Encyclopedia of Caves

Encyclopedia of Caves

2nd Edition - December 9, 2011
  • Editors: William White, David Culver
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123838339

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Encyclopedia of Caves is a self-contained, beautifully illustrated work dedicated to caves and their unique environments. It includes more than 100 comprehensive articles from leading scholars and explorers in 15 different countries. Each entry is detailed and scientifically sound, yet accessible for students and non-scientists. This large-format reference is enchanced with hundreds of full-color photographs, maps, and drawings from the authors' own work, which provide unique images of the underground environment.

Key Features

  • Global in reach--authors are an international team of experts covering caves from around the world
  • Includes 24 new articles commissioned especially for this 2nd edition
  • Articles contain extensive bibliographies cross-referencing related essays
  • Hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations of cave features and biota
  • A-Z sequence and a comprehensive index allow for easy location of topics
  • Glossary presents definitions of all key vocabulary items


Scientists, students, and caving enthusiasts

Table of Contents

  • Contents By Subject Area

    List of Contributors

    Guide to the Encyclopedia


    Adaptation to Low Food

    Adaptive Shifts

    Anchihaline (ANCHIALINE) Caves and Fauna

    Ancient Cavers in Eastern North America

    Asellus Aquaticus

    Astyanax Mexicanus



    Behavioral Adaptations


    Burnsville Cove, Virginia


    Castleguard Cave, Canada

    Cave Dwellers in the Middle East

    Cave Ecosystems

    Cave, Definition of

    Cavefish of China


    Clastic Sediments in Caves

    Closed Depressions in Karst Areas

    Coastal Caves

    Contamination of Cave Waters by Heavy Metals

    Contamination of Cave Waters by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    Cosmogenic Isotope Dating of Cave Sediments


    Dinaric Karst

    Diversity Patterns in Australia

    Diversity Patterns in Europe

    Diversity Patterns in the Dinaric Karst

    Diversity Patterns in the Tropics

    Diversity Patterns in the United States

    Documentation and Databases

    Ecological Classification of Subterranean Organisms

    Entranceless Caves, Discovery of



    Epikarst Communities

    Evolution of Lineages

    Exploration of Caves—General

    Exploration of Caves—Underwater Exploration Techniques

    Exploration of Caves—Vertical Caving Techniques

    Folklore, Myth, and Legend, Caves in

    Food Sources

    Friars Hole System, West Virginia

    Gammarus minus: A Model System for the Study of Adaptation to the Cave Environment

    Geophysics of Locating Karst and Caves

    Glacier Caves

    Guano Communities

    Gypsum Caves

    Gypsum Flowers and Related Speleothems

    Helictites and Related Speleothems

    Hydrogeology of Karst Aquifers

    Hydrothermal Caves

    Ice in Caves

    Invasion, Active versus Passive

    Jewel Cave, South Dakota

    Karren, Cave

    Karren, Surface


    Kazumura Cave, Hawaii

    Krubera (Voronja) Cave


    Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Life History Evolution

    Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky

    Mapping Subterranean Biodiversity

    Marine Regressions

    Maya Caves



    Modeling of Karst Aquifers


    Morphological Adaptations

    Multilevel Caves and Landscape Evolution

    Mulu Caves, Malaysia


    Natural Selection

    Neutral Mutations

    Niphargus: A Model System for Evolution and Ecology

    Nitrate Contamination in Karst Groundwater

    Nullarbor Caves, Australia

    Paleoclimate Records from Speleothems

    Paleomagnetic Records in Cave Sediments

    Paleontology of Caves

    Passage Growth and Development


    Population Structure

    Postojna–Planina Cave System, Slovenia

    Protecting Caves and Cave Life

    Quartzite Caves of South America

    Recreational Caving


    Responses to Low Oxygen

    Root Communities in Lava Tubes


    Saltpetre Mining


    Shallow Subterranean Habitats

    Show Caves

    Siebenhengste Cave System, Switzerland

    Sinking Streams and Losing Streams

    Sistema Huautla, Mexico

    Soil Piping and Sinkhole Failures

    Solution Caves in Regions of High Relief

    Solution Caves in Regions of Moderate Relief

    Species Interactions

    Speleogenesis, Hypogenic

    Speleogenesis, Telogenetic

    Speleothem Deposition


    Spiders and Related Groups


    Stalactites and Stalagmites

    Sulfuric Acid Caves


    Ukraine Giant Gypsum Caves

    Underwater Caves of the Yucatán Peninsula

    Uranium Series Dating of Speleothems

    Vertebrate Visitors—Birds and Mammals

    Vicariance and Dispersalist Biogeography

    Vjetrenica Cave, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Volcanic Rock Caves

    Wakulla Spring Underwater Cave System, Florida

    Water Chemistry in Caves

    Water Tracing in Karst Aquifers

    Wetlands in Cave and Karst Regions

    White-Nose Syndrome



Product details

  • No. of pages: 966
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: December 9, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123838339

About the Editors

William White

William B. White is Professor Emeritus of Geochemistry at The Pennsylvania State University. He holds a BS degree in chemistry from Juniata College (Huntingdon, PA) and a PhD in geochemistry from Penn State. His 40-year teaching career included a course in the geology of caves and karst. His research has produced 446 technical papers of which 131 deal with aspects of caves and karst. He is author or co-editor of 7 cave-related books including the first two editions of the Encyclopedia of Caves. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Speleological Society, and the Mineralogical Society of America.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

David Culver

David C. Culver received his BA from Grinnell College and his PhD from Yale University. He is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Science at American University. He has studied the ecology, evolution, biogeography, and biodiversity of the subterranean fauna for five decades and has published more than 120 papers in refereed journals, and authored or co-authored four books, two with Tanja Pipan. His studies of the subterranean fauna have taken him to more than 20 countries. He was co-editor with William B. White of the first two editions of the Encyclopedia of Caves.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Environmental Science, American University, Washington, D.C., USA