COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Encyclopedia of Caves - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123838322, 9780123838339

Encyclopedia of Caves

2nd Edition

Editors: William White David Culver
eBook ISBN: 9780123838339
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123838322
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th December 2011
Page Count: 966
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Encyclopedia of Caves is a self-contained, beautifully illustrated work dedicated to caves and their unique environments. It includes more than 100 comprehensive articles from leading scholars and explorers in 15 different countries. Each entry is detailed and scientifically sound, yet accessible for students and non-scientists. This large-format reference is enchanced with hundreds of full-color photographs, maps, and drawings from the authors' own work, which provide unique images of the underground environment.

Key Features

  • Global in reach--authors are an international team of experts covering caves from around the world
  • Includes 24 new articles commissioned especially for this 2nd edition
  • Articles contain extensive bibliographies cross-referencing related essays
  • Hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations of cave features and biota
  • A-Z sequence and a comprehensive index allow for easy location of topics
  • Glossary presents definitions of all key vocabulary items


Scientists, students, and caving enthusiasts

Table of Contents

Contents By Subject Area

List of Contributors

Guide to the Encyclopedia


Adaptation to Low Food

Adaptive Shifts

Anchihaline (ANCHIALINE) Caves and Fauna

Ancient Cavers in Eastern North America

Asellus Aquaticus

Astyanax Mexicanus



Behavioral Adaptations


Burnsville Cove, Virginia


Castleguard Cave, Canada

Cave Dwellers in the Middle East

Cave Ecosystems

Cave, Definition of

Cavefish of China


Clastic Sediments in Caves

Closed Depressions in Karst Areas

Coastal Caves

Contamination of Cave Waters by Heavy Metals

Contamination of Cave Waters by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

Cosmogenic Isotope Dating of Cave Sediments


Dinaric Karst

Diversity Patterns in Australia

Diversity Patterns in Europe

Diversity Patterns in the Dinaric Karst

Diversity Patterns in the Tropics

Diversity Patterns in the United States

Documentation and Databases

Ecological Classification of Subterranean Organisms

Entranceless Caves, Discovery of



Epikarst Communities

Evolution of Lineages

Exploration of Caves—General

Exploration of Caves—Underwater Exploration Techniques

Exploration of Caves—Vertical Caving Techniques

Folklore, Myth, and Legend, Caves in

Food Sources

Friars Hole System, West Virginia

Gammarus minus: A Model System for the Study of Adaptation to the Cave Environment

Geophysics of Locating Karst and Caves

Glacier Caves

Guano Communities

Gypsum Caves

Gypsum Flowers and Related Speleothems

Helictites and Related Speleothems

Hydrogeology of Karst Aquifers

Hydrothermal Caves

Ice in Caves

Invasion, Active versus Passive

Jewel Cave, South Dakota

Karren, Cave

Karren, Surface


Kazumura Cave, Hawaii

Krubera (Voronja) Cave


Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, U.S.A.

Life History Evolution

Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky

Mapping Subterranean Biodiversity

Marine Regressions

Maya Caves



Modeling of Karst Aquifers


Morphological Adaptations

Multilevel Caves and Landscape Evolution

Mulu Caves, Malaysia


Natural Selection

Neutral Mutations

Niphargus: A Model System for Evolution and Ecology

Nitrate Contamination in Karst Groundwater

Nullarbor Caves, Australia

Paleoclimate Records from Speleothems

Paleomagnetic Records in Cave Sediments

Paleontology of Caves

Passage Growth and Development


Population Structure

Postojna–Planina Cave System, Slovenia

Protecting Caves and Cave Life

Quartzite Caves of South America

Recreational Caving


Responses to Low Oxygen

Root Communities in Lava Tubes


Saltpetre Mining


Shallow Subterranean Habitats

Show Caves

Siebenhengste Cave System, Switzerland

Sinking Streams and Losing Streams

Sistema Huautla, Mexico

Soil Piping and Sinkhole Failures

Solution Caves in Regions of High Relief

Solution Caves in Regions of Moderate Relief

Species Interactions

Speleogenesis, Hypogenic

Speleogenesis, Telogenetic

Speleothem Deposition


Spiders and Related Groups


Stalactites and Stalagmites

Sulfuric Acid Caves


Ukraine Giant Gypsum Caves

Underwater Caves of the Yucatán Peninsula

Uranium Series Dating of Speleothems

Vertebrate Visitors—Birds and Mammals

Vicariance and Dispersalist Biogeography

Vjetrenica Cave, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Volcanic Rock Caves

Wakulla Spring Underwater Cave System, Florida

Water Chemistry in Caves

Water Tracing in Karst Aquifers

Wetlands in Cave and Karst Regions

White-Nose Syndrome




No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2012
9th December 2011
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editors

William White

William B. White is Professor Emeritus of Geochemistry at The Pennsylvania State University. He holds a BS degree in chemistry from Juniata College (Huntingdon, PA) and a PhD in geochemistry from Penn State. His 40-year teaching career included a course in the geology of caves and karst. His research has produced 446 technical papers of which 131 deal with aspects of caves and karst. He is author or co-editor of 7 cave-related books including the first two editions of the Encyclopedia of Caves. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Speleological Society, and the Mineralogical Society of America.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

David Culver

David C. Culver received his BA from Grinnell College and his PhD from Yale University. He is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Science at American University. He has studied the ecology, evolution, biogeography, and biodiversity of the subterranean fauna for five decades and has published more than 120 papers in refereed journals, and authored or co-authored four books, two with Tanja Pipan. His studies of the subterranean fauna have taken him to more than 20 countries. He was co-editor with William B. White of the first two editions of the Encyclopedia of Caves.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Environmental Science, American University, Washington, D.C., USA


Praise for the 1st edition:
"Although scientifically rigorous, the articles are readily approachable by the nonprofessional and at times include the reader in the 'hows' of cave exploration. Truly international in both geography and contributors, this encyclopedia is one for browsing-the perfect assemblage of 15- to 20-minute intellectual diversions." --AMERICAN SCIENTIST

"This monumental and attractively presented reference book belongs on the bookshelf of every person with an interest in caves, endangered species, or the biological diversity of our planet. The hundred or so chapter authors are a Who's Who of the world's cave experts...This book will be an invaluable reference for students, teachers, scientists, and anyone interested in learning more about the remarkable diversity of life and geology that lies hidden beneath our feet." --Larry Master, Chief Zoologist, NatureServe

Ratings and Reviews