Encyclopedia of Biodiversity

Encyclopedia of Biodiversity

2nd Edition - February 5, 2013

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Samuel. M Scheiner
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123847195
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123847201

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The 7-volume Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Second Edition maintains the reputation of the highly regarded original, presenting the most current information available in this globally crucial area of research and study. It brings together the dimensions of biodiversity and examines both the services it provides and the measures to protect it. Major themes of the work include the evolution of biodiversity, systems for classifying and defining biodiversity, ecological patterns and theories of biodiversity, and an assessment of contemporary patterns and trends in biodiversity. The science of biodiversity has become the science of our future.  It is an interdisciplinary field spanning areas of both physical and life sciences. Our awareness of the loss of biodiversity has brought a long overdue appreciation of the magnitude of this loss and a determination to develop the tools to protect our future.

Key Features

  • Second edition includes over 100 new articles and 226 updated articles covering this multidisciplinary field— from evolution to habits to economics, in 7 volumes
  • The editors of this edition are all well respected, instantly recognizable academics operating at the top of their respective fields in biodiversity research; readers can be assured that they are reading material that has been meticulously checked and reviewed by experts
  • Approximately 1,800 figures and 350 tables complement the text, and more than 3,000 glossary entries explain key terms


University, research, and special libraries; non-profit groups working in biodiversity-related areas; industries with an interest in preserving and utilizing natural resources, from timber and chemical corporations to insurance companies; fish and wildlife exploiters, protectors, and regulators; zoos, zoological societies, and natural history museums.

Table of Contents


    Acid and Mercury Deposition Effects on Forest and Freshwater Aquatic Ecosystems


    Adaptive Radiation

    Aesthetic Factors

    Africa, Ecosystems of

    African and Asian Savannas

    Agricultural Invasions

    Agriculture, Industrialized

    Agriculture, Nutrient Management, and Water Quality

    Agriculture, Sustainable

    Agriculture, Traditional


    Air Pollution

    Alpine Ecosystems

    Amazon Ecosystems

    Amphibians, Biodiversity of

    Antarctic Ecosystems



    Archaea, Origin of

    Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Arthropods (Terrestrial), Amazonian

    Asia, Ecosystems of

    Atmospheric Gases

    Australia, Biodiversity of Ecosystems

    Bacterial Biodiversity

    Bacterial Genetics


    Biodiversity and Cultural Ecosystem Services

    Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

    Biodiversity and Human Health

    Biodiversity and Pest Control Services

    Biodiversity as a Commodity

    Biodiversity, Definition of

    Biodiversity, Evolution and

    Biodiversity-Friendly Farming

    Biodiversity Generation, Overview

    Biodiversity, Human Well-Being, and Markets

    Biodiversity Informatics

    Biodiversity in Logged and Managed Forests

    Biodiversity in Plant Breeding

    Biodiversity of Harmful Marine Algae

    Biodiversity of the Succulent Karoo

    Biodiversity, Origin of

    Biodiversity-Rich Countries

    Biodiversity State and Trends in Southeast Asia

    Biofuels and Biodiversity: The Implications of Energy Sprawl

    Biofuels and Biodiversity, Wildlife Habitat Restoration

    Biogeochemical Cycles

    Biogeographical Models

    Biogeography, Overview


    Birds, Biodiversity of

    Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Breeding of Animals


    Captive Breeding and Reintroduction

    Captive Breeding and the Evolutionarily Significant Unit

    Carbon Cycle


    Carrying Capacity, Concept of

    Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, Ecological Role of


    Census of Marine Life

    Central America, Ecosystems of



    Climate Change and Ecology, Synergism of

    Climate Change and Extinctions

    Climate Change and Wild Species

    Climate Change: Anticipating and Adapting to the Impacts on Terrestrial Species

    Climate, Effects of

    Coastal Beach Ecosystems


    Commons, Concept and Theory of

    Commons, Institutional Diversity of

    Comparing Extinction Rates: Past, Present, and Future

    Competition, Interspecific


    Complexity Versus Diversity

    Computer Systems and Models, Use of

    Conservation and People

    Conservation and the world's poorest of the poor

    Conservation Biology, Discipline of

    Conservation Efforts, Contemporary

    Conservation Genetics

    Conservation Movement, Historical

    Conserving Biodiversity Outside Protected Areas

    Convention on Biological Diversity

    Cooperation, Evolution of

    Corals and Coral Reefs

    Countryside Biogeography

    C4 Plants

    Crop Mixtures and the Mechanisms of Overyielding


    Darwin, Charles (Darwinism)

    Defenses, Ecology of

    Defining, Measuring, and Partitioning Species Diversity

    Deforestation and Land Clearing

    Desert Ecosystems


    Development by Design: Using a Revisionist History to Guide a Sustainable Future


    Dinosaurs, Extinction Theories for

    Diseases, Conservation and

    Dispersal Biogeography

    Disturbance, Mechanisms of

    Disturbance Regimes and the Historical Range of Variation in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Diversity and Conservation of Neotropical Mammals

    Diversity, Community/Regional Level

    Diversity, Ecology, and Biogeochemical Influence of N2-Fixing Microorganisms in the Sea

    Diversity, Molecular Level

    Diversity, Organism Level

    Diversity, Taxonomic versus Functional

    Domestication of Crop Plants

    Dormancy and Diapause

    Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Ecogenomic Sensors

    Ecological Footprint, Concept of

    Ecological Genetics


    Ecology, Concept and Theories in

    Ecology of Agriculture

    Economic Control of Invasive Species

    Economic Growth and the Environment

    Economics of Agrobiodiversity

    Economics of the Regulating Services

    Economic Value of Biodiversity, Measurements of

    Ecosystem, Concept of

    Ecosystem Function Measurement, Aquatic and Marine Communities

    Ecosystem Function Measurement, Terrestrial Communities

    Ecosystem Function, Principles of

    Ecosystem Services

    Ecosystems of South America


    Edible Plants

    Education and Biodiversity

    Effects of Ecotones on Biodiversity

    Elevational Trends in Biodiversity

    El Niño and Biodiversity

    Endangered Amphibians

    Endangered Ecosystems

    Endangered Freshwater Invertebrates

    Endangered Mammals

    Endangered Marine Invertebrates

    Endangered Plants

    Endangered Reptiles

    Endangered Terrestrial Invertebrates


    Energy Flow and Ecosystems

    Energy Use, Human

    Environmental Ethics

    Environmental Impact, Concept and Measurement of

    Estuarine Ecosystems

    Ethical issues in biodiversity protection

    Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology

    Eukaryotes, Origin of

    Europe, Ecosystems of

    Eutrophication and Oligotrophication

    Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Policies from Biophysical and Social Perspectives: The Case of China

    Evolution in Response to Climate Change

    Evolution, Theory of

    Extinction, Causes of

    Extinction in the Fossil Record

    Feeding the World and Protecting Biodiversity

    Fires, Ecological Effects of

    Fish Conservation

    Fishes, Biodiversity of

    Fish Stocks

    Flies, Gnats, and Mosquitoes

    Food Webs

    Forest Canopies, Animal Diversity

    Forest Canopies, Plant Diversity

    Forest Ecology

    Fossil Record

    Framework for Assessment and Monitoring of Biodiversity

    Freshwater Ecosystems

    Freshwater Ecosystems, Human Impact on

    Functional Diversity

    Functional Diversity Measures

    Functional Groups


    Gene Banks

    Genes, Description of

    Genetic Diversity

    Geologic Time, History of Biodiversity in

    Global Declines of Amphibians

    Globalization Effects on Common Plant Species

    Global Species Richness

    Government Legislation and Regulations in the United States

    Grasshoppers and their Relatives


    Grassland Ecosystems

    Grazing, Effects of

    Greenhouse Effect


    Habitat and Niche, Concept of

    Habitat Loss and Fragmentation

    Habitat Selection


    Herbaceous Vegetation, Species Richness in


    High-Elevation Andean Ecosystems

    High-Temperature Ecosystems

    Historical Awareness of Biodiversity


    Human Impact on Biodiversity, Overview

    Human Impacts on Ecosystems: An Overview

    Hunter-Gatherer Societies, Ecological Impact of

    Hybridization in Plants


    Identifying Conservation Priorities using a Return on Investment Analysis

    Impact of Ecological Restoration on Ecosystem Services

    Impact of Extreme and Infrequent Events on Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity

    Impact of Past Global Warming on Biodiversity

    Implications of Urbanization for Conservation and Biodiversity Protection

    Inbreeding and Outbreeding

    Indicator Species

    Indicator Species: Computation

    Indigenous Peoples and Biodiversity

    Indigenous Strategies Used to Domesticate Plants in Brazilian Amazon

    Indirect Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels

    Insecticide Resistance

    Insects, Overview

    In Situ, Ex Situ Conservation

    International Organizations and Biodiversity

    Intertidal Ecosystems

    Introduced Plants, Negative Effects of

    Introduced Species, Impacts and Distribution of

    Invertebrates, Freshwater, Overview

    Invertebrates, Marine, Overview

    Invertebrates, Terrestrial, Overview

    Island Biogeography


    Justice, Equity and Biodiversity

    Keystone Species

    Lake and Pond Ecosystems

    Landscape Corridors

    Landscape Diversity

    Landscape Ecology and Population Dynamics

    Landscape Epidemiology

    Landscape Genetics

    Landscape Legacies

    Landscape Modeling

    Land-Use Changes and CO2 Emissions Due to US Corn Ethanol Production

    Land Use Issues

    Land-Use Patterns, Historic

    Large-Scale Biodiversity Experiments

    Latent Extinction—The Living Dead

    Latitudinal and Elevational Range Shifts under Contemporary Climate Change

    Latitudinal Gradients of Biodiversity

    Life Cycle Analysis of Biofuels

    Life History, Evolution of

    Limits to Biodiversity (Species Packing)

    Literary Perspectives on Biodiversity

    Loss of Biodiversity, Overview

    Macroscopic Patterns in Marine Plankton

    Mammals, Biodiversity of

    Mammals, Conservation Efforts for

    Mammals (Late Quaternary), Extinctions of


    Mammals (Pre-Quaternary), Extinctions of

    Mangrove Ecosystems

    Marine and Aquatic Communities, Stress from Eutrophication

    Marine Conservation in a Changing Climate

    Marine Ecosystems

    Marine Ecosystems, Human Impacts on

    Marine Mammals, Extinctions of

    Marine Protected Areas: Static Boundaries in a Changing World

    Marine Sediments

    Marine Symbioses: Metazoans and Microbes

    Marine Viruses

    Market Economy and Biodiversity

    Mass Extinctions, Concept of

    Mass Extinctions, Notable Examples of

    Measurement and Analysis of Biodiversity

    Measuring and Estimating Species Richness, Species Diversity, and Biotic Similarity from Sampling Data

    Mediterranean-Climate Ecosystems



    Microbial Biodiversity

    Microbial Biodiversity, Measurement of

    Microbial Biogeography

    Microbial Diversity

    Microbial Diversity of the Oceanic Surface Picoplankton: Insights from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Program

    Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of


    Modeling Biodiversity Dynamics in Countryside and Native Habitats

    Modeling Marine Ecosystem Services

    Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Services

    Modern Examples of Extinctions



    Museums and Institutions, Role of


    Natural Extinctions (not Human Influenced)

    Natural Reserves and Preserves

    Nature-Based Coastal Defenses: Can Biodiversity Help?

    Near East Ecosystems, Animal Diversity

    Near East Ecosystems, Plant Diversity

    Neotropical Seasonally Dry Forests

    Nest Parasitism

    Neutral Theory and Beyond

    Nitrogen Deposition and Terrestrial Biodiversity

    Nitrogen, Nitrogen Cycle

    Nomenclature, Systems of

    North America, Patterns of Biodiversity in

    Nucleic Acid Biodiversity: Rewriting DNA and RNA in Diverse Organisms

    Ocean Ecosystems

    Oceanic Islands: Models of Diversity

    Oil-Palm Plantations in the Context of Biodiversity Conservation

    Origin and Diversification of Angiosperms

    Origin of Life, Theories of

    Origins, Evolution, and Breakdown of Bacterial Symbiosis




    Pelagic Ecosystems

    Pesticides, Uses and Effects of

    Pharmacology, Biodiversity and

    Phenological Shifts in Animals Under Contemporary Climate Change


    Phenotype, a Historical Perspective

    Photosynthesis, Mechanisms of


    Plankton, Status and Role of

    Plant–Animal Interactions

    Plant Biodiversity, Overview

    Plant Communities, Evolution of

    Plant Conservation

    Plant Invasions

    Plant Phenology Changes and Climate Change

    Plant–Soil Interactions

    Plant Sources of Drugs and Chemicals

    Pollinators, Role of

    Pollution, Overview

    Population Density

    Population Diversity, Overview

    Population Dynamics

    Population Genetics

    Population Stabilization, Human

    Population Viability Analysis

    Poverty and Biodiversity

    Predators, Ecological Role of

    Primate Populations, Conservation of

    Priority Setting for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

    Property Rights and Biodiversity

    Proteorhodopsins: Widespread Microbial Light-Driven Proton Pumps



    Rainforest Ecosystems, Animal Diversity

    Rainforest Ecosystems, Plant Diversity

    Rainforest Loss and Change

    Range Ecology, Global Livestock Influences

    Rare Biosphere



    Religious Traditions and Biodiversity

    Remote Sensing and Image Processing

    Reptiles, Biodiversity of

    Residents and Transients in the Fossil Record

    Resource Exploitation, Fisheries

    Resource Partitioning

    Restoration of Animal, Plant, and Microbial Diversity

    Restoration of Biodiversity, Overview

    Riparian Landscapes

    River Ecosystems

    Role and Trends of Protected Areas in Conservation

    Role of Botanic Gardens


    Scale, Concept and Effects of


    Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of

    Social and Cultural Factors

    Social Behavior

    Soil Biota, Soil Systems, and Processes

    Soil Conservation

    South American Natural Ecosystems, Status of

    Southern (Austral) Ecosystems

    Speciation, Process of

    Speciation, Theories of

    Species–Area Relationships

    Species Assemblages, Macroecology, and Global Change

    Species Coexistence

    Species, Concepts of

    Species Distribution Modeling

    Species Diversity, Overview

    Species Interactions


    Stability, Concept of

    Stewardship, Concept of

    Storage, Ecology of

    Stress, Environmental

    Subspecies, Semispecies, Superspecies

    Subterranean Ecosystems

    Succession, Phenomenon of

    Sustainability and Biodiversity

    Systematics, Overview

    Taxonomy, Methods of

    Temperate Forests

    Terrestrial Ecosystems

    The Global Environment Facility: Financing the Stewardship of Global Biodiversity

    The Multiple Benefits of River–Floodplain Connectivity for People and Biodiversity

    Thermophiles, Origin of

    The Value of Biodiversity

    Threatened Birds

    Threatened Species: Classification Systems and Their Applications

    Timber Industry

    Tourism, Role of

    Traditional Conservation Practices

    Translocation as a Conservation Strategy

    Trends in Nature Recreation: Causes and Consequences

    Trophic Cascades

    Trophic Levels

    Tropical Forest Ecosystems

    Tropical Forest Regeneration

    True Bugs and Their Relatives, Diversity of

    Ultraviolet Radiation

    Urban–Suburban Biodiversity

    Valuing Ecosystem Services


    Vertebrates, Overview

    Vicariance Biogeography

    Water Funds: A New Ecosystem Service and Biodiversity Conservation Strategy

    Wetland Creation and Restoration

    Wetlands Ecosystems

    Wildlife Management

    Worms, Annelida

    Worms, Nematoda

    Worms, Platyhelminthes

    Zoos and Zoological Parks

Product details

  • No. of pages: 5504
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: February 5, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123847195
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123847201

About the Editor in Chief

Samuel. M Scheiner

Sam Scheiner is a theoretical biologist with work in various areas of evolution, ecology, and general biology. In evolution, he works on modeling phenotypic plasticity and the use of structural equation modeling for measuring trait relationships and natural selection. In ecology, he works on macroecological patterns of diversity, species richness relationships, and diversity metrics. In general biology, he is developing a set of general theories encompassing all of biology. He currently serves as a Program Director in the Division of Environmental Biology at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Previously he was an Associate Professor at Arizona State University West, and Assistant and Associate Professor at Northern Illinois University, and Adjunct Faculty at the University of Arizona. He received his BA, MS and PhD from the University of Chicago and is a AAAS Fellow.

Affiliations and Expertise

Sam Scheiner is a theoretical biologist with work in various areas of evolution, ecology, and general biology.

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