Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology

Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology

From Genome to Environment

1st Edition - June 1, 2011

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Anthony Farrell
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080923239

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Description

Fish form an extremely diverse group of vertebrates. At a conservative estimate at least 40% of the world's vertebrates are fish. On the one hand they are united by their adaptations to an aquatic environment and on the other they show a variety of adaptations to differing environmental conditions - often to extremes of temperature, salinity, oxygen level and water chemistry. They exhibit an array of behavioural and reproductive systems. Interesting in their own right, this suite of adaptive physiologies provides many model systems for both comparative vertebrate and human physiologists. This four volume encyclopedia covers the diversity of fish physiology in over 300 articles and provides entry level information for students and summary overviews for researchers alike. Broadly organised into four themes, articles cover Functional, Thematic, and Phylogenetic Physiology, and Fish Genomics. Functional articles address the traditional aspects of fish physiology that are common to all areas of vertebrate physiology including: Reproduction, Respiration, Neural (Sensory, Central, Effector), Endocrinology, Renal, Cardiovascular, Acid-base Balance, Osmoregulation, Ionoregulation, Digestion, Metabolism, Locomotion, and so on. Thematic Physiology articles are carefully selected and fewer in number. They provide a level of integration that goes beyond the coverage in the Functional Physiology topics and include discussions of Toxicology, Air-breathing, Migrations, Temperature, Endothermy, etc. Phylogenetic Physiology articles bring together information that bridges the physiology of certain groupings of fishes where the knowledge base has a sufficient depth and breadth and include articles on Ancient Fishes, Tunas, Sharks, etc. Genomics articles describe the underlying genetic component of fish physiology and high light their suitability and use as model organisms for the study of disease, stress and physiological adaptations and reactions to external conditions.

Key Features

  • Winner of a 2011 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Multivolume Science Reference from the Association of American Publishers
  • The definitive encyclopedia for the field of fish physiology
  • Three volumes which comprehensively cover the entire field in over 300 entries written by experts
  • Detailed coverage of basic functional physiology of fishes, physiological themes in fish biology and comparative physiology amongst taxonomic Groups
  • Describes the genomic bases of fish physiology and biology and the use of fish as model organisms in human physiological research
  • Includes a glossary of terms

Readership

* Undergraduate and Post-graduate students and Research scientists studying the physiology of fishes.
* Comparative vertebrate physiologists
* Biomedical physiologists using fish as animal models of human physiology and genetics

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief

    Associate Editors

    Editors Biographies

    Section Editors

    Preface

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Article Titles

    AIR-BREATHING FISHES | Circulatory Adaptations for Air-Breathing Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Defining the Problem

    Patterns of ABO Circulation: Lungs and Respiratory Gas Bladders

    Circulation Patterns for Other ABOs

    Coronary Circulation and Air Breathing

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    AIR-BREATHING FISHES | Respiratory Adaptations for Air-Breathing Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Types

    The Lung and Respiratory Gas Bladder

    Other ABOs

    Head Region

    Digestive Tube

    Gills

    Skin

    ABO Ventilation

    See also

    Further Reading

    AIR-BREATHING FISHES | The Biology, Diversity, and Natural History of Air-Breathing Fishes: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Diversity of Fish Air Breathing

    The Types of Air-Breathing Fishes

    The Evolution of Air Breathing

    Air Breathing and Natural History

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    AQUACULTURE | Physiology of Fish in Culture Environments

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Bioenergetics

    Temperature

    Oxygen and Oxygen Demand

    Carbon Dioxide and Acid–Base Balance

    Osmoregulation, Salinity Tolerance, and Smoltification in Cultured Fishes

    Exercise and Cultured Fishes

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY | Linking Fish Behavior and Physiology: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Sensory Systems, Perception, and Learning

    Interactions with the Environment

    Social and Reproductive Behaviors

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | A Survival Guide for Fishes: How to Obtain Food While Avoiding Being Food

    Glossary

    The Need for Food and Demands Placed upon Its Acquisition

    Foraging Models–What Should You Try to be Doing?

    What Should You Eat?

    Where Should You Go to Get Food?

    How Should You Capture and Consume Your Food?

    Dealing with Competition

    The Role of Predation Risk and How It Changes the Rules

    Tactics for Avoiding Predators

    Are There Overall Consequences?

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Anthropogenic Influences on Fish Behavior

    Glossary

    Interactions between Physiology and Behavior

    Disruption of Sensory Information

    Neurotoxins and Interference with Brain Function

    Toxicants that Interfere with Respiration

    Reproductive Impairment

    Future Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Behavioral Responses to Hypoxia

    Glossary

    Overview

    Altered Activity Patterns

    Hypoxia as a Refuge

    Surfacing Behaviors

    Trade-Off with Predation Risk

    Surfacing Behaviors and Parental Care

    Terrestrial Behaviors

    Future Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Effects of Compensatory Growth on Fish Behavior

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Behavioral Changes during Compensation

    Deferred Costs of Compensatory Growth

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Manipulation of Fish Phenotype by Parasites

    Glossary

    The Parasitic Way of Life

    Trophic Transmission and Host Manipulation

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Sleep in Fish

    Glossary

    What Is Sleep?

    Sleeping Fish

    See also

    Further Reading

    BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Temperature Preference: Behavioral Responses to Temperature in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Species Preferences

    Environmental Observations

    See also

    Further Reading

    BLOOD | Cellular Composition of the Blood

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Separating Blood Cells

    Red Blood Cells

    White Blood Cells

    See also

    Further Reading

    BLOOD | Erythropoiesis in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    BONY FISHES | Blind Cavefish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Astyanax Cavefish

    Troglomorphism

    Eye Degeneration

    Feeding Apparatus Amplification

    Inheritance of Troglomorphic Traits

    Evolution of Troglomorphism

    See also

    Further Reading

    BONY FISHES | Crucian Carp

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Occurrence and Habitat

    Avoiding Anoxic Energy Deficiency

    Ethanol Production

    Neural Depression

    Heart Activity in Anoxia

    Mechanisms of Metabolic Depression

    Strategies to Avoid Tissue Anoxia

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    BONY FISHES | Life in Hot Water: The Desert Pupfish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Habitats

    Physiological Studies of Desert Pupfish

    Conservation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    BONY FISHES | Zebrafish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Appearance

    Taxonomy

    Distribution and Natural History

    Lifecycle and Reproduction

    Zebrafish as a Model Organism for Scientific Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Autonomic Nervous System of Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The ANS and Chromaffin Tissue

    The ANS of Different Fish Groups

    Functional Aspects of the Fish ANS

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Cranial and Spinal Nerves of Fishes: Evolution of the Craniate Pattern

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Acorn Worm CNS and the Molecular Basis for Its Development

    Inducing a CNS and Suppressing Neuronal Capacity in General Ectoderm: A Common Theme Shared among Chordates but Not With All Hemichordates?

    Motor Neuron(s), The Ancient Efferent Communication of All Nerves to Induce Muscle Movements for Locomotion

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Agnathans

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Hindbrain

    Midbrain

    Forebrain

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Cartilaginous Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Hindbrain

    Midbrain

    Forebrain

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Ray-Finned Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Hindbrain

    Midbrain

    Forebrain

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Sarcopterygian Fishes: Lungfishes and Latimeria

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Macroscopical Anatomy of the Brain in Lungfishes and Latimeria

    Histological Features of the Brain in Lungfishes

    The Brain of the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Nervous System: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Overview of Brain Organization

    Historical Perspective

    Variation in Brain Structure across the Taxa

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Motor Control Systems of Fish

    Glossary

    Goal-Directed Locomotion–Overview of Neural Control System

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Opioids and Opioid Receptors in Fishes

    Glossary

    Endogenous Opioid Peptides

    Opioid Receptors

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Physiology of the Mauthner Cell: Discovery and Properties

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Mauthner Cell

    The Mauthner Cell As Model Vertebrate Neuron

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Physiology of the Mauthner Cell: Function

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Functions of the Mauthner Cell

    Cellular Properties as Functional Specializations

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Biomimetics: Robotics Based on Fish Swimming

    Glossary

    Fish and Robotic Fish

    Biomimetics as an Approach to Fish Robotics

    Classification of Fish Robots

    Design of Fish Robots

    Robotic Fish: The Next Generation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Buoyancy in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Densities of Fishes

    Density and Lifestyle

    Buoyancy Strategies

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Buoyancy, Locomotion, and Movement in Fishes: An Introduction

    Glossary

    A Short Historical Perspective on Buoyancy and Locomotion

    Buoyancy and Locomotion Today

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Experimental Hydrodynamics

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Basic Fluid Dynamic Principles

    Measuring Fluid Velocities

    Interpreting Flow Fields

    Future Developments

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Fast Start

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Neural Control

    Muscle Activity

    Hydrodynamics

    Performance and Kinematics

    Body Design

    Environmental Factors

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Feeding Mechanics

    Glossary

    How Do Fishes Capture Prey?

    Feeding in Jawless Fishes

    The Evolution of Suction Feeding

    What Is Suction-Feeding Performance?

    Hydrodynamics of Suction Feeding

    Ecomorphology of Feeding

    Jaw Protrusion

    The Integration of Locomotion and Feeding

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Functional Properties of Skeletal Muscle: Work Loops

    Glossary

    Work, Swimming, and Muscles

    Measuring Work

    What We Have Learned Using Work-Loop Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Maneuverability

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definitions of Maneuvers and Agility

    Methodology

    Effectors

    Types of Maneuvers

    Fish Size

    Body Form

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Paired Fin Swimming

    Glossary

    Diversity of Paired fins

    Anatomy of Paired Fins

    Fin Motion

    Maneuvering

    Fin Control

    Hydrodynamics

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Stability and Turbulence

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Instabilities

    The Nature of Turbulent Flows

    The Importance of Scale

    Response Latency

    Fish–Eddy Interactions

    Control Systems

    Using Eddies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Swimbladder Function and Buoyancy Control in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Morphology

    Metabolic Activity and the Single Concentrating Effect

    The Single Concentrating Effect

    Countercurrent Concentration

    Resorption of Gas

    Failure of Swimbladder Inflation

    Control of Swimbladder Inflation

    See also

    Further Reading

    BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Undulatory Swimming

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Undulatory Swimming Modes

    Myotomal Muscle Anatomy

    Muscle Length Change and Activity

    Muscle Mechanical Performance

    Force and Power Transmission

    Roles of Myotomal Muscle in Addition to Power Production

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Culture of Fish Cell Lines

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sources

    Equipment

    Culture Vessels

    Growth Media

    Growth Temperature

    Passaging

    Cryopreservation

    Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Evolution of Fish Genomes

    Glossary

    Genome Size and Chromosome Number in Fish

    Ancestral Teleost-Specific Genome Duplication and Biodiversity

    Diversity of Transposable Elements

    Rapid Evolutionary Turnover of Sex Chromosomes

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Fish as Model Organisms for Medical Research

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Forward Genetic Screens

    Reverse Genetics

    Morpholino Gene Knockdown

    Transgenesis

    Transplantation

    Chemical Biology

    In Vivo Imaging

    Blood

    Heart

    Kidney

    Neuroscience

    Muscle

    Skin

    Behavior

    Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Germ Cell Migration and Trans Sex

    Glossary

    What Is a Germ Cell?

    How Specified Are PGCs?

    Specific Markers for PGCs

    When Is a PGC Specified?

    PGC Migration

    Why Do PGCs Migrate?

    High Plasticity in Sex Determination of Fish

    What Is a Trans Sex Phenomenon?

    When Do Fish Change Sex?

    Plasma Steroids Play a Critical Role in Sex Change

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Global Gene Expression Profiling in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Why Is Global Gene Expression Measured?

    How Is Global Gene Expression Measured?

    Sources of Variation in Gene Expression Data

    Physiological Insights Arising from Global Gene Expression Data

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Growth Hormone Overexpression in Transgenic Fish

    Glossary

    Brief History of Genetic Engineering in Fish

    Physiology of GH Is Well Known

    How GH Transgenic Fish Are Made

    Growth Effects of GH Transgenes in Fish

    Expression of Transgenes and Endocrine Effects

    Phenotypic Effects–Morphology

    General Viability and Immunology

    Nutritional Requirements and Energy Use

    Oxygen Uptake, Exercise, and Energy Use

    Behavior

    Application in Aquaculture, and Environmental Risk Assessments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Molecular and Chromosomal Aspects of Sex Determination

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Genetic Sex Determination

    Molecular Control of Sex Differentiation

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Molecular Fish Pathology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Bacterial Fish Pathogens

    Extracellular Products

    Excretion Systems

    Infection

    Fish Viruses

    Methods of Control

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Physiology of Triploid Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reproductive Physiology

    Hematology, Gas Transport, and Cardiovascular Physiology

    Respiration and Metabolism

    Stress Response and Environmental Tolerances

    Immunology and Disease Resistance

    Nutrition and Growth

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Pigment Genes and Cancer Genes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Pigment Cells in Fish

    Genetic Control of Pigment Cell Development

    Pigment Synthesis Genes

    Color Change

    Pigment Polymorphisms in the Wild

    Pigment Cell Tumors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Transgenesis and Chromosome Manipulation in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fish Transgenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    CHONDRICHTHYES | Physiology of Sharks, Skates, and Rays

    Glossary

    General Overview

    Sensory Biology

    Muscle Physiology and Swimming

    Electric Organs

    Buoyancy Regulation

    Deep-Water Elasmobranchs

    Freshwater Elasmobranchs

    Respiration

    Circulation

    Reproduction

    Osmo- and Ionoregulation/Osmoconformation

    Digestion

    Intermediary Metabolism

    Excretion

    Neurophysiology

    Immune System and Disease Resistance

    Endocrinology

    Endothermy in Elasmobranchs

    Acid–Base Physiology

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    General Overview

    Sensory Biology

    CIRCULATION | Circulatory System Design: Roles and Principles

    Glossary

    Function of the Cardiovascular System

    Operating Principles of the Cardiovascular System

    Hemostatics and Hemodynamics

    Building a Cardiovascular System

    Functional Definitions of Blood Vessels

    See also

    Further Reading

    CIRCULATION | The Circulatory System: An Introduction

    Glossary

    A Historical Perspective on Circulatory Systems

    Circulatory Systems in Fishes Today

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONTROL OF RESPIRATION | Generation of the Respiratory Rhythm in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Central Respiratory Rhythm Generator

    Influences from the Midbrain

    Mechanoreceptors

    Episodic Breathing

    Recruitment of Feeding Muscles

    Air-Breathing Fishes

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONTROL OF RESPIRATION | Oxygen Sensing in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reflex Responses to Hypoxia

    Microscopic Observations of Gill O2 Chemoreceptors

    Chemoreceptor Response to Hypoxia

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    CONTROL OF RESPIRATION | The Ventilatory Response to CO2/H+

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reflex Responses

    Location of CO2 Chemoreceptors

    Stimulus Specificity

    See also

    Further Reading

    DEEP-SEA FISHES

    Glossary

    What Is the Deep Sea?

    Feeding among the Deep-Sea Fishes

    Effects of Pressure

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Anatomical Pathways and Patterns

    Glossary

    Fish Vascular Anatomy

    Arterial System

    Venous System

    Hagfish

    Elasmobranchs

    See also

    Further Reading

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Branchial Anatomy

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Gill Arch

    Gill Filament

    Respiratory Lamellae

    Epithelial Cells

    Gill Vessels

    Innervation of the Gill Arch

    See also

    Further Reading

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Physiology of Capacitance Vessels

    Glossary

    Introduction to the Venous System

    Functions of Veins

    Anatomy

    The Fahraeus Effect and the Physiology of Venules and Small Veins

    Physiological Significance of Regulation of Venous Tone and Compliance

    Physiological Factors That Affect the Capacitance Curve and Therefore Cardiac Output

    Techniques for Measurement of Venous Compliance and Venous Tone

    See also

    Further Reading

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Physiology of Resistance Vessels

    Glossary

    Introduction to the Arterial System

    Anatomy of Resistance Vessels

    Hemodynamics: The Importance of Vascular Resistance on Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

    Remote Control of Vascular Resistance

    Local Control of Vascular Resistance

    Factors That Affect Vascular Resistance

    Methods for Measuring Arterial Resistance in Fish

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction to the Arterial System

    Anatomy of Resistance Vessels

    Hemodynamics: The Importance of Vascular Resistance on Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

    Remote Control of Vascular Resistance

    Local Control of Vascular Resistance

    Factors That Affect Vascular Resistance

    Methods for Measuring Arterial Resistance in Fish

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | The Gastrointestinal Circulation

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Definition of the GI Tract

    Vascularization of the GI Tract

    The Liver

    The Pancreas

    Control of the GBF under Routine Conditions

    Factors Influencing the GBF in the Unfed Animal

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Definition of the GI Tract

    Vascularization of the GI Tract

    The Liver

    The Pancreas

    Control of the GBF under Routine Conditions

    Factors Influencing the GBF in the Unfed Animal

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Definition of the GI Tract

    Vascularization of the GI Tract

    The Liver

    The Pancreas

    Control of the GBF under Routine Conditions

    Factors Influencing the GBF in the Unfed Animal

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | The Retia

    Glossary

    What Is a Rete and How Does It Work?

    Factors That Affect the Amountof Exchange

    Countercurrent Heat Exchangers in Fishes

    Countercurrent Multipliers That Serve the Swimbladder and the Retina in Fishes

    Evolution of Retia in Fishes

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Is a Rete and How Does It Work?

    Factors That Affect the Amountof Exchange

    Countercurrent Heat Exchangers in Fishes

    Countercurrent Multipliers That Serve the Swimbladder and the Retina in Fishes

    Evolution of Retia in Fishes

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES AND SECONDARY CIRCULATION | Capillaries, Capillarity, and Angiogenesis

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Matching Angiogenesis and Microvascular Function

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Matching Angiogenesis and Microvascular Function

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES AND SECONDARY CIRCULATION | Circulatory Fluid Balance and Transcapillary Exchange

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Basic Fluid Compartments

    The Important Relationship between Interstitial and Intravascular Compartments

    Starling’s Forces and Transcapillary Fluid Balance in Fish

    Fluid Movement between Intravascular and Interstitial Compartments

    Physiological Significance of Transcapillary Fluid Movement

    Comparisons of Transcapillary Fluid Flux, Vascular Permeability, and Interstitial and Intravascular Compliance in Fish and Mammals

    Where Are the Leaky and Tight Capillaries?

    Do Factors other than Starling’s Forces Play a Role in Transcapillary Fluid Exchange?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Basic Fluid Compartments

    The Important Relationship between Interstitial and Intravascular Compartments

    Starling’s Forces and Transcapillary Fluid Balance in Fish

    Fluid Movement between Intravascular and Interstitial Compartments

    Physiological Significance of Transcapillary Fluid Movement

    Comparisons of Transcapillary Fluid Flux, Vascular Permeability, and Interstitial and Intravascular Compliance in Fish and Mammals

    Where Are the Leaky and Tight Capillaries?

    Do Factors other than Starling’s Forces Play a Role in Transcapillary Fluid Exchange?

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES AND SECONDARY CIRCULATION | Secondary Circulation and Lymphatic Anatomy

    Glossary

    Lymph Vessels and the Lymphatic System

    History of the Secondary Circulation

    Anatomy of the Secondary Circulation

    Other Features of the Secondary Circulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Lymph Vessels and the Lymphatic System

    History of the Secondary Circulation

    Anatomy of the Secondary Circulation

    Other Features of the Secondary Circulation

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Accessory Hearts in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Portal Heart of Hagfishes

    The Branchial Pumps

    Caudal Pumps

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Portal Heart of Hagfishes

    The Branchial Pumps

    Caudal Pumps

    Summary

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Action Potential of the Fish Heart

    Glossary

    What Is the Cardiac Action Potential?

    Different Phases of the AP

    Species-Specific Differences in AP

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Is the Cardiac Action Potential?

    Different Phases of the AP

    Species-Specific Differences in AP

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Anatomy in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The General Anatomical Structure of a Fish Heart

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The General Anatomical Structure of a Fish Heart

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Cellular Length–Tension Relationship

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Frank–Starling Relationship

    The SL–Tension Relationship

    Myofilament Ca Sensitivity

    The SL–Tension Relationship in the Fish Heart

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Frank–Starling Relationship

    The SL–Tension Relationship

    Myofilament Ca Sensitivity

    The SL–Tension Relationship in the Fish Heart

    Conclusions

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling: Calcium and the Contractile Element

    Glossary

    Cardiomyocyte Contraction: An Overview

    The Activation of a Cardiomyocyte Contraction by Ca2+

    The Influence of Temperature on Ca2+ Binding by the Contractile Element

    Adaptation of the Trout Contractile Element to Low Temperature

    Phylogenetic Analysis of cTnC from a Variety of Vertebrate Species

    Cardiac Contractility in Changing Environmental Temperatures

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cardiomyocyte Contraction: An Overview

    The Activation of a Cardiomyocyte Contraction by Ca2+

    The Influence of Temperature on Ca2+ Binding by the Contractile Element

    Adaptation of the Trout Contractile Element to Low Temperature

    Phylogenetic Analysis of cTnC from a Variety of Vertebrate Species

    Cardiac Contractility in Changing Environmental Temperatures

    Future Directions

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling: Routes of Cellular Calcium Flux

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Ca Transient

    Excitation–Contraction Coupling

    The Rising Phase of the Ca Transient

    The Falling Phase of the Ca Transient

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Ca Transient

    Excitation–Contraction Coupling

    The Rising Phase of the Ca Transient

    The Falling Phase of the Ca Transient

    Summary

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cellular Ultrastructure of Cardiac Cells in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fish Cardiomyocyte Ultrastructure

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Fish Cardiomyocyte Ultrastructure

    Summary

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Intracardiac Neurons and Neurotransmitters in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Gross Morphology and Anatomy of the Heart

    Extrinsic Innervation and Chemical Codes of Autonomic Neurons

    Postganglionic Neurons and Neurotransmitter Localization

    The Cardiac Pacemaker and Conducting System

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Gross Morphology and Anatomy of the Heart

    Extrinsic Innervation and Chemical Codes of Autonomic Neurons

    Postganglionic Neurons and Neurotransmitter Localization

    The Cardiac Pacemaker and Conducting System

    Conclusions

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Physiology of Cardiac Pumping

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Cardiac Cycle

    Pumping Assistance

    Cardiac Output

    Cardiac Stroke Volume

    Heart Rate

    Central Arterial Blood Pressure

    Cardiac Work

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Cardiac Cycle

    Pumping Assistance

    Cardiac Output

    Cardiac Stroke Volume

    Heart Rate

    Central Arterial Blood Pressure

    Cardiac Work

    Summary

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | The Coronary Circulation

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Anatomy

    Physiology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Anatomy

    Physiology

    See also

    DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | The Outflow Tract from the Heart

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Terminology, Phylogeny, and Development

    Form and Function of the Bulbus Arteriosus

    Form and Function of the Conus Arteriosus

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Terminology, Phylogeny, and Development

    Form and Function of the Bulbus Arteriosus

    Form and Function of the Conus Arteriosus

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Terminology, Phylogeny, and Development

    Form and Function of the Bulbus Arteriosus

    Form and Function of the Conus Arteriosus

    Acknowledgment

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Active Electrolocation

    Glossary

    Introduction

    EOD Carrier Modulation as a Source of Environmental Information

    Prereceptor Mechanisms

    Behavioral Performance during Object Detection and Analysis

    Foveation in Electrolocation

    Electroreceptors for Active Electrolocation

    Central Processes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    EOD Carrier Modulation as a Source of Environmental Information

    Prereceptor Mechanisms

    Behavioral Performance during Object Detection and Analysis

    Foveation in Electrolocation

    Electroreceptors for Active Electrolocation

    Central Processes

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    EOD Carrier Modulation as a Source of Environmental Information

    Prereceptor Mechanisms

    Behavioral Performance during Object Detection and Analysis

    Foveation in Electrolocation

    Electroreceptors for Active Electrolocation

    Central Processes

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Detection and Generation of Electric Signals in Fishes: An Introduction

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Development of Electroreceptors and Electric Organs

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Electroreceptor Development

    Development of EOs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Electroreceptor Development

    Development of EOs

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Electric Organs

    Glossary

    Diversity of Electric Organs and Bioelectrogenesis

    Morphological Organization of Electrogenic Systems and Its Role in Electrogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Diversity of Electric Organs and Bioelectrogenesis

    Morphological Organization of Electrogenic Systems and Its Role in Electrogenesis

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Generation of Electric Signals

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Physiological Mechanisms of Electric Organ Discharges

    Central Control of EOD Time Patterns

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Physiological Mechanisms of Electric Organ Discharges

    Central Control of EOD Time Patterns

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Physiological Mechanisms of Electric Organ Discharges

    Central Control of EOD Time Patterns

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Morphology of Electroreceptive Sensory Organs

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Lampreys: Electroreceptive End Buds

    Ampullary Organs

    Tuberous Electroreceptive Organs

    Monotreme Electroreceptive Organs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Lampreys: Electroreceptive End Buds

    Ampullary Organs

    Tuberous Electroreceptive Organs

    Monotreme Electroreceptive Organs

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Physiology of Ampullary Electrosensory Systems

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sources of Electric Fields

    Morphology of the Ampullary Organs

    Physiology of the Receptors

    Information Processing in the Hindbrain

    Higher Electrosensory Areas

    Electrosensory-Guided Behavior

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Sources of Electric Fields

    Morphology of the Ampullary Organs

    Physiology of the Receptors

    Information Processing in the Hindbrain

    Higher Electrosensory Areas

    Electrosensory-Guided Behavior

    See also

    DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Physiology of Tuberous Electrosensory Systems

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Amplitude Coding

    Time Coding

    Physiology of ELL Neurons Receiving Input from Amplitude-Sensitive Electroreceptors

    Physiology of Midbrain Neurons: Integration of Sensory Information

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Amplitude Coding

    Time Coding

    Physiology of ELL Neurons Receiving Input from Amplitude-Sensitive Electroreceptors

    Physiology of Midbrain Neurons: Integration of Sensory Information

    Conclusion

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Amplitude Coding

    Time Coding

    Physiology of ELL Neurons Receiving Input from Amplitude-Sensitive Electroreceptors

    Physiology of Midbrain Neurons: Integration of Sensory Information

    Conclusion

    See also

    ENERGETIC MODELS | Bioenergetics in Aquaculture Settings

    Glossary

    Animal Bioenergetics

    Defining Bioenergetics: Energy Flow and Partitioning

    A Simple Model of Energy Partitioning

    Units of Measurement

    Chemical Analyses and Energy Determination

    Energy Budgets: Growth Trials and the Biological Evaluation of Compound Feeds

    Monitoring Feed Intake

    Assessment of Nutrient Bioavailability

    Metabolic Rates: Energy Expenditure and Rates of Nitrogenous Excretion

    Growth and Nutrient Retention Efficiency

    Past and Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Animal Bioenergetics

    Defining Bioenergetics: Energy Flow and Partitioning

    A Simple Model of Energy Partitioning

    Units of Measurement

    Chemical Analyses and Energy Determination

    Energy Budgets: Growth Trials and the Biological Evaluation of Compound Feeds

    Monitoring Feed Intake

    Assessment of Nutrient Bioavailability

    Metabolic Rates: Energy Expenditure and Rates of Nitrogenous Excretion

    Growth and Nutrient Retention Efficiency

    Past and Future

    See also

    ENERGETIC MODELS | Bioenergetics in Ecosystems1

    Glossary

    Fish Bioenergetics Modeling in Ecosystems: An Overview

    A Simple Energy Budget for Fish

    Wisconsin Bioenergetics Models for Fish

    An Example of Fish Bioenergetics Modeling Guiding Fisheries Management

    Estimating the Strength of the Predator–Prey Trophic Link: Other Examples

    Use of Bioenergetics Modeling to Better Understand Fish Growth and Consumption

    Role of Fish in Cycling Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems: Bioenergetics Model Applications

    Contaminant Accumulation in Fish: Bioenergetics Model Applications

    Limitations to Fish Bioenergetics Model Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Fish Bioenergetics Modeling in Ecosystems: An Overview

    A Simple Energy Budget for Fish

    Wisconsin Bioenergetics Models for Fish

    An Example of Fish Bioenergetics Modeling Guiding Fisheries Management

    Estimating the Strength of the Predator–Prey Trophic Link: Other Examples

    Use of Bioenergetics Modeling to Better Understand Fish Growth and Consumption

    Role of Fish in Cycling Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems: Bioenergetics Model Applications

    Contaminant Accumulation in Fish: Bioenergetics Model Applications

    Limitations to Fish Bioenergetics Model Applications

    See also

    ENERGETICS | Energetics: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Energy Use by Fish

    See also

    ENERGETICS | General Energy Metabolism

    Glossary

    Metabolic Rates of Fish

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Metabolic Rates of Fish

    Conclusions

    See also

    ENERGETICS | Physiological Functions that Scale to Body Mass in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Scaling in Embryonic Fish

    Ontogenetic Changes in Standard Metabolic Rate after Hatching

    Interspecific Scaling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Scaling in Embryonic Fish

    Ontogenetic Changes in Standard Metabolic Rate after Hatching

    Interspecific Scaling

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Scaling in Embryonic Fish

    Ontogenetic Changes in Standard Metabolic Rate after Hatching

    Interspecific Scaling

    See also

    ENERGY UTILIZATION IN GROWTH | Energetics of Growth

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Conclusion

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Conclusion

    See also

    ENERGY UTILIZATION IN GROWTH | Growth: Environmental Effects

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Abiotic Factors

    Biotic Factors

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Abiotic Factors

    Biotic Factors

    Conclusion

    See also

    FISH MIGRATIONS | Eel Migrations

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Larval Migration: The Early Years

    Migration from the Coastal Shelf: Life as a Glass Eel

    Life in freshwater

    The Downstream Migration: Back to the Sea

    The Spawning Migration: Into the Big Blue

    Concluding Thoughts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Larval Migration: The Early Years

    Migration from the Coastal Shelf: Life as a Glass Eel

    Life in freshwater

    The Downstream Migration: Back to the Sea

    The Spawning Migration: Into the Big Blue

    Concluding Thoughts

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Larval Migration: The Early Years

    Migration from the Coastal Shelf: Life as a Glass Eel

    Life in freshwater

    The Downstream Migration: Back to the Sea

    The Spawning Migration: Into the Big Blue

    Concluding Thoughts

    See also

    FISH MIGRATIONS | Pacific Salmon Migration: Completing the Cycle

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Larval Developmental Migration

    Migration to Larval Feeding Grounds

    Smolting and Migration to Sea

    Migration to Ocean Feeding Grounds

    Directed Migration to the Coast and Natal River

    Adult Upriver Migration to Natal Stream

    Anthropogenic Threats Involving Salmon Migrations

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Larval Developmental Migration

    Migration to Larval Feeding Grounds

    Smolting and Migration to Sea

    Migration to Ocean Feeding Grounds

    Directed Migration to the Coast and Natal River

    Adult Upriver Migration to Natal Stream

    Anthropogenic Threats Involving Salmon Migrations

    Conclusions

    See also

    FISH MIGRATIONS | The Biology of Fish Migration

    Glossary

    What is Migration?

    Classifying Migrations

    Orientation and Navigation

    Energetics of Migration

    Environmental Factors That Influence Migration

    Anthropogenic Impacts on Migration

    See also

    Further Reading

    What is Migration?

    Classifying Migrations

    Orientation and Navigation

    Energetics of Migration

    Environmental Factors That Influence Migration

    Anthropogenic Impacts on Migration

    See also

    FISH MIGRATIONS | Tracking Oceanic Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Acoustic Tags

    Early Satellite Transmitters

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Acoustic Tags

    Early Satellite Transmitters

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Acoustic Tags

    Early Satellite Transmitters

    FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Cost of Digestion and Assimilation

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Future Directions

    See also

    FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Dietary Requirements of Fish Under Culture Conditions

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Nutrient Functions and Their Requirements

    AAs/Protein

    Fatty Acids

    Minerals and Vitamins

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Nutrient Functions and Their Requirements

    AAs/Protein

    Fatty Acids

    Minerals and Vitamins

    See also

    FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Digestive Efficiency

    Glossary

    Concepts in Digestive Efficiency

    Dietary Effects on Digestive Efficiency

    Fish Digestive Strategies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Concepts in Digestive Efficiency

    Dietary Effects on Digestive Efficiency

    Fish Digestive Strategies

    See also

    FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Energetics of Foraging Decisions and Prey Handling

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Motivation to Feed–When to Forage?

    Habitat Selection–Where to Forage?

    Searching for Food–How to Forage?

    Prey Selection–What to Forage?

    More on Prey Handling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Motivation to Feed–When to Forage?

    Habitat Selection–Where to Forage?

    Searching for Food–How to Forage?

    Prey Selection–What to Forage?

    More on Prey Handling

    See also

    FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Energetics of Prey Capture: From Foraging Theory to Functional Morphology

    Glossary

    Overview of Competition Theory and Relevance

    The Ecomorphological Paradigm

    Foraging and Prey Capture Behavior

    Performance Consequences

    See also

    Further Reading

    Overview of Competition Theory and Relevance

    The Ecomorphological Paradigm

    Foraging and Prey Capture Behavior

    Performance Consequences

    See also

    GAS EXCHANGE | Respiration: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Environment: Water and Air as Respiratory Media

    Ventilation and Gas-Exchange Organs

    Gas Transport and Exchange

    Tissue Respiration

    Whole Animal and Techniques in Respiratory Physiology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Environment: Water and Air as Respiratory Media

    Ventilation and Gas-Exchange Organs

    Gas Transport and Exchange

    Tissue Respiration

    Whole Animal and Techniques in Respiratory Physiology

    See also

    GUT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY | Development of Fish Gut

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Specification of Endoderm

    Development of the Digestive Tract: Formation of the Pharynx, Esophagus, and Intestine

    Determination of the Anterior-to-Posterior Position of the Liver and Pancreas

    Differentiation of Digestive Organs

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Specification of Endoderm

    Development of the Digestive Tract: Formation of the Pharynx, Esophagus, and Intestine

    Determination of the Anterior-to-Posterior Position of the Liver and Pancreas

    Differentiation of Digestive Organs

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    GUT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY | Gut Anatomy

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Morphology

    Species Differences

    Other Factors That May Affect Gut Morphology

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Morphology

    Species Differences

    Other Factors That May Affect Gut Morphology

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    GUT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY | Pancreas

    Glossary

    The Pancreas Has Many Functions

    Structure of the Adult Pancreas

    Embryological Development of the Pancreas

    Evolution of the Pancreas

    Hormones of the Pancreas

    Enzymes of the Pancreas

    Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    The Pancreas Has Many Functions

    Structure of the Adult Pancreas

    Embryological Development of the Pancreas

    Evolution of the Pancreas

    Hormones of the Pancreas

    Enzymes of the Pancreas

    Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    HAGFISHES AND LAMPREY | Hagfishes

    Glossary

    The Fascination and a Few Misconceptions

    Anaerobic Abilities

    The Unique Physiology and Anatomy of Hagfishes

    See also

    Further Reading

    The Fascination and a Few Misconceptions

    Anaerobic Abilities

    The Unique Physiology and Anatomy of Hagfishes

    See also

    HAGFISHES AND LAMPREY | Lampreys: Energetics and Development

    Glossary

    Background

    Life History of Lampreys

    Locomotion and the Skeletal-Muscle System

    Metamorphosis

    Upstream Migration and Reproduction

    Feeding

    Growth and Metabolism

    The Great Lakes Invasion by Sea Lampreys

    See also

    Further Reading

    Background

    Life History of Lampreys

    Locomotion and the Skeletal-Muscle System

    Metamorphosis

    Upstream Migration and Reproduction

    Feeding

    Growth and Metabolism

    The Great Lakes Invasion by Sea Lampreys

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Background

    Life History of Lampreys

    Locomotion and the Skeletal-Muscle System

    Metamorphosis

    Upstream Migration and Reproduction

    Feeding

    Growth and Metabolism

    The Great Lakes Invasion by Sea Lampreys

    See also

    HAGFISHES AND LAMPREY | Lampreys: Environmental Physiology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Gas Exchange and Cardiovascular System

    Osmoregulation

    Acid–Base Regulation

    Nitrogenous Waste Production and Excretion

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Gas Exchange and Cardiovascular System

    Osmoregulation

    Acid–Base Regulation

    Nitrogenous Waste Production and Excretion

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Acoustic Behavior

    Glossary

    Introduction–Fish Behavior and Underwater Sound

    What Species Make Sound?

    Why Do Fishes Make Sound?

    Sound Production and Ontogeny, Sex Differences

    Sound Production as a Fishery Management Tool

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction–Fish Behavior and Underwater Sound

    What Species Make Sound?

    Why Do Fishes Make Sound?

    Sound Production and Ontogeny, Sex Differences

    Sound Production as a Fishery Management Tool

    Conclusion

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction–Fish Behavior and Underwater Sound

    What Species Make Sound?

    Why Do Fishes Make Sound?

    Sound Production and Ontogeny, Sex Differences

    Sound Production as a Fishery Management Tool

    Conclusion

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Auditory System Morphology

    Glossary

    Vertebrate Ears

    Fish Ears

    Getting Sound to the Ear

    Hair Cell Number and Fish Growth

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Vertebrate Ears

    Fish Ears

    Getting Sound to the Ear

    Hair Cell Number and Fish Growth

    Summary

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Vertebrate Ears

    Fish Ears

    Getting Sound to the Ear

    Hair Cell Number and Fish Growth

    Summary

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Auditory/Lateral Line CNS: Anatomy

    Glossary

    Evolutionary Overview

    Central Anatomy of the Auditory and Mechanosensory Lateral Line Systems

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Evolutionary Overview

    Central Anatomy of the Auditory and Mechanosensory Lateral Line Systems

    Summary

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Biomechanics of the Inner Ear in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Propagation of Sound Underwater

    Interaction of Sound with Fishes

    Mechanics of the Hearing Process

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Propagation of Sound Underwater

    Interaction of Sound with Fishes

    Mechanics of the Hearing Process

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Propagation of Sound Underwater

    Interaction of Sound with Fishes

    Mechanics of the Hearing Process

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sound Sources

    Impacts on Fish

    Regulation and Mitigation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Sound Sources

    Impacts on Fish

    Regulation and Mitigation

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Sound Sources

    Impacts on Fish

    Regulation and Mitigation

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Fish Bioacoustics: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Origin of the Ear and Hearing

    Origin of Knowledge of Fish Hearing

    Perspectives on Fish Bioacoustics

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Origin of the Ear and Hearing

    Origin of Knowledge of Fish Hearing

    Perspectives on Fish Bioacoustics

    Conclusions

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Origin of the Ear and Hearing

    Origin of Knowledge of Fish Hearing

    Perspectives on Fish Bioacoustics

    Conclusions

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Lateral Line Neuroethology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Movement and the Response Characteristics of Lateral Line Submodalities

    Feeding

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Movement and the Response Characteristics of Lateral Line Submodalities

    Feeding

    Conclusion

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Movement and the Response Characteristics of Lateral Line Submodalities

    Feeding

    Conclusion

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Lateral Line Structure

    Glossary

    What Is the Mechanosensory Lateral Line System?

    Structure and Function of Neuromast Receptor Organs in Bony Fishes

    Structural Variation in the Lateral Line System among Bony Fishes

    Development of the Lateral Line System in Bony Fishes

    The Lateral Line System of Chondrichthyan Fishes

    The Lateral Line System of Jawless Fishes

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Is the Mechanosensory Lateral Line System?

    Structure and Function of Neuromast Receptor Organs in Bony Fishes

    Structural Variation in the Lateral Line System among Bony Fishes

    Development of the Lateral Line System in Bony Fishes

    The Lateral Line System of Chondrichthyan Fishes

    The Lateral Line System of Jawless Fishes

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Physiology of the Ear and Brain: How Fish Hear

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Auditory Transduction

    Afferent Coding of Sounds

    Central Representation of Sounds

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Auditory Transduction

    Afferent Coding of Sounds

    Central Representation of Sounds

    Summary

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Auditory Transduction

    Afferent Coding of Sounds

    Central Representation of Sounds

    Summary

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Psychoacoustics: What Fish Hear

    Glossary

    Fish Can Hear!

    How Is Hearing Measured?

    Classical Conditioning

    Instrumental Avoidance Conditioning

    Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Species Variation in Hearing Ability

    The Determinants of Sensitivity

    Frequency Discrimination

    Auditory Scene Analysis

    What Do Fishes Listen to?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Fish Can Hear!

    How Is Hearing Measured?

    Classical Conditioning

    Instrumental Avoidance Conditioning

    Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Species Variation in Hearing Ability

    The Determinants of Sensitivity

    Frequency Discrimination

    Auditory Scene Analysis

    What Do Fishes Listen to?

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Sound Source Localization and Directional Hearing in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Behavioral Evidence for Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

    Theories of Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

    Brain Mechanisms Underlying Sound Source Localization

    Summary and Unresolved Issues

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Behavioral Evidence for Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

    Theories of Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

    Brain Mechanisms Underlying Sound Source Localization

    Summary and Unresolved Issues

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | The Ear and Hearing in Sharks, Skates, and Rays

    Glossary

    Anatomy

    Auditory Sensitivity

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Anatomy

    Auditory Sensitivity

    Summary

     

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Vestibular System Anatomy and Physiology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Organization of the Vestibular Sensory Periphery

    Central Location of Vestibular-Related Octavolateral Nuclei

    Origin of the Octavolateral Vestibular Subgroups

    Central Terminations of Semicircular Canal and Utricular Afferents

    Hindbrain Vestibuloocular Origins and Projections to Extraocular Motor Nuclei

    Horizontal Vestibuloocular Subgroups

    Vestibulospinal Projections for Locomotor Control and Posture Stabilization

    Auxiliary Vestibular Connections for Gaze and Posture Control

    Conservation of Fish Vestibular Organization in Other Vertebrates

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Organization of the Vestibular Sensory Periphery

    Central Location of Vestibular-Related Octavolateral Nuclei

    Origin of the Octavolateral Vestibular Subgroups

    Central Terminations of Semicircular Canal and Utricular Afferents

    Hindbrain Vestibuloocular Origins and Projections to Extraocular Motor Nuclei

    Horizontal Vestibuloocular Subgroups

    Vestibulospinal Projections for Locomotor Control and Posture Stabilization

    Auxiliary Vestibular Connections for Gaze and Posture Control

    Conservation of Fish Vestibular Organization in Other Vertebrates

    See also

    HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Vocal Behavior of Fishes: Anatomy and Physiology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Vocalizations

    Vocal Organs

    Sexual Dimorphisms in Sound-Producing Muscles

    Vocal Neuron Control

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Vocalizations

    Vocal Organs

    Sexual Dimorphisms in Sound-Producing Muscles

    Vocal Neuron Control

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Vocalizations

    Vocal Organs

    Sexual Dimorphisms in Sound-Producing Muscles

    Vocal Neuron Control

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    HORMONAL CONTROL OF METABOLISM AND IONIC REGULATION | Corticosteroids

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Corticosteroid Synthesis

    Central Regulation of Cortisol Release

    Corticosteroid Plasma Levels

    Molecular Biology of Corticosteroid Receptors

    11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2

    Molecular Mechanisms of CorticosteroidSignaling

    Corticosteroid Target Tissue: Expression of Teleost Corticosteroid Receptors

    Regulation of the Corticosteroid Signaling System by Stress Exposure

    Evolution of the Teleost Corticosteroid Signaling System: What Is the Role of the Mineralocorticoid-Like Axis?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Corticosteroid Synthesis

    Central Regulation of Cortisol Release

    Corticosteroid Plasma Levels

    Molecular Biology of Corticosteroid Receptors

    11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2

    Molecular Mechanisms of CorticosteroidSignaling

    Corticosteroid Target Tissue: Expression of Teleost Corticosteroid Receptors

    Regulation of the Corticosteroid Signaling System by Stress Exposure

    Evolution of the Teleost Corticosteroid Signaling System: What Is the Role of the Mineralocorticoid-Like Axis?

    See also

    HORMONAL CONTROL OF METABOLISM AND IONIC REGULATION | The Hormonal Control of Osmoregulation in Teleost Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction: Salt and Water Balance in Fish

    Cortisol

    Prolactin

    Growth Hormone and IGF-I

    Thyroid Hormones

    The Special Case of Anadromy

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction: Salt and Water Balance in Fish

    Cortisol

    Prolactin

    Growth Hormone and IGF-I

    Thyroid Hormones

    The Special Case of Anadromy

    Summary

    See also

    HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Control of Appetite in Fish

    Glossary

    How Is Appetite Regulated in Vertebrates?

    Fish as a Model to Study the Mechanisms Regulating Appetite

    Studying Appetite in Fish: Methodsand Approaches

    Hormones and Appetite in Fish

    Influence of Feeding Status and Circulating Metabolite Levels on Appetite

    Influence of Gender, Reproductive Status, and Genetics on Appetite

    Environmental Control of Appetite

    See also

    Further Reading

    How Is Appetite Regulated in Vertebrates?

    Fish as a Model to Study the Mechanisms Regulating Appetite

    Studying Appetite in Fish: Methodsand Approaches

    Hormones and Appetite in Fish

    Influence of Feeding Status and Circulating Metabolite Levels on Appetite

    Influence of Gender, Reproductive Status, and Genetics on Appetite

    Environmental Control of Appetite

    See also

    HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrine Control of Sex Differentiation in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Morphological Aspects

    Endocrine Control of Sex Differentiation

    Environmental Influences

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Morphological Aspects

    Endocrine Control of Sex Differentiation

    Environmental Influences

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrine Regulation of Fish Reproduction

    Glossary

    Introduction–Overview of the Brain–Hypophyseal–Gonadal Axis

    Oogenesis

    Spermatogenesis

    Gonadal Steroids

    Gonadotropins and Their Regulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction–Overview of the Brain–Hypophyseal–Gonadal Axis

    Oogenesis

    Spermatogenesis

    Gonadal Steroids

    Gonadotropins and Their Regulation

    See also

    HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrinology of Fish Growth

    Glossary

    Food Intake and Growth Are Coordinated

    General Features of Appetite Regulation

    Appetite Stimulation

    Appetite Suppression

    Environmental Influences on Food Intake

    Patterns of Growth in Fish

    The GH–Insulin-Like Growth Factor System

    Other Growth-Regulating Hormones

    Control of Growth Hormone Production and Release

    Peripheral Control of Growth

    Environmental Influences on Growth

    See also

    Further Reading

    Food Intake and Growth Are Coordinated

    General Features of Appetite Regulation

    Appetite Stimulation

    Appetite Suppression

    Environmental Influences on Food Intake

    Patterns of Growth in Fish

    The GH–Insulin-Like Growth Factor System

    Other Growth-Regulating Hormones

    Control of Growth Hormone Production and Release

    Peripheral Control of Growth

    Environmental Influences on Growth

    See also

    HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Catecholamines

    Glossary

    Biosynthesis of Catecholamines

    Sites of Catecholamine Synthesis and Storage

    Situations Eliciting the Release of Catecholamines into the Circulation

    Mechanisms of Catecholamine Secretion

    Effects of Plasma Catecholamines and Mechanisms of Action

    See also

    Further Reading

    Biosynthesis of Catecholamines

    Sites of Catecholamine Synthesis and Storage

    Situations Eliciting the Release of Catecholamines into the Circulation

    Mechanisms of Catecholamine Secretion

    Effects of Plasma Catecholamines and Mechanisms of Action

    See also

    HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Hormone Response to Stress

    Glossary

    Hormones, Stress and Stressors

    Factors Modifying the Stress Response

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Hormones, Stress and Stressors

    Factors Modifying the Stress Response

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Impact of Stress in Health and Reproduction

    Glossary

    Impact of Stress on Reproduction

    Impact of Stress on Health

    See also

    Further Reading

    Impact of Stress on Reproduction

    Impact of Stress on Health

    See also

    HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Stress Effect on Growth and Metabolism

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Catecholamines

    Glucocorticoids

    Other Related Hormones

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Catecholamines

    Glucocorticoids

    Other Related Hormones

    See also

    HORMONES IN COMMUNICATION | Hormonal Pheromones

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Goldfish and Related Carps

    Female Preovulatory Steroid Pheromone

    Female Postovulatory Prostaglandin Pheromone

    Mechanisms of Pheromone Action

    Male-Derived Hormonal Pheromones

    A Goldfish Chemical Network?

    Hormonal Pheromones and Species Specificity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Goldfish and Related Carps

    Female Preovulatory Steroid Pheromone

    Female Postovulatory Prostaglandin Pheromone

    Mechanisms of Pheromone Action

    Male-Derived Hormonal Pheromones

    A Goldfish Chemical Network?

    Hormonal Pheromones and Species Specificity

    See also

    HYPOXIA | Anaerobic Metabolism in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Overview of the ATP-GeneratingPathways in Fish

    The Fate of Pyruvate

    Lactate and Acid

    Why Use Anaerobic Metabolism?

    Anaerobic Metabolism and Hypoxia Exposure in Fish

    Anaerobic Metabolism and Exhaustive Exercise

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Overview of the ATP-GeneratingPathways in Fish

    The Fate of Pyruvate

    Lactate and Acid

    Why Use Anaerobic Metabolism?

    Anaerobic Metabolism and Hypoxia Exposure in Fish

    Anaerobic Metabolism and Exhaustive Exercise

    See also

    HYPOXIA | Metabolic Rate Suppression as a Mechanism for Surviving Hypoxia

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Defining Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope

    Measuring Metabolic Rate

    Hypoxia Exposure Imposes a Metabolic Stress in Animals

    Metabolic Scope for Survival: Suppression of Metabolic Rate Saves Precious Energy

    Changes in Behavior Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

    Changes in Physiology Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

    Changes in Biochemistry Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Defining Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope

    Measuring Metabolic Rate

    Hypoxia Exposure Imposes a Metabolic Stress in Animals

    Metabolic Scope for Survival: Suppression of Metabolic Rate Saves Precious Energy

    Changes in Behavior Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

    Changes in Physiology Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

    Changes in Biochemistry Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

    Summary

    See also

    HYPOXIA | Respiratory Responses to Hypoxia in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    What Is the Hypoxic Hyperventilatory Response?

    What Is the Benefit of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

    What Are the Pathways Mediating the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

    Ontogeny and Plasticity of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    What Is the Hypoxic Hyperventilatory Response?

    What Is the Benefit of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

    What Are the Pathways Mediating the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

    Ontogeny and Plasticity of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response

    See also

    HYPOXIA | The Expanding Hypoxic Environment

    Glossary

    Importance of Oxygen and Hypoxia

    Where Does Hypoxia Occur?

    Rise of Anthropogenic Influence on Oxygen Budgets

    Oxygen Budgets and Global Climate Change

    See also

    Further Reading

    Importance of Oxygen and Hypoxia

    Where Does Hypoxia Occur?

    Rise of Anthropogenic Influence on Oxygen Budgets

    Oxygen Budgets and Global Climate Change

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Central Control of Cardiorespiratory Interactions in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Elasmobranchs

    Teleosts

    Air-Breathing Fish

    The Neural Basis of CRIs

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Elasmobranchs

    Teleosts

    Air-Breathing Fish

    The Neural Basis of CRIs

    Summary

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Hormone Metabolism in the Circulation

    Glossary

    Hormones and the Endocrine System

    Types of Hormones

    Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Mammals

    Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Fish

    Methods for Measuring Hormone Inactivation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Hormones and the Endocrine System

    Types of Hormones

    Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Mammals

    Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Fish

    Methods for Measuring Hormone Inactivation

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Cardiovascular Responses of Fish to Swimming

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Aerobic Swimming

    Anaerobic Swimming

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Aerobic Swimming

    Anaerobic Swimming

    Summary

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Control of the Circulatory System

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Control Systems

    Integrative Analysis of the Fish Cardiovascular System

    Examples of Complex and Simple Cardiovascular Regulation Using Negative Feedback Loops

    Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Feedforward Mechanisms

    Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Rheostasis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Control Systems

    Integrative Analysis of the Fish Cardiovascular System

    Examples of Complex and Simple Cardiovascular Regulation Using Negative Feedback Loops

    Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Feedforward Mechanisms

    Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Rheostasis

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Responses of the Circulatory System to Digestion

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Blood Supply of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Blood Flow during Digestion

    Other Factors Influencing the Response of the Circulatory System after Feeding

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Blood Supply of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Blood Flow during Digestion

    Other Factors Influencing the Response of the Circulatory System after Feeding

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Blood Supply of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Blood Flow during Digestion

    Other Factors Influencing the Response of the Circulatory System after Feeding

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Responses of the Circulatory System to Hypoxia

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Acute Hypoxia

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Acute Hypoxia

    Summary

    See also

    INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Responses of the Circulatory System to Temperature

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Acute Temperature Effects on Resting Cardiac Function

    Temperature Effects on Maximum Cardiac Function and Scope for Cardiac Output

    Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Temperature Acclimation

    Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Acute Temperature Effects on Resting Cardiac Function

    Temperature Effects on Maximum Cardiac Function and Scope for Cardiac Output

    Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Temperature Acclimation

    Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System

    Summary

    See also

    INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Barrier Function of the Gut

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Epithelium

    The Intestinal Barrier

    The Barrier Function of Different Intestinal Regions

    Translocation of Pathogens across the Barriers

    The Barrier in Stress and Disease

    Species Differences

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Epithelium

    The Intestinal Barrier

    The Barrier Function of Different Intestinal Regions

    Translocation of Pathogens across the Barriers

    The Barrier in Stress and Disease

    Species Differences

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Endocrine Systems of the Gut

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Gastrin, Histamine, and Somatostatin Interact in the Control of Gastric Acid Secretion

    CCK Affects Appetite and Digestion

    Serotonin–Hormone or Transmitter?

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Has a Deviant Effect in Fish

    Ghrelin Influences Appetite and Growth-Hormone Secretion

    Leptin’s Role in the Gut Is Not Yet Known in Fish

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Gastrin, Histamine, and Somatostatin Interact in the Control of Gastric Acid Secretion

    CCK Affects Appetite and Digestion

    Serotonin–Hormone or Transmitter?

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Has a Deviant Effect in Fish

    Ghrelin Influences Appetite and Growth-Hormone Secretion

    Leptin’s Role in the Gut Is Not Yet Known in Fish

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Gut Motility

    Glossary

    What Is Gut Motility?

    Different Motility Patterns Are Present in the Gut

    Cellular Mechanisms behind Motility

    Gut Motility Is Tightly Controlled

    Development of Gut Motility and Control

    Integrated Effects on Gut Motility

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Is Gut Motility?

    Different Motility Patterns Are Present in the Gut

    Cellular Mechanisms behind Motility

    Gut Motility Is Tightly Controlled

    Development of Gut Motility and Control

    Integrated Effects on Gut Motility

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Gut Secretion and Digestion

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Secretion

    Digestion

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Secretion

    Digestion

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Intestinal Absorption

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Intestine as a Transporting Epithelium

    Transepithelial Transport of Macronutrients

    Protein Absorption

    Lipid Absorption

    Carbohydrate Absorption

    Intestinal Ion and Water Transport

    Micronutrient Absorption

    Regionalization of Intestinal Absorption

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Intestine as a Transporting Epithelium

    Transepithelial Transport of Macronutrients

    Protein Absorption

    Lipid Absorption

    Carbohydrate Absorption

    Intestinal Ion and Water Transport

    Micronutrient Absorption

    Regionalization of Intestinal Absorption

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Nervous System of the Gut

    Glossary

    Autonomic Nerves Innervate the Gut

    Anatomy of the Gut Nervous System

    Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Autonomic Nerves Innervate the Gut

    Anatomy of the Gut Nervous System

    Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    INTERTIDAL FISHES | Intertidal Habitats

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Tidal Cycles

    Types of Intertidal Habitats

    Adaptations to Changing Salinity

    Adaptations to Changing Oxygenation

    Adaptations to Changing Temperature

    Other Environmental Factors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Tidal Cycles

    Types of Intertidal Habitats

    Adaptations to Changing Salinity

    Adaptations to Changing Oxygenation

    Adaptations to Changing Temperature

    Other Environmental Factors

    See also

    MUSCLES, SKELETON, SKIN, AND MOVEMENT | Functional Anatomy of Bones, Muscle, and Skin: An Introduction

    Glossary

    A Brief Historical Perspective on Functional Anatomy of Fishes

    Functional Anatomy of Fishes Today

    See also

    Further Reading

    A Brief Historical Perspective on Functional Anatomy of Fishes

    Functional Anatomy of Fishes Today

    See also

    NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Excretion of Ammonia

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Ammonia Gas, Ammonium Ions, and pH

    Ammonia Excretion and pH

    Ammonia Transfer across Cell Membranes

    Ammonia and Gill Ventilation

    Ammonia Volatilization

    Ammonia Toxicity

    Ureogenesis

    Feeding and Exercise

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Ammonia Gas, Ammonium Ions, and pH

    Ammonia Excretion and pH

    Ammonia Transfer across Cell Membranes

    Ammonia and Gill Ventilation

    Ammonia Volatilization

    Ammonia Toxicity

    Ureogenesis

    Feeding and Exercise

    See also

    NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Ureotelism

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Synthesis of Urea

    Retention of Urea in Elasmobranchs and Coelacanths

    Urea Excretion

    Environmental Impacts on Urea Excretion

    Early Life Stages

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Synthesis of Urea

    Retention of Urea in Elasmobranchs and Coelacanths

    Urea Excretion

    Environmental Impacts on Urea Excretion

    Early Life Stages

    See also

    OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Mechanisms of Gill Salt Secretion in Marine Teleosts

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Mitochondrion-Rich Cell

    Mechanisms of NaCl Transport across the MRC

    Molecular Evidence for Routes of NaCl Transport

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Mitochondrion-Rich Cell

    Mechanisms of NaCl Transport across the MRC

    Molecular Evidence for Routes of NaCl Transport

    See also

    OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Mechanisms of Ion Transport in Freshwater Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Na+ Uptake/Acid Secretion

    Cl− Uptake/Base Secretion

    Ca2+ Uptake

    Different Subtypes of Ionocytes

    Functional Regulation to Cope with Fluctuating Environments

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Na+ Uptake/Acid Secretion

    Cl− Uptake/Base Secretion

    Ca2+ Uptake

    Different Subtypes of Ionocytes

    Functional Regulation to Cope with Fluctuating Environments

    Summary

    See also

    OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Osmoregulation in Fishes: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Paleoecology of Fishes

    Osmoregulation in Marine Fishes

    Osmoregulation in Freshwater Fishes

    The Origin of Ionic Uptake Systems in the Early Vertebrates

    Why Aren’t All Fishes Euryhaline?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Paleoecology of Fishes

    Osmoregulation in Marine Fishes

    Osmoregulation in Freshwater Fishes

    The Origin of Ionic Uptake Systems in the Early Vertebrates

    Why Aren’t All Fishes Euryhaline?

    See also

    OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Osmosensing

    Glossary

    Why Do Fishes Need to Sense Environmental Salinity?

    Basic Principles of Osmosensory Signal Transduction

    Molecular Osmosensors

    The Ion–Damage–Cytokine Model of Osmosensing

    Cellular Osmosensing and Chloride Cell Differentiation

    Role of Osmosensing for Fish Sperm Motility

    See also

    Further Reading

    Why Do Fishes Need to Sense Environmental Salinity?

    Basic Principles of Osmosensory Signal Transduction

    Molecular Osmosensors

    The Ion–Damage–Cytokine Model of Osmosensing

    Cellular Osmosensing and Chloride Cell Differentiation

    Role of Osmosensing for Fish Sperm Motility

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Why Do Fishes Need to Sense Environmental Salinity?

    Basic Principles of Osmosensory Signal Transduction

    Molecular Osmosensors

    The Ion–Damage–Cytokine Model of Osmosensing

    Cellular Osmosensing and Chloride Cell Differentiation

    Role of Osmosensing for Fish Sperm Motility

    See also

    OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Water Balance and Aquaporin

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Aspects of Osmosis

    Gill Water Transport

    Gastrointestinal Water Transport

    Renal Water Flows

    Urinary Bladder

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Aspects of Osmosis

    Gill Water Transport

    Gastrointestinal Water Transport

    Renal Water Flows

    Urinary Bladder

    See also

    PELAGIC FISHES | An Introduction to the Biology of Pelagic Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Adaptations for Life in the Pelagic Realm

    Do Pelagic Fish Have a Depth Preference?

    What May Limit the Vertical Movements of Pelagic Fishes?

    Physiological and Morphological Adaptations That Allow Some Pelagic Fishes to Undergo Rapid and Repeated Vertical Movements in the Water Column

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Adaptations for Life in the Pelagic Realm

    Do Pelagic Fish Have a Depth Preference?

    What May Limit the Vertical Movements of Pelagic Fishes?

    Physiological and Morphological Adaptations That Allow Some Pelagic Fishes to Undergo Rapid and Repeated Vertical Movements in the Water Column

    See also

    PELAGIC FISHES | Endothermy in Tunas, Billfishes, and Sharks

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Systemic Endothermy

    Cranial Endothermy

    Heater Organ Tissue

    How Fish Have Built a Furnace Out of Muscle

    Telemetry of Brain Temperature

    Why Be Warm?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Systemic Endothermy

    Cranial Endothermy

    Heater Organ Tissue

    How Fish Have Built a Furnace Out of Muscle

    Telemetry of Brain Temperature

    Why Be Warm?

    See also

    PELAGIC FISHES | Physiology of Tuna

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Continuous Swimming

    High Metabolic Rates and Aerobic Scopes

    Specializations Associated with High Aerobic Capacity

    Physiological Consequences of Regional Endothermy

    Physiological Consequences of Diving in Tunas

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Continuous Swimming

    High Metabolic Rates and Aerobic Scopes

    Specializations Associated with High Aerobic Capacity

    Physiological Consequences of Regional Endothermy

    Physiological Consequences of Diving in Tunas

    See also

    REPRODUCTION | The Diversity of Fish Reproduction: An Introduction

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    See also

    RESPONSES AND ADAPTATIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT | General Principles of Biochemical Adaptations

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Noncovalent Bonding as a Basis for Environmental Stress

    Optimal Values for Biochemical Systems: The Conservative Side of Adaptation

    Conservation of Protein Structure and Function

    Conservation of an Appropriate Internal Milieu

    Conservation of Membrane Function: Homeoviscous and Homeophasic Adaptation

    Conservation of Gene Regulatory Ability

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Noncovalent Bonding as a Basis for Environmental Stress

    Optimal Values for Biochemical Systems: The Conservative Side of Adaptation

    Conservation of Protein Structure and Function

    Conservation of an Appropriate Internal Milieu

    Conservation of Membrane Function: Homeoviscous and Homeophasic Adaptation

    Conservation of Gene Regulatory Ability

    Summary

    See also

    ROLE OF THE GILLS | Morphology of Branchial Ionocytes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Pavement Cells

    MRCs or Chloride Cells

    MCR Identification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Pavement Cells

    MRCs or Chloride Cells

    MCR Identification

    See also

    ROLE OF THE GILLS | The Osmorespiratory Compromise

    Glossary

    What Is the Osmorespiratory Compromise?

    The Effect of Changes in Branchial Surface Area

    The Effect of Changes in Branchial Diffusion Distance

    Effect of Branchial Remodeling

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Is the Osmorespiratory Compromise?

    The Effect of Changes in Branchial Surface Area

    The Effect of Changes in Branchial Diffusion Distance

    Effect of Branchial Remodeling

    See also

    ROLE OF THE GUT | Dogfish Rectal Gland

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Anatomy

    Studying Rectal Gland Secretory Function

    Mechanism of Salt Transport

    Controls of Rectal Gland Function

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Anatomy

    Studying Rectal Gland Secretory Function

    Mechanism of Salt Transport

    Controls of Rectal Gland Function

    Conclusion

    See also

    ROLE OF THE GUT | Gut Ion, Osmotic and Acid-Base Regulation

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Gut Anatomy

    Ion and Osmotic Regulation Functions of the Gut in Nonfeeding Teleost Fish

    Intestinal Cl− and Water Absorption Directly Linked to HCO3− Secretion

    Intestinal Water Absorption Indirectly Linked to HCO3− Secretion via Alkaline CaCO3 Precipitation

    Ion Regulation in the Gut of Freshwater Fish

    Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Freshwater Teleost Fish

    Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Marine Teleost Fish

    The Role of the Gut in Acid–Base Regulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Gut Anatomy

    Ion and Osmotic Regulation Functions of the Gut in Nonfeeding Teleost Fish

    Intestinal Cl− and Water Absorption Directly Linked to HCO3− Secretion

    Intestinal Water Absorption Indirectly Linked to HCO3− Secretion via Alkaline CaCO3 Precipitation

    Ion Regulation in the Gut of Freshwater Fish

    Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Freshwater Teleost Fish

    Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Marine Teleost Fish

    The Role of the Gut in Acid–Base Regulation

    See also

    ROLE OF THE KIDNEYS | Histology of the Kidney

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Evolution of the Kidney

    Pronephros or Head Kidney

    Opisthonephros

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Evolution of the Kidney

    Pronephros or Head Kidney

    Opisthonephros

    See also

    ROLE OF THE KIDNEYS | The Kidney

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Kidney Structure

    Urine Formation

    Acid–Base Balance by the Kidney

    Nitrogen Excretion by the Kidney

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Kidney Structure

    Urine Formation

    Acid–Base Balance by the Kidney

    Nitrogen Excretion by the Kidney

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Circadian Rhythms in Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Expressions of Circadian Rhythmicity

    Entrainment of the Circadian Clock

    Diurnality and Nocturnality

    Location of the Circadian Clock

    Clock Genes

    Circatidal Rhythms

    Other Rhythms

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Expressions of Circadian Rhythmicity

    Entrainment of the Circadian Clock

    Diurnality and Nocturnality

    Location of the Circadian Clock

    Clock Genes

    Circatidal Rhythms

    Other Rhythms

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Communication Behavior: Visual Signals

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Bioluminescent Signaling

    Signaling with Reflected Light

    Evolution of Visual Signals

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Bioluminescent Signaling

    Signaling with Reflected Light

    Evolution of Visual Signals

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Fish Learning and Memory

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Different Forms of Learning and Memory

    Areas of the Fish Brain Involved in Learning and Memory

    Factors That Affect Learning and Memory

    Sensitive Phases for Learning or Imprinting

    Learning and Memory in Applied Contexts

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Different Forms of Learning and Memory

    Areas of the Fish Brain Involved in Learning and Memory

    Factors That Affect Learning and Memory

    Sensitive Phases for Learning or Imprinting

    Learning and Memory in Applied Contexts

    Summary

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | How Fishes Use Sound: Quiet to Loud and Simple to Complex Signalling

    Glossary

    Introduction to Vocal Fishes: Quiet versus Loud Vocalizers

    Discovery and Evolution of Vocal Fish Behavior

    Fish Call Characteristics: Simple versus Complex

    Chorusing Behavior: Schooling, Spawning, and Feeding

    Reproductive Sound Signaling: Male Display and Female Mate Choice

    Agonistic Sound Signaling within Species

    Avoiding and Repelling Predators

    Sound Signals Relative to Other Communication Modalities

    Conclusions: What Fish Sounds Can and Cannot Do

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction to Vocal Fishes: Quiet versus Loud Vocalizers

    Discovery and Evolution of Vocal Fish Behavior

    Fish Call Characteristics: Simple versus Complex

    Chorusing Behavior: Schooling, Spawning, and Feeding

    Reproductive Sound Signaling: Male Display and Female Mate Choice

    Agonistic Sound Signaling within Species

    Avoiding and Repelling Predators

    Sound Signals Relative to Other Communication Modalities

    Conclusions: What Fish Sounds Can and Cannot Do

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction to Vocal Fishes: Quiet versus Loud Vocalizers

    Discovery and Evolution of Vocal Fish Behavior

    Fish Call Characteristics: Simple versus Complex

    Chorusing Behavior: Schooling, Spawning, and Feeding

    Reproductive Sound Signaling: Male Display and Female Mate Choice

    Agonistic Sound Signaling within Species

    Avoiding and Repelling Predators

    Sound Signals Relative to Other Communication Modalities

    Conclusions: What Fish Sounds Can and Cannot Do

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Magnetic Sense in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Magnetic Fields in Nature and the Laboratory

    Behavioral Responses to Magnetic Fields

    Neural Responses

    Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells?

    Neuroanatomy

    Do Fish Use the Earth’s Magnetic Field to Navigate?

    Outlook

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Magnetic Fields in Nature and the Laboratory

    Behavioral Responses to Magnetic Fields

    Neural Responses

    Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells?

    Neuroanatomy

    Do Fish Use the Earth’s Magnetic Field to Navigate?

    Outlook

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Nociception or Pain in Fish

    Glossary

    What Are Nociception and Pain?

    Why Is Fish Pain Controversial?

    Learning to Avoid Noxious Stimuli

    Behavioral Responses to Pain or Nociception in Fish

    Species-Specific Responses

    How Important Would Pain Be to a Fish?

    Future Research Perspectives

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Are Nociception and Pain?

    Why Is Fish Pain Controversial?

    Learning to Avoid Noxious Stimuli

    Behavioral Responses to Pain or Nociception in Fish

    Species-Specific Responses

    How Important Would Pain Be to a Fish?

    Future Research Perspectives

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    What Are Nociception and Pain?

    Why Is Fish Pain Controversial?

    Learning to Avoid Noxious Stimuli

    Behavioral Responses to Pain or Nociception in Fish

    Species-Specific Responses

    How Important Would Pain Be to a Fish?

    Future Research Perspectives

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Shocking Comments: Electrocommunication in Teleost Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Discovery of Electrocommunication

    Generating Electrocommunication Signals in Two forms: Wave versus Pulse EODs

    Communication through the Continuous EOD: Function in Species and Sexual Identification

    Communication through EOD Modulations: Function in Aggression and Courtship

    Hormonal Influences on Electrocommunication Systems

    Evolution of Electrocommunication

    Electrocommunication as a Model in Neuroethology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Discovery of Electrocommunication

    Generating Electrocommunication Signals in Two forms: Wave versus Pulse EODs

    Communication through the Continuous EOD: Function in Species and Sexual Identification

    Communication through EOD Modulations: Function in Aggression and Courtship

    Hormonal Influences on Electrocommunication Systems

    Evolution of Electrocommunication

    Electrocommunication as a Model in Neuroethology

    See also

    SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Spatial Orientation: How do Fish Find their Way Around?

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Orientation Mechanisms

    Sensory Systems Used to Obtain Spatial Information

    Flexibility in Learning and Remembering Spatial Information

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Orientation Mechanisms

    Sensory Systems Used to Obtain Spatial Information

    Flexibility in Learning and Remembering Spatial Information

    Conclusion

    See also

    SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Chemoreception (Smell and Taste): An Introduction

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    See also

    SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Chemosensory Behavior

    Glossary

    Feeding Behavior

    Reproductive Behavior

    Alarm Substance and Fright Reaction

    Homing of Salmon

    See also

    Further Reading

    Feeding Behavior

    Reproductive Behavior

    Alarm Substance and Fright Reaction

    Homing of Salmon

    See also

    SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Morphology of the Gustatory (Taste) System in Fishes

    Glossary

    Peripheral Gustatory System

    Central Gustatory Pathways

    Palatal Organs and Barbels

    Alliance with the Trigeminal Nerve

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Peripheral Gustatory System

    Central Gustatory Pathways

    Palatal Organs and Barbels

    Alliance with the Trigeminal Nerve

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Morphology of the Olfactory (Smell) System in Fishes

    Glossary

    Peripheral Olfactory Organ

    Olfactory Bulb and Central Projections

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Peripheral Olfactory Organ

    Olfactory Bulb and Central Projections

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Neurophysiology of Gustation

    Glossary

    Responses to Chemical Stimuli

    Molecular Basis of Gustatory Receptors and Transduction

    Responses to Mechanical/Tactile Stimuli

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Responses to Chemical Stimuli

    Molecular Basis of Gustatory Receptors and Transduction

    Responses to Mechanical/Tactile Stimuli

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Neurophysiology of Olfaction

    Glossary

    Olfactory Signal Transduction

    Potency and Specificity of Olfactory Stimuli

    Ciliated, Microvillar, or Crypt Receptor Neurons–Functional Specialization?

    Signal Processing in the Olfactory Bulb and Telencephalon

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Olfactory Signal Transduction

    Potency and Specificity of Olfactory Stimuli

    Ciliated, Microvillar, or Crypt Receptor Neurons–Functional Specialization?

    Signal Processing in the Olfactory Bulb and Telencephalon

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Dominance Behaviors

    Glossary

    Dominance Hierarchies

    How Is Dominance Measured?

    Causes of Dominance

    Physiological Consequences of Social Status

    Why Study Dominance?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Dominance Hierarchies

    How Is Dominance Measured?

    Causes of Dominance

    Physiological Consequences of Social Status

    Why Study Dominance?

    See also

    SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Nutritional Provision During Parental Care

    Glossary

    Why Provide Nutrients?

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Why Provide Nutrients?

    Future Directions

    See also

    SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Parental Care in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Patterns and Diversity in Parental Care

    Explaining the Patterns and Diversity of Fish Parental Care

    Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Fish Parental Care

    Future Research Directions and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Patterns and Diversity in Parental Care

    Explaining the Patterns and Diversity of Fish Parental Care

    Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Fish Parental Care

    Future Research Directions and Conclusions

    See also

    SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Sexual Behavior in Fish

    Glossary

    Overview of Sexual Behaviors in Fish

    Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Overview of Sexual Behaviors in Fish

    Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

    Conclusions

    See also

    SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Socially Controlled Sex Change in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Sexual Patterns in Fishes

    Steroid Hormone Patterns

    Other Steroid Hormones and Sex Change

    Neural Mechanisms of Sex Change

    Neural Bases of Behavioral Sex Change

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Sexual Patterns in Fishes

    Steroid Hormone Patterns

    Other Steroid Hormones and Sex Change

    Neural Mechanisms of Sex Change

    Neural Bases of Behavioral Sex Change

    Summary

    See also

    STURGEON | Physiology of Sturgeon

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Reproduction

    Endogenous and Environmental Regulation of Reproduction

    Growth

    Respiratory Metabolism

    Blood-Oxygen Affinity

    Acid–Base Balance

    Gut Blood Flow

    Osmoregulation

    Swimming Performance

    Stress Responses

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Reproduction

    Endogenous and Environmental Regulation of Reproduction

    Growth

    Respiratory Metabolism

    Blood-Oxygen Affinity

    Acid–Base Balance

    Gut Blood Flow

    Osmoregulation

    Swimming Performance

    Stress Responses

    See also

    SWIMMING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES | Applied Aspects of Fish Swimming Performance

    Glossary

    Background

    Swimming Performance Data–Where Does It Come from?

    Limitations of Available Data

    See also

    Further Reading

    Background

    Swimming Performance Data–Where Does It Come from?

    Limitations of Available Data

    See also

    SWIMMING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES | Cellular Energy Utilization: Environmental Influences on Metabolism

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Aerobic Metabolic Pathways: Sustaining Functional Scope

    Anaerobic Metabolic Pathways: Extending Limits to Function and Time

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Aerobic Metabolic Pathways: Sustaining Functional Scope

    Anaerobic Metabolic Pathways: Extending Limits to Function and Time

    See also

    SWIMMING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES | Energetics of Fish Swimming

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Why Swimming Requires Energy

    Types of Fish Muscle and Swimming Activity

    Environmental Influences and the Fry Paradigm

    Estimating the Costs of Swimming in Wild Fish

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Why Swimming Requires Energy

    Types of Fish Muscle and Swimming Activity

    Environmental Influences and the Fry Paradigm

    Estimating the Costs of Swimming in Wild Fish

    Conclusions

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Effects of Climate Change

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Ecosystem Level Phenomena: Populations and Communities

    Physiological Background of Climate-Change Impacts on Ecosystems

    Performance Patterns and Energy Budget

    Physiology-Based Projections of Impacts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Ecosystem Level Phenomena: Populations and Communities

    Physiological Background of Climate-Change Impacts on Ecosystems

    Performance Patterns and Energy Budget

    Physiology-Based Projections of Impacts

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Effects of Temperature: An Introduction

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Temperature and Its Measurement

    Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat

    Effects of Temperature on Rate Processes

    Q10

    Arrhenius Breakpoint Temperature

    Effects of Temperature on Weak Bonds

    Strategies of Thermal Adaptation and Acclimation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Temperature and Its Measurement

    Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat

    Effects of Temperature on Rate Processes

    Q10

    Arrhenius Breakpoint Temperature

    Effects of Temperature on Weak Bonds

    Strategies of Thermal Adaptation and Acclimation

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Heat Shock Proteins and Temperature

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Heat Shock Proteins

    HSPs and Fish

    HSPs in the Cold

    Plasticity of the Heat Shock Response

    Thermal/Cross Tolerance

    Triggers of the Heat Shock Response

    Molecular Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

    Physiological Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Heat Shock Proteins

    HSPs and Fish

    HSPs in the Cold

    Plasticity of the Heat Shock Response

    Thermal/Cross Tolerance

    Triggers of the Heat Shock Response

    Molecular Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

    Physiological Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

    Conclusion

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Measures of Thermal Tolerance

    Glossary

    Temperature-Dependent Physiology: The Basis of Thermal Tolerance

    Environmental Temperatures (Te’s) and Fishes

    Thermal Tolerance of Fishes: A Brief History

    Laboratory Measures of Thermal Tolerance

    Influences on Thermal Tolerance

    Ecophysiological Theory of Thermal Tolerance

    Biological Applications of Thermal Tolerance

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Temperature-Dependent Physiology: The Basis of Thermal Tolerance

    Environmental Temperatures (Te’s) and Fishes

    Thermal Tolerance of Fishes: A Brief History

    Laboratory Measures of Thermal Tolerance

    Influences on Thermal Tolerance

    Ecophysiological Theory of Thermal Tolerance

    Biological Applications of Thermal Tolerance

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Membranes and Temperature: Homeoviscous Adaptation

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Structure of Cellular Membranes

    Environmental Effects on Fluidity

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Structure of Cellular Membranes

    Environmental Effects on Fluidity

    Conclusions

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Mitochondria and Temperature

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fish Mitochondria and Thermal Change

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Fish Mitochondria and Thermal Change

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Proteins and Temperature

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Function

    Structural Modifications in Proteins Important for Temperature Adaptation

    Location of Amino Acid Substitutions Is Important in Enzymic Temperature Adaptation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Function

    Structural Modifications in Proteins Important for Temperature Adaptation

    Location of Amino Acid Substitutions Is Important in Enzymic Temperature Adaptation

    See also

    TEMPERATURE | Temperature and Excitable Membranes

    Glossary

    What Is an Excitable Membrane or Cell?

    Ion Channels Are Necessary for Excitability

    How Does Temperature Affect Excitability?

    Significance of Membrane Lipids in Thermal Responses of Excitable Cells

    Evolutionary Thermal Adaptation of Excitability

    See also

    Further Reading

    What Is an Excitable Membrane or Cell?

    Ion Channels Are Necessary for Excitability

    How Does Temperature Affect Excitability?

    Significance of Membrane Lipids in Thermal Responses of Excitable Cells

    Evolutionary Thermal Adaptation of Excitability

    See also

    THE GUT | The Gastrointestinal Tract: An Introduction

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    See also

    THE MUSCLES | Bony Fish Cranial Muscles

    Glossary

    Overview

    Buccal Pumping

    Suction Feeding

    Premaxillary Protrusion

    Biting/Tearing

    Pharyngeal Jaw Processing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Overview

    Buccal Pumping

    Suction Feeding

    Premaxillary Protrusion

    Biting/Tearing

    Pharyngeal Jaw Processing

    See also

    THE MUSCLES | Cartilaginous Fishes Cranial Muscles

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Shark Musculature

    Batoid Musculature

    Holocephalan Musculature

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Shark Musculature

    Batoid Musculature

    Holocephalan Musculature

    See also

    THE PITUITARY | Development of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Components of the HPI Axis

    Ontogeny of the HPI Axis

    HPI Axis Development in Zebrafish

    Stress Axis Development in Other Teleosts

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Components of the HPI Axis

    Ontogeny of the HPI Axis

    HPI Axis Development in Zebrafish

    Stress Axis Development in Other Teleosts

    Conclusion

    See also

    THE PITUITARY | Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis

    Glossary

    Anatomy

    Hormones of the Adenohypophysis

    Hormones of the Neurohypophysis

    Histological Structure of the Adenohypophysis

    Further Reading

    Anatomy

    Hormones of the Adenohypophysis

    Hormones of the Neurohypophysis

    Histological Structure of the Adenohypophysis

    THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND PROCESSES | Anatomy and Histology of Fish Testis

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Structure of the Teleost Testis

    Anatomy of the Testis, Efferent Duct, and Seminal Vesicles

    Germ-Cell Clones, Sertoli Cells, and Cystic Spermatogenesis

    Distribution of Spermatogenic Cysts

    Spermatogenesis–An Overview

    Morphological Characteristics of Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Structure of the Teleost Testis

    Anatomy of the Testis, Efferent Duct, and Seminal Vesicles

    Germ-Cell Clones, Sertoli Cells, and Cystic Spermatogenesis

    Distribution of Spermatogenic Cysts

    Spermatogenesis–An Overview

    Morphological Characteristics of Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis

    See also

    THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND PROCESSES | Regulation of Spermatogenesis

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Regulation of Testis Functions by Pituitary Gonadotropins

    Sertoli Cells

    Steroid Hormone Blood Levels

    Estrogens

    Androgens

    Progesterones

    Final Maturation of Male Gametes

    Germ Cell Autonomous Regulation of Spermatogenesis

    Synopsis and Outlook

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Regulation of Testis Functions by Pituitary Gonadotropins

    Sertoli Cells

    Steroid Hormone Blood Levels

    Estrogens

    Androgens

    Progesterones

    Final Maturation of Male Gametes

    Germ Cell Autonomous Regulation of Spermatogenesis

    Synopsis and Outlook

    See also

    THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND PROCESSES | Vitellogenesis in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Chemistry of Vitellogenins and Egg Yolk

    Vitellogenin Structure and Product YPs

    Nomenclature and Classification of Vitellogenins

    Endocrine Control of Vitellogenesis

    Vitellogenin Synthesis and Secretion

    Vitellogenin Uptake and Processing into YPs

    Vitellogenin Receptors

    Maturational Proteolysis of YPs

    Phosvitinless Vitellogenin: The Oddities of VtgC

    Vitellogenesis in Livebearing Fishes

    Alternative Functions of Vitellogenins

    Applications and Perspectives of Vitellogenesis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Chemistry of Vitellogenins and Egg Yolk

    Vitellogenin Structure and Product YPs

    Nomenclature and Classification of Vitellogenins

    Endocrine Control of Vitellogenesis

    Vitellogenin Synthesis and Secretion

    Vitellogenin Uptake and Processing into YPs

    Vitellogenin Receptors

    Maturational Proteolysis of YPs

    Phosvitinless Vitellogenin: The Oddities of VtgC

    Vitellogenesis in Livebearing Fishes

    Alternative Functions of Vitellogenins

    Applications and Perspectives of Vitellogenesis

    See also

    THE SKELETON | Bony Fish Skeleton

    Glossary

    A Hierarchical Approach to the Study of the Skeleton

    Cranial Axial Skeleton

    Postcranial Axial Skeleton

    Appendicular Skeleton

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    A Hierarchical Approach to the Study of the Skeleton

    Cranial Axial Skeleton

    Postcranial Axial Skeleton

    Appendicular Skeleton

    Conclusion

    See also

    THE SKELETON | Cartilaginous Fish Skeletal Anatomy

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Anatomy

    Sharks

    Batoids

    Chimaeroids

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Anatomy

    Sharks

    Batoids

    Chimaeroids

    See also

    THE SKELETON | Cartilaginous Fish Skeletal Tissues

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Tissues: No Bones about It…

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Tissues: No Bones about It…

    See also

    THE SKIN | Bioluminescence in Fishes

    Glossary

    Light Organs

    Light Environment

    Luminescence Observation

    Flash Kinetics

    Counter-illumination

    Bioluminescent Fish

    The Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Light Organs

    Light Environment

    Luminescence Observation

    Flash Kinetics

    Counter-illumination

    Bioluminescent Fish

    The Future

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Light Organs

    Light Environment

    Luminescence Observation

    Flash Kinetics

    Counter-illumination

    Bioluminescent Fish

    The Future

    See also

    THE SKIN | Coloration and Chromatophores in Fishes

    Glossary

    Color: An Important Characteristic in Fish Integumentary Function

    Pigmentary and Structural Coloration

    Chromatophores

    How Do Fish Change Color?

    Physiological and Morphological Color Changes

    The Regulation of Color Changes

    Integumentary Patterns in Fish

    See also

    Further Reading

    Color: An Important Characteristic in Fish Integumentary Function

    Pigmentary and Structural Coloration

    Chromatophores

    How Do Fish Change Color?

    Physiological and Morphological Color Changes

    The Regulation of Color Changes

    Integumentary Patterns in Fish

    See also

    THE SKIN | Functional Morphology of the Integumentary System in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    General Morphology

    Microscopic Features

    Integumentary Extensions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    General Morphology

    Microscopic Features

    Integumentary Extensions

    See also

    THE SKIN | Hagfish Slime

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Hagfish Slime Gland

    GMCs and Mucin Vesicles

    Gland Thread Cells

    Volume and Concentration

    Mechanics and Function

    Slime Deployment and Maturation

    Structure and Function

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Hagfish Slime Gland

    GMCs and Mucin Vesicles

    Gland Thread Cells

    Volume and Concentration

    Mechanics and Function

    Slime Deployment and Maturation

    Structure and Function

    See also

    THE SKIN | The Many Functions of Fish Integument

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Protection

    Communication and Sensory Perception

    Locomotion

    Respiration, Ion Regulation, and Excretion

    Other Functions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Protection

    Communication and Sensory Perception

    Locomotion

    Respiration, Ion Regulation, and Excretion

    Other Functions

    See also

    TISSUE RESPIRATION | Cellular Respiration

    Glossary

    Cellular Metabolism

    Fuel and O2 Delivery to Tissues

    Cell Membrane Transport

    Cytosolic Transport

    Mitochondrial Transport

    Cellular Respiration in Fish

    Environmental and Energetic Stress

    Limits to Cellular Respiration

    Novel Species

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Cellular Metabolism

    Fuel and O2 Delivery to Tissues

    Cell Membrane Transport

    Cytosolic Transport

    Mitochondrial Transport

    Cellular Respiration in Fish

    Environmental and Energetic Stress

    Limits to Cellular Respiration

    Novel Species

    Conclusions

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Cellular Metabolism

    Fuel and O2 Delivery to Tissues

    Cell Membrane Transport

    Cytosolic Transport

    Mitochondrial Transport

    Cellular Respiration in Fish

    Environmental and Energetic Stress

    Limits to Cellular Respiration

    Novel Species

    Conclusions

    See also

    TISSUE RESPIRATION | Mitochondrial Respiration

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Importance of the Endosymbiotic Origin of Mitochondria

    Mitochondrial Structure

    Basic Features of OXPHOS

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Importance of the Endosymbiotic Origin of Mitochondria

    Mitochondrial Structure

    Basic Features of OXPHOS

    Conclusions

    See also

    TISSUE RESPIRATION | Specializations in Mitochondrial Respiration of Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Genetic and Genomic Variation

    Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Genetic and Genomic Variation

    Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    Conclusions

    See also

    TOXICOLOGY | The Effects of Toxicants on Olfaction in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Odorants, Contaminants, and Their Relevance to Physiological and Behavioral Response

    Olfactory–Toxicity Interactions

    Future Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Odorants, Contaminants, and Their Relevance to Physiological and Behavioral Response

    Olfactory–Toxicity Interactions

    Future Studies

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Odorants, Contaminants, and Their Relevance to Physiological and Behavioral Response

    Olfactory–Toxicity Interactions

    Future Studies

    See also

    TOXICOLOGY | The Toxicology of Metals in Fishes

    Glossary

    How Do We Classify Metals?

    Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Metals

    Biological Fate and Toxicokinetics

    Biological Effects and Toxicodynamics

    See also

    Further Reading

    How Do We Classify Metals?

    Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Metals

    Biological Fate and Toxicokinetics

    Biological Effects and Toxicodynamics

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    How Do We Classify Metals?

    Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Metals

    Biological Fate and Toxicokinetics

    Biological Effects and Toxicodynamics

    See also

    TOXICOLOGY | The Toxicology of Organics in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Biological Fate

    Specific Organic Contaminants

    Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Biological Fate

    Specific Organic Contaminants

    Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Introduction

    Biological Fate

    Specific Organic Contaminants

    Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Carbon Dioxide Transport and Excretion

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Transfer of Gases to and from the Blood

    Regulation of RBC pH

    Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Excretion

    The Effect of Temperature and Variations in Environmental CO2 Levels

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Transfer of Gases to and from the Blood

    Regulation of RBC pH

    Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Excretion

    The Effect of Temperature and Variations in Environmental CO2 Levels

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Carbonic Anhydrase in Gas Transport and Exchange

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Carbonic Anhydrase–The Enzyme

    CA Isoforms

    Methodological Approaches for Discerning CA Function

    Physiological Functions of CA in Gas Transport and Exchange

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Carbonic Anhydrase–The Enzyme

    CA Isoforms

    Methodological Approaches for Discerning CA Function

    Physiological Functions of CA in Gas Transport and Exchange

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Evolution of the Bohr Effect

    Glossary

    Discovery and Definition of the Bohr Effect

    Distinction between a Bohr Effect and a Root Effect

    Factors Modulating the Magnitude of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrates

    Occurrence of the Bohr Effect in Animals

    Molecular Mechanism(s) of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrate Hbs

    Benefits and Evolution of the Bohr Effect

    See also

    Further Reading

    Discovery and Definition of the Bohr Effect

    Distinction between a Bohr Effect and a Root Effect

    Factors Modulating the Magnitude of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrates

    Occurrence of the Bohr Effect in Animals

    Molecular Mechanism(s) of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrate Hbs

    Benefits and Evolution of the Bohr Effect

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Gas Transport and Exchange: Interaction Between O2 and CO2 Exchange

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Basis for the Interaction between O2 and CO2: Bohr–Haldane Effect

    Theoretical Bohr–Haldane Coefficient Optimal for Oxygen Delivery

    Nonlinear Bohr–Haldane Effect within the OEC

    Implications of Non-Steady-State Conditions for the Interaction between O2 and CO2 Exchange

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Basis for the Interaction between O2 and CO2: Bohr–Haldane Effect

    Theoretical Bohr–Haldane Coefficient Optimal for Oxygen Delivery

    Nonlinear Bohr–Haldane Effect within the OEC

    Implications of Non-Steady-State Conditions for the Interaction between O2 and CO2 Exchange

    Concluding Remarks

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Hemoglobin

    Glossary

    Hemoglobin Structure

    Binding of Oxygen by Hemoglobin

    Factors Affecting the Oxygen-Binding Properties of Hemoglobin

    Temperature Effects

    Hemoglobin Oxidation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Hemoglobin Structure

    Binding of Oxygen by Hemoglobin

    Factors Affecting the Oxygen-Binding Properties of Hemoglobin

    Temperature Effects

    Hemoglobin Oxidation

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Hemoglobin Differentiation in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Fish Hemoglobin Functional Differentiation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Fish Hemoglobin Functional Differentiation

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | O2 Uptake and Transport: The Optimal P50

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Conclusions

    Appendix

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Conclusions

    Appendix

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Red Blood Cell Function

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Membrane Transport, Erythrocyte pH, and Volume

    Control of Erythrocytic NTP Concentration

    Role of Erythrocytes in Regulating Capillary Function

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Membrane Transport, Erythrocyte pH, and Volume

    Control of Erythrocytic NTP Concentration

    Role of Erythrocytes in Regulating Capillary Function

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Root Effect: Molecular Basis, Evolution of the Root Effect and Rete Systems

    Glossary

    Discovery of the Root Effect

    The Root Effect is Only Loosely Defined

    Variations in the Magnitude of the Root Effect

    Mechanism of the Root Effect

    Physiological Roles of the Root Effect

    Evolution of the Root Effect and Rete Systems

    See also

    Further Reading

    Discovery of the Root Effect

    The Root Effect is Only Loosely Defined

    Variations in the Magnitude of the Root Effect

    Mechanism of the Root Effect

    Physiological Roles of the Root Effect

    Evolution of the Root Effect and Rete Systems

    See also

    TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Root Effect: Root Effect Definition, Functional Role in Oxygen Delivery to the Eye and Swimbladder

    Glossary

    Definition of the Root Effect

    Functional Role of the Root Effect

    Physiological Significance–Eye and Swimbladder

    Ocular Blood Supply and Pseudobranch

    See also

    Further Reading

    Definition of the Root Effect

    Functional Role of the Root Effect

    Physiological Significance–Eye and Swimbladder

    Ocular Blood Supply and Pseudobranch

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Efficiency of Gas Exchange Organs

    Glossary

    Gas Exchangers

    Water versus Air as Respiratory Media

    The Efficiencies of Gas Exchange

    See also

    Further Reading

    Gas Exchangers

    Water versus Air as Respiratory Media

    The Efficiencies of Gas Exchange

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Gill Respiratory Morphometrics

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Gill Morphology

    Total Gill Surface Area

    Diffusion Distances

    Theories on Gill Dimensions

    Gill Morphometrics, Fish Habitat, and Metabolic Requirements

    Scaling: Fish Gill Morphometrics in Relation to Fish Growth

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Gill Morphology

    Total Gill Surface Area

    Diffusion Distances

    Theories on Gill Dimensions

    Gill Morphometrics, Fish Habitat, and Metabolic Requirements

    Scaling: Fish Gill Morphometrics in Relation to Fish Growth

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Plasticity in Gill Morphology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Gill Remodeling

    Why Remodel the Gills

    Gill Remodeling in Other Species

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Gill Remodeling

    Why Remodel the Gills

    Gill Remodeling in Other Species

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Respiratory Gas Exchange During Development: Models and Mechanisms

    Glossary

    Respiratory Gases

    Properties of Respiratory Gases in Aqueous Solutions

    The Respiratory Cascade

    Diffusion

    Convection

    Resistance

    See also

    Further Reading

    Respiratory Gases

    Properties of Respiratory Gases in Aqueous Solutions

    The Respiratory Cascade

    Diffusion

    Convection

    Resistance

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Respiratory Gas Exchange During Development: Respiratory Transitions

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Resistance to Respiratory Gas Exchange

    Diffusive Boundary Layer

    Egg Capsule and PVF

    Skin

    Gills

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Resistance to Respiratory Gas Exchange

    Diffusive Boundary Layer

    Egg Capsule and PVF

    Skin

    Gills

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Techniques in Whole Animal Respiratory Physiology

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Apparatus and Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Apparatus and Techniques

    See also

    VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | The Effect of Exercise on Respiration

    Glossary

    Metabolic Rate and the Cost of Activity

    The O2 Cascade and Transport of Respiratory Gases

    Cardiovascular Gas Transport

    Cardiac Output

    Blood O2/CO2 Content

    Blood-Flow Distribution

    Limitations to Maximum Oxygen Consumption

    See also

    Further Reading

    Metabolic Rate and the Cost of Activity

    The O2 Cascade and Transport of Respiratory Gases

    Cardiovascular Gas Transport

    Cardiac Output

    Blood O2/CO2 Content

    Blood-Flow Distribution

    Limitations to Maximum Oxygen Consumption

    See also

    VISION | Adaptations of Photoreceptors and Visual Pigments

    Glossary

    Adaptations to the Photic Environment

    See also

    Further Reading

    Adaptations to the Photic Environment

    See also

    VISION | Behavioral Assessment of the Visual Capabilities of Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Recognizing Objects

    Detecting Color

    Spatial Vision

    Detecting and Analyzing Movement

    Detecting Polarized Light

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Recognizing Objects

    Detecting Color

    Spatial Vision

    Detecting and Analyzing Movement

    Detecting Polarized Light

    Conclusion

    See also

    VISION | Color Vision and Color Communication in Reef Fish

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Camouflage and Communication on the Reef

    Communication and Deception

    Deception and the Use of Your Neighbors Color Message

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Camouflage and Communication on the Reef

    Communication and Deception

    Deception and the Use of Your Neighbors Color Message

    Conclusion

    See also

    VISION | Extraretinal Photoreception

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Deep-Brain Photosensitivity

    The Pineal Complex

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Deep-Brain Photosensitivity

    The Pineal Complex

    Conclusion

    See also

    VISION | Inner Retina and Ganglion Cells

    Glossary

    Introduction

    The Major Cells of the Inner Retina

    Feedback

    Ganglion Cells

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    The Major Cells of the Inner Retina

    Feedback

    Ganglion Cells

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    VISION | Optic Tectum

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Anatomical Overview

    The Retinotectal Projection and Visual Processing

    Tectum–TL Subsystem

    Tectum–NI Subsystem

    Multimodal Processing and Torus Semicircularis

    Ascending Connections–via PTP

    Descending Connections and Motor Control

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Anatomical Overview

    The Retinotectal Projection and Visual Processing

    Tectum–TL Subsystem

    Tectum–NI Subsystem

    Multimodal Processing and Torus Semicircularis

    Ascending Connections–via PTP

    Descending Connections and Motor Control

    Conclusions

    See also

    VISION | Photoreceptors and Visual Pigments

    Glossary

    Visual Pigment Structure

    Evolution of Visual Pigments

    Cone Types and Retinal Mosaics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Visual Pigment Structure

    Evolution of Visual Pigments

    Cone Types and Retinal Mosaics

    See also

    VISION | Physiological Optics in Fishes

    Glossary

    Introduction

    Optical Elements of Fish Eyes

    Some Special Optical Adaptations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Introduction

    Optical Elements of Fish Eyes

    Some Special Optical Adaptations

    See also

    VISION | Vision in Fishes: An Introduction

    Glossary

    See also

    Further Reading

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    See also

    VISION | Visual Adaptations to the Deep Sea

    Glossary

    The Deep-Sea Light Environment

    Deep-Sea Eyes Are Adapted to a Photon-Limited Environment

    Ocular Anatomy of Deep-Sea Fish

    Visual Pigments

    See also

    Further Reading

    The Deep-Sea Light Environment

    Deep-Sea Eyes Are Adapted to a Photon-Limited Environment

    Ocular Anatomy of Deep-Sea Fish

    Visual Pigments

    See also

    Subject Index

    Authors

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2272
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: June 1, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080923239

About the Editor in Chief

Anthony Farrell

Anthony Farrell
Dr. Tony Farrell is a professor in the Department of Zoology & Faculty of Land and Food Systems at the University of British Columbia and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. His research had provided an understanding of fish cardiorespiratory systems and has applied this knowledge to salmon migratory passage, fish stress handling and their recovery, sustainable aquaculture and aquatic toxicology. He has over 470 research publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and an h-factor of 92. He has co-edited of 30 volumes of the Fish Physiology series, as well as an award-winning Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology. As part of his application of physiology to aquaculture, he has studied the sub-lethal impacts of sea lice and piscine orthoreovirus on the physiology of juvenile salmon. Dr. Farrell has received multiple awards, including the Fry Medal, which is the highest honour to a scientist from the Canadian Society of Zoologists, the Beverton Medal, which is the highest honour to a scientist from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles, the Award of Excellence, which is the highest honour of the American Fisheries Society and the Murray A. Newman Awards both for Research and for Conservation from the Vancouver Marine Sciences Centre. He is a former President of the Society of Experimental Biologists and a former Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Fish Biology. He served as a member of the Minister’s Aquaculture Advisory Committee on Finfish Aquaculture for British Columbia and was a member of the Federal Independent Expert Panel on Aquaculture Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Zoology and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia and Fellow, Royal Society of Canada, Vancouver, Canada

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