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Encyclopedia of Biodiversity - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123847195, 9780123847201

Encyclopedia of Biodiversity

2nd Edition

Editor in Chief: Samuel. M Scheiner
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123847195
eBook ISBN: 9780123847201
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th February 2013
Page Count: 5504
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The 7-volume Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Second Edition maintains the reputation of the highly regarded original, presenting the most current information available in this globally crucial area of research and study. It brings together the dimensions of biodiversity and examines both the services it provides and the measures to protect it. Major themes of the work include the evolution of biodiversity, systems for classifying and defining biodiversity, ecological patterns and theories of biodiversity, and an assessment of contemporary patterns and trends in biodiversity.

The science of biodiversity has become the science of our future. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning areas of both physical and life sciences. Our awareness of the loss of biodiversity has brought a long overdue appreciation of the magnitude of this loss and a determination to develop the tools to protect our future.

Key Features

  • Second edition includes over 100 new articles and 226 updated articles covering this multidisciplinary field— from evolution to habits to economics, in 7 volumes
  • The editors of this edition are all well respected, instantly recognizable academics operating at the top of their respective fields in biodiversity research; readers can be assured that they are reading material that has been meticulously checked and reviewed by experts
  • Approximately 1,800 figures and 350 tables complement the text, and more than 3,000 glossary entries explain key terms


University, research, and special libraries; non-profit groups working in biodiversity-related areas; industries with an interest in preserving and utilizing natural resources, from timber and chemical corporations to insurance companies; fish and wildlife exploiters, protectors, and regulators; zoos, zoological societies, and natural history museums.

Table of Contents


Acid and Mercury Deposition Effects on Forest and Freshwater Aquatic Ecosystems


Adaptive Radiation

Aesthetic Factors

Africa, Ecosystems of

African and Asian Savannas

Agricultural Invasions

Agriculture, Industrialized

Agriculture, Nutrient Management, and Water Quality

Agriculture, Sustainable

Agriculture, Traditional


Air Pollution

Alpine Ecosystems

Amazon Ecosystems

Amphibians, Biodiversity of

Antarctic Ecosystems



Archaea, Origin of

Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems

Arthropods (Terrestrial), Amazonian

Asia, Ecosystems of

Atmospheric Gases

Australia, Biodiversity of Ecosystems

Bacterial Biodiversity

Bacterial Genetics


Biodiversity and Cultural Ecosystem Services

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Biodiversity and Human Health

Biodiversity and Pest Control Services

Biodiversity as a Commodity

Biodiversity, Definition of

Biodiversity, Evolution and

Biodiversity-Friendly Farming

Biodiversity Generation, Overview

Biodiversity, Human Well-Being, and Markets

Biodiversity Informatics

Biodiversity in Logged and Managed Forests

Biodiversity in Plant Breeding

Biodiversity of Harmful Marine Algae

Biodiversity of the Succulent Karoo

Biodiversity, Origin of

Biodiversity-Rich Countries

Biodiversity State and Trends in Southeast Asia

Biofuels and Biodiversity: The Implications of Energy Sprawl

Biofuels and Biodiversity, Wildlife Habitat Restoration

Biogeochemical Cycles

Biogeographical Models

Biogeography, Overview


Birds, Biodiversity of

Boreal Forest Ecosystems

Breeding of Animals


Captive Breeding and Reintroduction

Captive Breeding and the Evolutionarily Significant Unit

Carbon Cycle


Carrying Capacity, Concept of

Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, Ecological Role of


Census of Marine Life

Central America, Ecosystems of



Climate Change and Ecology, Synergism of

Climate Change and Extinctions

Climate Change and Wild Species

Climate Change: Anticipating and Adapting to the Impacts on Terrestrial Species

Climate, Effects of

Coastal Beach Ecosystems


Commons, Concept and Theory of

Commons, Institutional Diversity of

Comparing Extinction Rates: Past, Present, and Future

Competition, Interspecific


Complexity Versus Diversity

Computer Systems and Models, Use of

Conservation and People

Conservation and the world's poorest of the poor

Conservation Biology, Discipline of

Conservation Efforts, Contemporary

Conservation Genetics

Conservation Movement, Historical

Conserving Biodiversity Outside Protected Areas

Convention on Biological Diversity

Cooperation, Evolution of

Corals and Coral Reefs

Countryside Biogeography

C4 Plants

Crop Mixtures and the Mechanisms of Overyielding


Darwin, Charles (Darwinism)

Defenses, Ecology of

Defining, Measuring, and Partitioning Species Diversity

Deforestation and Land Clearing

Desert Ecosystems


Development by Design: Using a Revisionist History to Guide a Sustainable Future


Dinosaurs, Extinction Theories for

Diseases, Conservation and

Dispersal Biogeography

Disturbance, Mechanisms of

Disturbance Regimes and the Historical Range of Variation in Terrestrial Ecosystems

Diversity and Conservation of Neotropical Mammals

Diversity, Community/Regional Level

Diversity, Ecology, and Biogeochemical Influence of N2-Fixing Microorganisms in the Sea

Diversity, Molecular Level

Diversity, Organism Level

Diversity, Taxonomic versus Functional

Domestication of Crop Plants

Dormancy and Diapause

Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

Ecogenomic Sensors

Ecological Footprint, Concept of

Ecological Genetics


Ecology, Concept and Theories in

Ecology of Agriculture

Economic Control of Invasive Species

Economic Growth and the Environment

Economics of Agrobiodiversity

Economics of the Regulating Services

Economic Value of Biodiversity, Measurements of

Ecosystem, Concept of

Ecosystem Function Measurement, Aquatic and Marine Communities

Ecosystem Function Measurement, Terrestrial Communities

Ecosystem Function, Principles of

Ecosystem Services

Ecosystems of South America


Edible Plants

Education and Biodiversity

Effects of Ecotones on Biodiversity

Elevational Trends in Biodiversity

El Niño and Biodiversity

Endangered Amphibians

Endangered Ecosystems

Endangered Freshwater Invertebrates

Endangered Mammals

Endangered Marine Invertebrates

Endangered Plants

Endangered Reptiles

Endangered Terrestrial Invertebrates


Energy Flow and Ecosystems

Energy Use, Human

Environmental Ethics

Environmental Impact, Concept and Measurement of

Estuarine Ecosystems

Ethical issues in biodiversity protection

Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology

Eukaryotes, Origin of

Europe, Ecosystems of

Eutrophication and Oligotrophication

Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Policies from Biophysical and Social Perspectives: The Case of China

Evolution in Response to Climate Change

Evolution, Theory of

Extinction, Causes of

Extinction in the Fossil Record

Feeding the World and Protecting Biodiversity

Fires, Ecological Effects of

Fish Conservation

Fishes, Biodiversity of

Fish Stocks

Flies, Gnats, and Mosquitoes

Food Webs

Forest Canopies, Animal Diversity

Forest Canopies, Plant Diversity

Forest Ecology

Fossil Record

Framework for Assessment and Monitoring of Biodiversity

Freshwater Ecosystems

Freshwater Ecosystems, Human Impact on

Functional Diversity

Functional Diversity Measures

Functional Groups


Gene Banks

Genes, Description of

Genetic Diversity

Geologic Time, History of Biodiversity in

Global Declines of Amphibians

Globalization Effects on Common Plant Species

Global Species Richness

Government Legislation and Regulations in the United States

Grasshoppers and their Relatives


Grassland Ecosystems

Grazing, Effects of

Greenhouse Effect


Habitat and Niche, Concept of

Habitat Loss and Fragmentation

Habitat Selection


Herbaceous Vegetation, Species Richness in


High-Elevation Andean Ecosystems

High-Temperature Ecosystems

Historical Awareness of Biodiversity


Human Impact on Biodiversity, Overview

Human Impacts on Ecosystems: An Overview

Hunter-Gatherer Societies, Ecological Impact of

Hybridization in Plants


Identifying Conservation Priorities using a Return on Investment Analysis

Impact of Ecological Restoration on Ecosystem Services

Impact of Extreme and Infrequent Events on Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Impact of Past Global Warming on Biodiversity

Implications of Urbanization for Conservation and Biodiversity Protection

Inbreeding and Outbreeding

Indicator Species

Indicator Species: Computation

Indigenous Peoples and Biodiversity

Indigenous Strategies Used to Domesticate Plants in Brazilian Amazon

Indirect Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels

Insecticide Resistance

Insects, Overview

In Situ, Ex Situ Conservation

International Organizations and Biodiversity

Intertidal Ecosystems

Introduced Plants, Negative Effects of

Introduced Species, Impacts and Distribution of

Invertebrates, Freshwater, Overview

Invertebrates, Marine, Overview

Invertebrates, Terrestrial, Overview

Island Biogeography


Justice, Equity and Biodiversity

Keystone Species

Lake and Pond Ecosystems

Landscape Corridors

Landscape Diversity

Landscape Ecology and Population Dynamics

Landscape Epidemiology

Landscape Genetics

Landscape Legacies

Landscape Modeling

Land-Use Changes and CO2 Emissions Due to US Corn Ethanol Production

Land Use Issues

Land-Use Patterns, Historic

Large-Scale Biodiversity Experiments

Latent Extinction—The Living Dead

Latitudinal and Elevational Range Shifts under Contemporary Climate Change

Latitudinal Gradients of Biodiversity

Life Cycle Analysis of Biofuels

Life History, Evolution of

Limits to Biodiversity (Species Packing)

Literary Perspectives on Biodiversity

Loss of Biodiversity, Overview

Macroscopic Patterns in Marine Plankton

Mammals, Biodiversity of

Mammals, Conservation Efforts for

Mammals (Late Quaternary), Extinctions of


Mammals (Pre-Quaternary), Extinctions of

Mangrove Ecosystems

Marine and Aquatic Communities, Stress from Eutrophication

Marine Conservation in a Changing Climate

Marine Ecosystems

Marine Ecosystems, Human Impacts on

Marine Mammals, Extinctions of

Marine Protected Areas: Static Boundaries in a Changing World

Marine Sediments

Marine Symbioses: Metazoans and Microbes

Marine Viruses

Market Economy and Biodiversity

Mass Extinctions, Concept of

Mass Extinctions, Notable Examples of

Measurement and Analysis of Biodiversity

Measuring and Estimating Species Richness, Species Diversity, and Biotic Similarity from Sampling Data

Mediterranean-Climate Ecosystems



Microbial Biodiversity

Microbial Biodiversity, Measurement of

Microbial Biogeography

Microbial Diversity

Microbial Diversity of the Oceanic Surface Picoplankton: Insights from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Program

Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of


Modeling Biodiversity Dynamics in Countryside and Native Habitats

Modeling Marine Ecosystem Services

Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Services

Modern Examples of Extinctions



Museums and Institutions, Role of


Natural Extinctions (not Human Influenced)

Natural Reserves and Preserves

Nature-Based Coastal Defenses: Can Biodiversity Help?

Near East Ecosystems, Animal Diversity

Near East Ecosystems, Plant Diversity

Neotropical Seasonally Dry Forests

Nest Parasitism

Neutral Theory and Beyond

Nitrogen Deposition and Terrestrial Biodiversity

Nitrogen, Nitrogen Cycle

Nomenclature, Systems of

North America, Patterns of Biodiversity in

Nucleic Acid Biodiversity: Rewriting DNA and RNA in Diverse Organisms

Ocean Ecosystems

Oceanic Islands: Models of Diversity

Oil-Palm Plantations in the Context of Biodiversity Conservation

Origin and Diversification of Angiosperms

Origin of Life, Theories of

Origins, Evolution, and Breakdown of Bacterial Symbiosis




Pelagic Ecosystems

Pesticides, Uses and Effects of

Pharmacology, Biodiversity and

Phenological Shifts in Animals Under Contemporary Climate Change


Phenotype, a Historical Perspective

Photosynthesis, Mechanisms of


Plankton, Status and Role of

Plant–Animal Interactions

Plant Biodiversity, Overview

Plant Communities, Evolution of

Plant Conservation

Plant Invasions

Plant Phenology Changes and Climate Change

Plant–Soil Interactions

Plant Sources of Drugs and Chemicals

Pollinators, Role of

Pollution, Overview

Population Density

Population Diversity, Overview

Population Dynamics

Population Genetics

Population Stabilization, Human

Population Viability Analysis

Poverty and Biodiversity

Predators, Ecological Role of

Primate Populations, Conservation of

Priority Setting for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Property Rights and Biodiversity

Proteorhodopsins: Widespread Microbial Light-Driven Proton Pumps



Rainforest Ecosystems, Animal Diversity

Rainforest Ecosystems, Plant Diversity

Rainforest Loss and Change

Range Ecology, Global Livestock Influences

Rare Biosphere



Religious Traditions and Biodiversity

Remote Sensing and Image Processing

Reptiles, Biodiversity of

Residents and Transients in the Fossil Record

Resource Exploitation, Fisheries

Resource Partitioning

Restoration of Animal, Plant, and Microbial Diversity

Restoration of Biodiversity, Overview

Riparian Landscapes

River Ecosystems

Role and Trends of Protected Areas in Conservation

Role of Botanic Gardens


Scale, Concept and Effects of


Slash-and-Burn Agriculture, Effects of

Social and Cultural Factors

Social Behavior

Soil Biota, Soil Systems, and Processes

Soil Conservation

South American Natural Ecosystems, Status of

Southern (Austral) Ecosystems

Speciation, Process of

Speciation, Theories of

Species–Area Relationships

Species Assemblages, Macroecology, and Global Change

Species Coexistence

Species, Concepts of

Species Distribution Modeling

Species Diversity, Overview

Species Interactions


Stability, Concept of

Stewardship, Concept of

Storage, Ecology of

Stress, Environmental

Subspecies, Semispecies, Superspecies

Subterranean Ecosystems

Succession, Phenomenon of

Sustainability and Biodiversity

Systematics, Overview

Taxonomy, Methods of

Temperate Forests

Terrestrial Ecosystems

The Global Environment Facility: Financing the Stewardship of Global Biodiversity

The Multiple Benefits of River–Floodplain Connectivity for People and Biodiversity

Thermophiles, Origin of

The Value of Biodiversity

Threatened Birds

Threatened Species: Classification Systems and Their Applications

Timber Industry

Tourism, Role of

Traditional Conservation Practices

Translocation as a Conservation Strategy

Trends in Nature Recreation: Causes and Consequences

Trophic Cascades

Trophic Levels

Tropical Forest Ecosystems

Tropical Forest Regeneration

True Bugs and Their Relatives, Diversity of

Ultraviolet Radiation

Urban–Suburban Biodiversity

Valuing Ecosystem Services


Vertebrates, Overview

Vicariance Biogeography

Water Funds: A New Ecosystem Service and Biodiversity Conservation Strategy

Wetland Creation and Restoration

Wetlands Ecosystems

Wildlife Management

Worms, Annelida

Worms, Nematoda

Worms, Platyhelminthes

Zoos and Zoological Parks


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2013
5th February 2013
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor in Chief

Samuel. M Scheiner

Sam Scheiner is a theoretical biologist with work in various areas of evolution, ecology, and general biology. In evolution, he works on modeling phenotypic plasticity and the use of structural equation modeling for measuring trait relationships and natural selection. In ecology, he works on macroecological patterns of diversity, species richness relationships, and diversity metrics. In general biology, he is developing a set of general theories encompassing all of biology. He currently serves as a Program Director in the Division of Environmental Biology at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Previously he was an Associate Professor at Arizona State University West, and Assistant and Associate Professor at Northern Illinois University, and Adjunct Faculty at the University of Arizona. He received his BA, MS and PhD from the University of Chicago and is a AAAS Fellow.

Affiliations and Expertise

Sam Scheiner is a theoretical biologist with work in various areas of evolution, ecology, and general biology.


"The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Biodiversity updates the first…with 100 new entries and more than 200 revised ones. It now offers more than 350 articles…Topics range from typical biological ones like genetics, population, and evolution to broader subjects like public policy, economics, and human effects on the environment. Novice readers will appreciate the overview of biodiversity theories and concepts sections."--Choice Reviews Online, April 2014

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