sex Differences in Eating Disorders

    Hormones and Cognition

    The Stress Hormones and the Stress Response

    Sex Differences in the Stress Response

    Stress and Drug Abuse

    Environmental Factors Influencing Hormones and Behavior

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Human Factors/Ergonomics

    Introduction

    A Brief History of HF/E

    The Rise of Computer Influence in HF/E

    Contemporary Issues in HF/E

    On Being an HF/E Professional

    Future Concerns of HF/E

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Human Intelligence

    Theories of Intelligence

    Development of Intelligence

    Measuring Intelligence

    Heritability and Malleability of Intelligence

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Human Mating

    Introduction

    Parental Investment Theory

    Mating Systems

    Homosexuality

    Clash of the Sexes

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Hypnosis

    Introduction

    History of Hypnosis

    Misconceptions About Hypnosis

    Contemporary Theories and Research

    Clinical and Forensic Aspects of Hypnosis

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Hypochondriasis or Health Anxiety

    Introduction

    Diagnostics and Prevalence

    Treatment

    Studies of Long-Term Follow-Up After Psychotherapy Has So Far Not Been Published

    The Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Treatment

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Id, Ego, and Superego

    Freud in Context

    The Cornerstone of Psychoanalysis

    Evolution of Theory and the Emergence of the Tripartite Personality

    Id, Ego, and Superego

    Summary

    Selected Post-Freudian Developments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Implicit Memory

    Early History

    Indirect Memory Tests Reveal Implicit Memory

    Implicit Memory Supports Priming

    Varieties

    Brain Basis of Implicit Memory

    Other Priming Phenomena and Their Mechanisms

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Impression Formation

    Introduction

    Impression Formation at First Glance

    Impression Formation over Time

    Biases in Impression Formation

    Automatic and Controlled Aspects of Impression Formation

    Neural Correlates of Impression Formation

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Individual Differences in Temperament: Definition, Measurement, and Outcomes

    Introduction

    What Is Temperament? Psychological and Physiological Perspectives

    How Is Temperament Measured? Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Measures

    What Determines Temperament? Behavioral and Molecular Genetic Investigations

    How Does Temperament Predict Developmental Outcome? Risk and Resilience

    What Does the Future Hold? Moving Forward

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Individualism

    Individualism

    Defining Individualism and Collectivism

    Cultural Variation in Mentality

    Antecedents of Individualism and Collectivism

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Inner Speech

    Overview

    Theoretical Themes

    Methodology of Research

    Development of Inner Speech

    Characteristics of Inner Speech

    Neuroanatomy

    Functions

    Dysfunctional Inner Speech

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Intellectual Disabilities

    Issues Related to Intellectual Disabilities

    Defining and Classifying Intellectual Disability

    Genetic Etiology

    Dual Diagnosis

    Interventions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Intention

    Introduction

    Understanding the Intentions of Others: Developmental Milestones

    Understanding Our Own Intentions

    Failures of Intention

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Internet Behavior

    Introduction

    Demographics and Social Use of ICT

    Types of Online Social Environments and Tools

    Psychological Aspects of Online Social Environments

    Effects of Online Social Environments on Behavior

    Managing Impressions

    Online Deceptions

    Online Group Dynamics

    Conclusions and Looking Ahead

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Interpersonal Perception and Communication

    Nonverbal Communication

    Attributions for Others’ Behaviors

    Person Perception and Communication

    Communicating About Oneself to Others

    Expectancy Effects

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    Depression

    Theoretical and Empirical Background

    Life Events

    Focus and Techniques of IPT

    Treatment Phases

    Efficacy Review

    Practical Training in IPT

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Jealousy

    Problems in Defining Jealousy

    Meanings of Jealousy and Methods for Its Study

    Jealousy in Comparative Perspective

    Jealousy and the Law

    Jealousy in Social History: Traditional to Victorian

    The Twentieth Century Dynamic: The Sibling Jealousy Crisis

    Adult Jealousy: New Standards

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Judgment

    Psychophysics

    Signal Detection Theory

    Higher Order Judgments

    Judgments and Decision Making

    Heuristics

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Jury Psychology

    Rendering the Venire

    Jury Selection

    Courtroom Influences

    Jury Psychodynamics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Kinship

    Kinship and Kindness

    Kinship, Mating, and Marriage

    Kinship in Mind

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Language Development

    The Components of Language

    Language Development Over the Life Span

    Theories of Language Development

    The Biological Bases of Language

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Leadership

    Introduction

    What Is Leadership?

    Leadership and Levels of Analysis

    Leadership Antecedents and Consequences

    Classical Leadership Views

    Contemporary Leadership Views

    Alternative Leadership Views

    New Wave Leadership Views

    Applications for Effective Leadership

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Learned Helplessness

    Definition

    Initial Findings

    The Initial Learned Helplessness Theory

    Critique and Reformulation

    The Neurobiology of Learned Helplessness

    Effects of Learned Helplessness

    Assessing Learned Helplessness

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Leisure*

    A Brief History of Leisure

    Time

    Activity/Recreation

    State of Mind

    Places and Spaces

    Cultural Context

    Expanding Leisure Meanings

    Expanding Leisure Opportunities

    The Potential of Leisure

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Logic: Development of Logical Operations

    The Logic of High Cognition Versus Low Cognition

    Other Compatible Ways of Conceiving the Origin of Logic

    A Psychological Construct: The Organismic-Scheme Unit

    Development of Logical Operations: Developmental Stages

    Levels of Mental Operations According to Piaget and Neo-Piagetians

    Logical Reasoning in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Final Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Love and Intimacy

    Defining and Measuring Love

    Passionate Love

    Companionate Love and Intimacy

    The Endurance of Love

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Marital Dysfunction

    Introduction

    Defining and Assessing Marital Dysfunction

    Impact of Marital Distress

    Determinants of Marital Distress

    Treatment of Marital Dysfunction

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Mate Selection

    Introduction

    Perspectives

    Relationship Selection

    Long-Term Mate Preferences

    Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Ovulatory Effects

    Same-Sex Mate Preferences

    Actual Mate Choices

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Media Influence on Behavior

    What Is Media Influence?

    Media Influence Processes

    Effects of Violence in Media

    Other Media Effects

    Regulating Media Influence

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Meditation: The Science and the Art

    Introduction

    The Science of Meditation

    Description of Kundalini Yoga Meditation Techniques

    Descriptions of Other Popular Meditation Techniques

    The Art of the Practice and the Application of the Techniques

    The Development of a Personal Practice

    The Clinical Application of Techniques for Patient Populations

    Summary

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Memory

    Introduction

    Types of Memory

    Organization of Long-Term Memory

    Reminding

    Explicit and Implicit Memory

    Evidence from Amnesia

    Permanence of Memories

    Evidence for the Transience of Memory

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Memory, Neural Substrates

    Introduction

    Terms and Paradigms

    Multiple Memory Systems in the Brain

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Mental Imagery

    Introduction

    Brief History

    Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Study Visual Mental Imagery

    Shared Neural Systems Between Visual Mental Imagery and Visual Perception

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Military Psychology

    History

    Industrial–Organizational Psychology

    Social Psychology

    Applied Experimental Psychology

    Clinical/Counseling Psychology

    Recent Developments

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    The Mind–Body Problem

    What Is the Problem?

    The Mind–Body Problem in the Context of Western Science

    Attempts to Bridge the Gap

    Toward a Revolution in the Mind Sciences

    Toward an Empirical Science of the Subjective

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    The Mirror Mechanism

    Introduction

    The Mirror Mechanism in Monkeys

    The Mirror Mechanism in Humans

    A General Overview

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Molecular Genetics and Human Behavior

    The Conceptual Foundations of Gene Theory

    Traditional Quantitative Behavioral Genetics

    A Developmental Systems Perspective on the Role of Genes in Development

    The Impasse Between Genocentric and Developmental Systems Perspectives

    Contemporary Molecular Behavioral Genetics

    Genes and Development

    Molecular Behavioral Genetics

    Further Reading

    Moral Development

    A Historical Overview

    Piaget’s Theory

    Kohlberg’s Theory

    New Directions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Moral Emotions

    Defining Moral Emotions

    Theoretical Model of Moral Emotions

    Moral Emotions Research

    Moral Emotions and Social Behavior

    Educating Moral Emotions

    Summary and Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Motivation

    Introduction

    Approach and Avoidance Motivation

    Implicit Motives

    Explicit Motivation: The Self-Concept, Goals, and Values

    Interactions Between Implicit and Explicit Levels of Motivation

    Learning and Performance Goals

    Self-Determination Theory and Basic Needs

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Motor Control

    How Does Movement Take Place?

    General Control Modes

    Central and Sensory/Perceptual Elements in Motor Control

    Movement Constraints: Computational Simplification

    Motor Control Flexibility and Goal Accomplishment

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Near-Death Experiences

    Introduction

    Phenomenology of NDEs

    Aftereffects of NDEs

    Psychological Models of NDEs

    Comparison of NDEs to Psychopathological Conditions

    Physiological Models of NDEs

    NDEs in Anesthesia and Cardiac Arrest

    Implications of NDEs for the Mind–Brain Problem

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Negotiation

    The General Negotiation Paradigm

    Issues, Offers, and Outcomes of Negotiation

    Strategies and Tactics

    Psychological Antecedents of Negotiation Strategy

    Social Antecedents of Negotiation Strategy

    Expanding the General Negotiation Paradigm

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neuroesthetics: The Body in Esthetic Experience

    Introduction

    An Historical Perspective: Einfühlung and Esthetic Experience

    Neuroesthetics: Explicit Appraisal and Reward

    Neuroesthetics: Embodied Approaches

    Conclusions

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neuroethics

    Neuroscience: The Self, Free Will, and Responsibility

    Brain Research, Treatment, and Enhancement

    A Neuroscientific Understanding of Moral Judgment and Action

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Neuroexecutive Function

    What Is Brain Executive Function?

    History of the Executive Concept

    Top-Down Cognitive Control

    Recent Neuroimaging Studies

    Clinical Disorders of Executive Functions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neuroimaging of Dementia

    Introduction

    Neuroimaging to Diagnose Dementia Caused by Nondegenerative Disorders

    Neuroimaging to Distinguish the Various Degenerative Dementing Processes

    Alzheimer’s Disease

    Lewy-body dementia

    Frontotemporal dementias, corticobasal degeneration

    Use of Neuroimaging for Dementia Research and in the Evaluation of New Therapies

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Neurotechnologies

    Introduction

    Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Positron Emission Tomography

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Magnetoencephalography

    Combination Methods

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Neurotheology

    Introduction

    Defining Neurotheology

    Brain Functions and Theological Argument

    Reflections on Major Topics of Neuroscience

    Reflections on Major Topics of Theology

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Nonverbal Communication

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication

    Components and Patterns

    Determinants

    Functions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Nature of Symptoms

    Epidemiology

    Comorbidity

    Differential Diagnosis

    Models of Development and Maintenance of OCD Symptoms

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Diagnosis

    Assessment

    Etiology

    Epidemiology

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Operant Conditioning

    Basic Concepts

    The Nature of Reinforcement

    Learning Phenomena

    Conditioned Reinforcement

    Choice

    Other Issues

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Organizational Behavior

    Microorganizational Behavior

    Macroorganizational Behavior

    Context Effects

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Our Cognitive Map

    Structure and Form of Our Cognitive Map

    Building Our Cognitive Map

    The Future of Our Cognitive Map

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pain

    Anatomy and Neurochemistry of Pain

    The Psychobiology of Pain

    The Theories of Pain

    Clinical Implications of Pain

    Genetics

    Assessment of Pain Therapy

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Paranoia

    Paranoid Syndromes

    Prevalence

    Causes of Paranoia

    Treatment of Paranoia

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Parenting

    Parenting Goals

    Parenting and Emotions

    Indexes of Relational Quality

    Parental Control

    Parenting Practices

    The Influence of the Child on Parenting

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant websites

    Parent–Offspring Conflict

    Historical Perspectives on Parent–Offspring Conflict

    A Developmental Overview of Parent–Offspring Conflict

    Atypical Parent–Offspring Conflict

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Peer Relationships and Influence in Childhood

    Introduction

    Theoretical Perspectives

    Friendships

    Groups

    Peer Acceptance and Rejection

    Culture and Peer Relationships

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Perceived Control

    Historical Development of Perceived Control

    Perspectives and Approaches to Studying Perceived Control

    Antecedents of Control

    Consequences of Control

    Complexities, Controversies, and Challenges

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Perceptual Development

    Constructivist and Ecological Views of Perceptual Knowledge Development

    Perceptual Processing Research in Infancy

    Perceptual Development Beyond Infancy

    Questions and Controversies Concerning Perceptual Knowledge Development

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Personal Relationships in Everyday Life

    The Study of Personal Relationships

    The Provisions of Relationships

    Mental Models of Relationships: Childhood Experience and Adulthood

    Strategies in Developing and Maintaining Relationships

    The Role of Outsiders in Relationship Activity

    Organization of Roles and Time Management

    The Role of Daily Life and Everyday Talk

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Personality Assessment

    Measurement Models in Personality Assessment

    The History of Personality Assessment

    Evaluating Personality Measures

    Personality Assessment and Personality Theory

    Applied Uses of Personality Assessment

    Final Comments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Personality Development

    Considering Personality at Multiple Levels

    Defining Different Types of Stability and Change

    Early Emerging Personality Attributes: Child Temperament

    Mean-Level and Rank-Order Stability of the Big Five Across the Life Span

    What Mechanisms Account for Personality Stability and Change?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Personality Development and Aging

    Introduction

    Personality Traits as Units of Analysis

    A Lifespan Development Perspective

    Different Types of Change and Stability

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Personality Disorders

    Personality Disorder Diagnosis: DSM and ICD Classifications

    Paranoid Personality Disorder

    Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Borderline Personality Disorder

    Avoidant Personality Disorder

    Dependent Personality Disorder

    Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Looking Forward

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Personality, Structure

    Major Models of Personality and Trait Affect

    Development of a Consensual Hierarchical Structure

    Personality Superfactors

    Lower Order Traits

    Clinical Traits in the Personality Hierarchy

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Persuasion

    Persuasion Attempts

    Two Routes to Persuasion

    Attitude Strength

    Resistance

    Dissonance: Persuasion from Behavior

    Application: Problem of Sustainable Behavior Change in Health Communication

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Phobias

    Overview of Specific Phobias

    Phenomenology of Specific Phobias

    Theoretical Perspectives on Specific Phobias

    Treatment of Specific Phobias

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Phonetics

    Why Study Phonetics?

    A Brief Historical Perspective

    Preliminaries to the Study of Phonetics

    Articulatory and Acoustic Classification Schemes

    Prosody and Suprasegmentals

    Features and Feature Detection

    Coarticulation

    Experimental Phonetics

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Planning

    Introduction

    Elements of Planning

    Early Research on Planning

    Measures of Planning Ability

    Social Cognitive Aspects of Planning

    How to Set Effective Goals

    Self-Improvement Plans: The New Year Resolution Fallacy

    Delay Discounting

    Construal Level and Procrastination

    Self-Control and Ego Depletion

    Circadian Rhythms

    Implementation Intentions

    Perfectionism

    Planning Fallacy

    Related Areas

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Play

    Introduction

    What Is Play?

    Locomotor Play

    Object Play

    Social Play

    Pretend Play

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Pornography

    Defining Pornography

    History and Content of Sexually Explicit Media

    Consumption of Sexually Explicit Material

    Effects of Sexually Explicit Material on Feelings, Beliefs, and Evaluations

    Effects of Sexually Explicit Material: Behavior

    General Summary and Critique

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Positive Psychology

    Introduction

    What Is Positive Psychology?

    The Pillars of Positive Psychology

    Well-Being Across Time and Culture

    What Is the Good Life?

    Applied Positive Psychology and Positive Interventions

    Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    General Description

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) Conceptions

    PTSD Criteria

    Prevalence

    Morbidity

    Etiology

    Treatment

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Preference Judgments (Individuals)

    Introduction

    How Rational Are Preference Judgments?

    How Do Subjective Experiences Influence Preferences?

    How Do Personality Factors Affect Preferences?

    How Do Deliberation and (Un)Conscious Thought Affect Preferences?

    How Well Do People Predict Their Preferences?

    How Are Preferences Assessed?

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotypes (Racial Bias)

    Overview

    A Brief History of Research on Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    New Perspectives and Current Trends for Research on Prejudice and Stereotypes

    The Effects of Prejudice and Stereotypes on the Self

    Methods to Study Prejudice and Stereotypes

    Reducing Prejudice

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

    Symptoms, Epidemiology, and Classification

    Biopsychosocial Perspective of PMS

    Assessment and Treatment of PMS

    PMDD Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Quality of Life Impact

    Biopsychosocial Perspective of PMDD

    Assessment and Treatment of PMDD

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Primate Cognition

    Introduction

    Physical Cognition

    Social Cognition

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Problem Solving

    What Is a Problem?

    What Is Problem Solving?

    What Are the Cognitive Processes in Problem Solving?

    What Kinds of Knowledge Are Required for Problem Solving?

    What Are the Approaches to the Study of Problem Solving?

    What Are Some Enduring Issues in Problem Solving?

    Past and Future Research Trends

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice

    Post-Freudian Development of Theory

    Object Relations Theory

    Self-Psychology

    Postmodernist Views

    Attachment Theory

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychological Predictors of Heart Disease

    Historical Perspective

    Disease-Prone Personalities

    Social Integration

    Causal Mechanisms

    Noncausal Effects

    Self-Healing Personalities

    Interventions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychology and Religion

    Psychology and Religion

    History of Psychology and Religion

    Major Methodological Stances in the Psychology of Religion

    Major Content Areas in the Psychology of Religion

    Controversial Issue in Psychology and Religion

    Future Prospects

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychology of Reading

    Introduction

    Historical Review

    Perceptual Processes in Reading

    The Role of Phonology in Reading

    Developmental Aspects of Reading

    Dyslexia

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychology, Science, and Astrology

    Psychology: The Scientific Study of Behavior

    The Role of Theory in Science

    Scientific Method

    Astrology: An Example of Bad Science

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychopathology: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Classification

    Definitional Issues: Abnormalcy Versus Normalcy

    Theories of Cause

    Classification and Diagnosis

    Assessment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Psychophysics

    Components of a Psychophysical Experiment

    Classification of Psychophysical Experiments

    Varieties of Psychophysical Procedure

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Psychotherapy

    Introduction

    Recipients of Psychotherapy

    Basic Issues in Psychotherapy

    Theoretical Orientations

    Factors that Contribute to Therapeutic Success

    Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Reading and Phonological Processing

    Reading and Writing Exploit Distinctive Properties of Spoken Language

    Alphabetic Writing and Syllabic Writing Convey Linguistic Messages Visually by Creating Symbols for the Meaningless Particles of Words

    A Role for Phonology in Semantically Based, Nonsegmental Writing

    Awareness of Phonemes, Key to Grasping the Alphabetic Principle

    English Spelling Is a Hybrid, Based Only Partly on Phonology

    Further Steps Toward Literacy

    Dyslexia: A Phonological Deficit Affecting the Decoding of Print

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Reasoning

    Reasoning and Logic

    Developmental Theories of Logical Reasoning

    Comparison and Conclusions Regarding the Theories

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Retirement

    Introduction

    History of Retirement

    Definitions of Retirement

    The Retirement Process

    Self-Management

    Retirement Planning

    The Changing Nature of Retirement

    How Do Future Generations View Retirement?

    New Concepts of Later Life

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Risk-Compensating Behavior

    Background

    Theoretical Construct

    Empirical Results: Driving Behavior

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Risk-Taking Behavior (Young Male Syndrome)

    Young Male Syndrome

    Sex Differences in Risk-Taking

    Age Differences in Risk-Taking

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Savant Syndrome

    Introduction

    What Is Savant Syndrome?

    History of Savant Syndrome

    How Common Are Savant Skills?

    What Is the Source of Savant Talent?

    How Is the Savant Brain Different?

    Where Do Savant Skills Come From?

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Schizoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Introduction

    Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Schizophrenia

    Introduction

    Brief History of Schizophrenia

    Prevalence and Gender Differences

    Onset, Course, and Prognosis

    Clinical Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Etiological Theories

    Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Selective Mutism

    Diagnosis

    Epidemiology

    Relationship to Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness

    Oppositionality

    Etiology

    Assessment

    Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Self-Defeating Behaviors

    Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas

    Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

    Fear of Success

    Learned Helplessness

    Self-Handicapping Behaviors

    Procrastination

    Perfectionism

    Failures in Self-Regulation

    Self-Defeating Personality

    Insecure Attachment Styles

    Selective Attention and Memory

    Difference from Psychiatric Disorders

    Treatment

    The Challenge of Treatment

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Self-Efficacy

    Introduction

    Defining Self-Efficacy

    Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theory

    Sources of Self-Efficacy

    Mechanisms of Self-Efficacy

    Adaptive Benefits of Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Self-Efficacy Interventions

    The Agentic Worldview of Self-Efficacy Theory

    Impact of Self-Efficacy Theory on Psychology

    Future Directions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Self-Esteem

    Self-Esteem Defined

    Perspectives on Self-Esteem

    Measurement

    Self-Esteem and Responses to Failure

    Self-Esteem-Related Motives: Self-Enhancement, Self-Verification, and Self-Protection

    Development Across the Lifespan

    Self-Esteem and Other Personality Dimensions

    Emotions and Psychopathology

    Self-Esteem and Other Real Life Outcomes

    The ‘Dark Side’ of HSE

    Relationship Functioning and Self-Esteem

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    Introduction

    Some Early Experiments

    Teacher Expectation Effects

    The Meta-Analytic Evidence for the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    The Practical Importance of Experimental Effects

    The 10-Arrow Model

    The Four-Factor ‘Theory’

    Beyond Classrooms and Laboratories

    Conclusion

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Self-Regulatory Skills and Behavior Change

    Introduction

    Leading Theories of Self-Regulation

    Measurement of Self-Regulation in the Context of Behavior

    Self-Regulation in the Context of Academic Performance

    Self-Regulation in the Context of Health Behavior Change

    Self-Regulation in the Context of Sport Performance

    Self-Regulation and Coping Behaviors

    Conclusions and Outlook

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Self-Relaxation

    Relaxation as Reduced Arousal: The Relaxation Response

    Neuropsychological Conceptualizations of Relaxation

    Types of Relaxation

    The Uses of Relaxation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Semantic Memory

    Semantic Memory Is One Type of Memory

    Language, Concepts, Categories, and Semantic Networks

    Knowledge and Generic Memory Encompass Semantic and Nonsemantic Memory

    Knowledge, Priming, and Awareness

    Standard Theory of the Semantic Memory System

    Semantic Memory Includes Embodied (Grounded) Knowledge

    Brain Basis of Knowledge

    Frontal Lobe Controls Knowledge Encoding and Retrieval

    Simulation, Mental Imagery, and Semantic Memory

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sensation Seeking

    Theoretical and Historical Background for SS

    Measuring SS and Characterizing Sensation Seekers

    Biological Correlates of Sensation Seeking

    Social Influences on the Expression of SS

    Conclusion: A Biosocial Model of SS

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sense of Smell

    Introduction

    The Olfactory Receptors

    The Olfactory Bulbs

    The Olfactory Cortex

    Development of Olfactory Perception

    Mammalian Pheromones

    Factors That Influence the Ability to Smell in Adulthood

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sense of Taste (Effect on Behavior)

    Concepts of Taste

    Anatomical and Physiological Substrates in Taste Receptors

    Lifespan Development of Taste (In Utero to Elderly)

    Taste Disorders

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    The Sense of Touch

    Sensors in the Skin

    Touch in the Brain

    Tactile Acuity

    Form Perception

    Texture Perception

    Motion Perception

    The Role of Touch in Object Manipulation and Tool Use

    Pleasant Touch

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sentence Processing

    Sentence Structure

    Structural Ambiguity

    Incremental Processing

    Models of Sentence Processing

    Incomplete Processing

    Sentence Complexity

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Separation Anxiety

    Introduction

    Clinical Description

    Assessment

    Differential Diagnosis

    Separation Anxiety and School Refusal

    Treatment

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sex Differences

    Introduction

    Sexual Selection

    Sexual Selection and Human Sex Differences

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sex Roles

    Further Definitions and Models

    Gender Role Development Across the Life Span

    Major Conflicts in the Field of Sex Role Research

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sexual Behavior

    Before Puberty

    Theoretical Interlude

    Puberty and Afterward

    Fetishes and Atypical Sexual Behavior

    Sexual Problems

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sign Languages

    A Note on Modality Differences

    Myths About Sign Languages

    Linguistic Structure of Sign Languages

    The Acquisition of Sign Languages

    Brain Organization

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sleep, Biological Rhythms, and Performance

    Sleep Characteristics and Function

    Circadian Rhythms

    Sleep Need

    Sleep Across the Lifespan

    Sleep Deprivation and Performance

    Factors Affecting the Impact of Sleepiness on Performance

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Sleep Disorders

    Introduction

    History of Sleep Medicine

    Major Sleep Disorders

    Testing in the Sleep Center

    Management of Sleep Disorders

    Social Implications

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Social Anxiety Disorder

    Introduction

    Description

    Etiology

    Prevention

    Pharmacological Treatments

    Psychological Treatments

    Combined Pharmacotherapy and CBT

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Cognition

    Introduction

    Social Cognition, Traditional Social Psychology, and Cognitive Psychology

    Historical Background and Intellectual Origins

    The Structure and Processing of Social Information

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Comparison

    Introduction

    Festinger’s Original Social Comparison Theory

    Directions and Motives

    Milestones

    Factors that Influence Comparisons

    Applications to Health

    Future Directions

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Development (Attachment, Imprinting)

    Roots of Attachment Theory: Ethology and Imprinting

    Early Social Connections – Building an Attachment Relationship

    The Need for Attachment

    Attachment Across Cultures

    Individual Differences in Attachment Security

    Early Experience and Attachment Security

    Infant Characteristics and Attachment Security

    Correlates and Sequelae of Early Attachment

    Is Attachment Security Stable over Time?

    The Attachment System in Childhood and Adolescence

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Exchange

    Exchange Networks and Power

    Types of Exchange

    Solidarity

    Trust

    Future Directions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Loafing (and Facilitation)

    Social Loafing

    Social Facilitation

    Integrating Social Loafing and Social Facilitation

    Relationships with Other Phenomena

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Support

    Types of Social Support

    Relation of Social Support to Physical and Mental Health

    Explaining the Positive Effects of Social Support

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Social Values (Influence on Behavior)

    Defining Social Values

    Problems Measuring Social Value Orientations

    Decomposed Games

    Interdependence and Social Values

    The Logic of the Prisoners’ Dilemma

    Research Findings on Social Value Orientations

    When Social Value Orientations Do Not Make a Difference

    Origins of Social Value Orientations

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Socioemotional Development

    Current Perspectives on Emotional Development

    The Intersection of Genes and Environment in Socioemotional Development

    Socioemotional Development and the Developing Brain

    Emotion Regulation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Somatoform Disorders

    Introduction

    Historical Overview

    DSM-IV Compared to ICD-10

    Other Conditions Approximating the SDs

    Is SD a Mental or Somatic Disorder?

    Epidemiology

    Treatment

    Challenges and Controversies

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Spatial Orientation

    General Definitions and Issues

    Perception and Action: Spatial Orientation as Something that People Perceive or Figure Out and Know

    History of Concepts and Research

    Principles and Research Strategies

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Spatial Perception

    What Is Spatial Perception and What Is It For?

    How Do We Perceive Spatial Information?

    How Is Spatial Information Represented?

    Spatial Perception in the Service of Action

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Stress and Blood Pressure Dysregulation*

    Introduction

    Origins of Stress-Psychophysiological Investigations

    Strategy of Psychophysiological Investigations into Stress-Outcomes Research

    BP and Hypertension

    The First Study of Acute BP Response

    Does BP Reactivity Predict Future HTN and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)?

    Predictors/Determinants of Cardiovascular Reactivity

    Limitations of the Reactivity Hypothesis

    Summary

    New Developments in Stress-Psychophysiological Research

    A New Approach: Cognitive Underpinnings of Sustained Biological Dysregulation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Stress and Illness

    Brief History of the Interaction of Mind and Body

    Physiological Stress Responses

    Defining Stressors and Stress Responses

    Mechanisms Linking Stress to Disease

    Vulnerability to Stress-Induced Illness

    Building Stress Resilience

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Studying

    Attention

    Goal-Setting

    Studying Strategies

    The Importance of Self-Testing

    Discussion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Subjective Culture

    Introduction

    Theory

    Sample Findings

    Applications

    Cross-Cultural Training

    Extension to the Study of Individualism and Collectivism

    An Extension to the Study of Self-Deception Across Cultures

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Subliminal Perception

    Definition

    Methodology

    Historical Background

    Neurological Evidence for Subliminal Perception

    Downstream Effects of Subliminal Perception: Attitudes and Judgments

    Downstream Effects of Subliminal Perception: Behavior

    Relevance to the Real World

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Suicide

    Epidemiology of Suicide

    Societal Suicide Rate

    Causes of Individual Suicide

    Protective Factors

    Psychological Autopsy

    Preventing Suicide

    Surviving the Suicide of a Significant Other

    Is Suicide Immoral?

    Can Suicide Be Rational?

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Surprise

    Pretheoretical Characterization of Surprise

    A Short History of Research on Surprise

    Theories of Surprise: The Cognitive-Evolutionary Model

    Surprise, the Startle Reaction, and the Orienting Response

    Is Surprise an Emotion?

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Synesthesia

    Introduction

    Variants of Synesthesia and Phenomenology

    History of Synesthesia Research

    Prevalence and Inheritance of Synesthesia

    Neurological and Developmental Roots of Synesthesia

    Costs and Benefits of Synesthesia

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Syntax

    Phrase Structure

    The Lexicon

    Syntactic Transformations

    Trace Theory

    Constraints on Transformations

    Case Theory

    Logical Form

    Binding Theory

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Temperament and Individual Differences

    The Meaning of Temperament

    Origins of Temperament

    Neurobiology

    Infant Temperaments

    Variation in Reactions to the Unfamiliar

    High- and Low-Reactive Infants

    Temperament and Gender

    The Biology of the Sexes

    Temperament and Ethnicity

    Temperament and Mental Illness

    Summary

    Further Reading

    Terrorism

    Defining Terrorism

    History and Trends in Terrorism

    Types and Tactics of Terrorism

    What Makes a Terrorist? Approaches and Advances in the Study of Terrorism

    The Role of the Media

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Test Behavior

    Introduction

    Physical and Physiological Conditions

    Cognitive Processes and Strategies

    Metacognition

    Individual Differences

    Social Factors

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Tickling

    Two Forms of Tickle: Knismesis and Gargalesis

    Tickling in Nonhumans

    Ontogeny of Tickle

    Positive Emotion and Tickle

    Sociality of Tickling

    Automatic Response

    The Unpleasant Side

    Physiology

    Functional Theories

    Final Remarks

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Touch

    Introduction

    Information Transfer Through the Skin

    Counting Tactile Stimuli

    Memory for Touch

    Attentional Constraints on Tactile Perception

    Spatial Tactile Attention

    Attending to the Sense of Touch

    Tactile Perception and Attention Following Posture Change

    Tactile Awareness

    Cross-Modal Interactions Between Touch and the Other Senses

    The Affective Aspects of Touch

    Touch: What the Future Holds

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Uncertainty

    Concepts and Definitions

    Perception and Judgment

    Social Constructions of Uncertainty

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Violence

    Biological Perspectives

    Other Psychological Perspectives

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Visual Motion Perception

    Motion Integration and Segmentation

    3D Formotion Model

    The Form Processing System

    The Motion Processing System

    Converting Motion into Action during Perceptual Decision-Making

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Visual Neglect

    Introduction: Clinical and Cognitive Relevance

    Clinical Presentation and Functional Consequences

    Assessment

    Neuropsychological Insights and Cognitive Mechanisms Implicated

    Neural Basis (Lesion Correlates)

    Recovery and Rehabilitation

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Visual Perception

    Hubel and Wiesel: Giving Vision Research an Explicit Edge

    Edges at Marr’s Three Levels of Analysis

    The Visual Brain as a Modular and Hierarchical System

    Interactions in the Visual Hierarchy

    Active Vision

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Vocational Choice

    Overview and Historical Perspectives

    Vocational Choice as a Matching Process

    Vocational Choice as a Decision-Making Process

    Self as an Integrating Factor in Vocational Choice

    Social Psychological Perspectives on Vocational Choice

    Special Considerations

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    War

    The Anthropology and Archeology of Warfare: Is the Propensity to Make War Innate?

    What is the Role of Warfare in the Evolution of Human Societies?

    How is Warfare Collectively Represented in the Psyche or Mentality of Peoples?

    What is the Relationship Between Warfare and Individual and Collective Psychological Functioning Today?

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Word Retrieval

    The Mental Lexicon

    Models of Word Retrieval

    Factors Influencing Word Retrieval

    Problems in Word Retrieval

    Word Retrieval in Specific Populations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Work Efficiency and Motivation

    Introduction

    The Nature of Efficiency

    The Nature of Motivation

    Central Issues in Efficiency and Motivation

    Motivational Techniques

    Concluding Remarks on Efficiency and Motivation

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Index

    Author Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2518
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: January 31, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080961804

About the Editor in Chief

V. S. Ramachandran

V. S. Ramachandran

V. S. Ramachandran is Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition and Distinguished Professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California, San Diego, and Adjunct Professor of Biology at the Salk Institute. Ramachandran initially trained as a doctor and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. Ramachandran's early work was on visual perception but he is best known for his experiments in behavioral neurology which, despite their apparent simplicity, have had a profound impact on the way we think about the brain. He has been called "The Marco Polo of neuroscience" by Richard Dawkins and "The modern Paul Broca" by Eric Kandel.

In 2005 he was awarded the Henry Dale Medal and elected to an honorary life membership by the Royal Institution of Great Britain, where he also gave a Friday evening discourse (joining the ranks of Michael Faraday, Thomas Huxley, Humphry Davy, and dozens of Nobel Laureates). His other honors and awards include fellowships from All Souls College, Oxford, and from Stanford University (Hilgard Visiting Professor); the Presidential Lecture Award from the American Academy of Neurology, two honorary doctorates, the annual Ramon Y Cajal award from the International Neuropsychiatry Society, and the Ariens-Kappers medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. In 2003 he gave the annual BBC Reith lectures and was the first physician/psychologist to give the lectures since they were begun by Bertrand Russel in 1949. In 1995 he gave the Decade of the Brain lecture at the 25th annual (Silver Jubilee) meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. In 2010 he delivered the annual Jawaharlal Nehru memorial lecture in New Delhi, India. Most recently the President of India conferred on him the second highest civilian award and honorific title in India, the Padma Bhushan. And TIME magazine named him on their list of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2011.

Ramachandran has published over 180 papers in scientific journals (including five invited review articles in the Scientific American). He is author of the acclaimed book "Phantoms in the Brain" that has been translated into nine languages and formed the basis for a two part series on Channel Four TV (UK) and a 1 hour PBS special in USA. NEWSWEEK magazine has named him a member of "The Century Club" one of the "hundred most prominent people to watch in the next century." He has been profiled in the New Yorker Magazine and appeared on the Charlie Rose Show. His book, "The Tell Tale Brain" is a New York Times best-seller.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Brain and Cognition, and Professor, Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program, University of California, San Diego; Adjunct Professor of Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, CA, USA

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Encyclopedia of Human Behavior"