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Empirical Metallogeny - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444425300, 9781483256849

Empirical Metallogeny

1st Edition

Depositional Environments, Lithologic Associations and Metallic Ores

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Author: Peter Laznicka
eBook ISBN: 9781483256849
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1985
Page Count: 1038
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Empirical Metallogeny: Depositional Environments, Lithologic Associations, and Metallic Ores, Vol. 1: Phanerozoic Environments, Associations, and Deposits focuses on the composition, characteristics, properties, and reactions of Phanerozoic metallic ore deposits.
The book first offers information on depositional environments and lithologic associations and the world ocean, including ores and host associations, sea water as a metal source, and metals in marine organisms. The text then elaborates on continental margins, orogenic belts, and ophiolite association. Discussions focus on metal geochemistry and metallogeny, tectonic setting and distribution of ophiolites, trace metals and ore evolution, and supracrustal lithologic associations of orogenic belts.
The publication tackles zoned mafic/ultramafic complexes in Phanerozoic orogenic belts; unimodal mafic volcanic-sedimentary association; and unimodal felsic volcanic-sedimentary association. Topics include post-depositional modification of massive sulfides, and interaction mineralization and massive tholeiitic basalt flows and arc affiliation.
The book is a dependable source of information for readers wanting to study metallic ores.

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments

Abbreviations, Explanations

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. Empiricism, Science and Metalliferous Geology

1.2. Some Problems of Presentation, Organization and Style in Metallogenic Writing

Chapter 2. Depositional Environments and Lithologic Associations

2.1. General

2.2. Ores and Host Associations: Parallel to Non-Parallel Depositional Histories, Multistage Ores and Interaction Metallogeny

2.3. Framework of Organization

Rapid Chapters Index

Chapter 3. The World Ocean

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Seawater as a Metal Source

3.3. Metals in Marine Organisms

Chapter 4. Oceans: the Regions Underlain by Oceanic Crust

4.1. General

4.2. Oceanic Spreading Ridges and Fracture Zones

4.3. Deep Ocean Floor

Ferromanganese Nodules

4.4. Oceanic Islands

Chapter 5. Continental Margins

5.1. Pacific-Type (Consuming, Active, Subductive ) Continental Margins

Pacific-Type Margins Ore Setting (Figure)

Hot Springs

Submarine-Hydrothermal Systems

5.2. Atlantic-Type Continental Margins

Atlantic-Type Margins Ore Setting (Figure)

Beaches and Beach Placers

Offshore Placers

Chapter 6. Orogenic Belts

6.1. General

Orogenic Belts Sections

6.2. Supracrustal Lithologic Associations of Orogenic Belts

6.3. Intracrustal Rocks and Supracrustal/Intracrustal Interactions

6.4. General Problems of Mineralization in Orogenic Belts

Metallogenic Cycle (Figure)

6.5. Trace Metals and Ore Evolution

6.6. Mineralization Styles

Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Model

Chapter 7. Ophiolite Association

7.1. General

7.2. Origin and Emplacement of Ophiolites

7.3. Tectonic Setting and Distribution of Ophiolites

7.4. Metal Geochemistry and Metallogeny

7.5. "Alpine-Type" Ultramafic Tectonites

Ophiolite Mineralization Styles (Figure)

7.6. Differentiated Gabbro-Ultramafic Constructional Piles

7.7. Sheeted Diabase Dikes

7.8. Transition between Meta-Ophiolites and Bushveld-Style Complexes

7.9. Volcanics and Interbedded Sediments on Top of Ophiolite Complexes

7.10. Mineralizations Due to Interaction of Ophiolites within the Continental Crust

Ore Laterites, Saprolites

7.11. Examples of Mineralized Ophiolite Provinces

Chapter 8. Melanges, Suture Zones, Blueschist Metamorphic Belts and Serpentinite Filled Faults

8.1. General

8.2. Metallogeny and Mineralization

8.3. Melange/Thermal Springs Interaction

8.4. Melange/Granitic Intrusions Interaction

8.5. Mineralizations Generated by Weathering and by Sedimentogenic Reworking of Melanges

8.6. Mineralizations in and Adjacent to Serpentinite-Filled Faults

Chapter 9. Zoned Mafic/Ultramafic Complexes in Phanerozoic Orogenic Belts (Alaska or Ural "Type")

9.1. General

9.2. Metallic Mineralizations

Chapter 10. Unimodal Mafic Volcanic-Sedimentary Association

10.1. Introduction

10.2a. Massive Basalts (Gabbros), Absent or Minor Sediments, "Oceanic" Affiliation

10.2b. Massive Tholeiitic Basalt Flows, Arc Affiliation

10.3. Massive Submarine Basalts, Shale, Graywacke, Chert, Limestone Association

10.4. Greenstone, Phyllite (Or Schist), Meta-Arenite, Chert and Carbonate Association

Chapter 11. Unimodal Felsic Volcanic-Sedimentary Association

11.1. General

11.2. Felsic Meta-Volcanics, Black Phyllite (Schist), Carbonate Association: Fe(Mn) Aspect

11.3. Mn Aspect

11.4. Massive Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu Sulphide Aspect

11.5. Cu Aspect

11.6. U-Th Aspect

11.7. Post-Depositional Modification of Massive Sulphides and Interaction Mineralization

Chapter 12. Bimodal (Mafic-Felsic) Volcanic-Sedimentary Association

12.1. General

12.2. Fe (Mn) Aspect

Bimodal Mineralization Styles (Figure)

12.3. Mn Aspect

12.4. Transitional Fe, Mn-Zn, Pb, Barite, Cu Aspect

12.5. Au (Ag) Aspect

12.6. Massive Fe,Cu,Zn (Pb) Sulphide Aspect

12.7. Transitional and Interaction Mineralizations

Chapter 13. Andesite-Dominated, Marine to Continental Volcanic-Sedimentary Association

13.1. General

13.2. Economic Importance and Metallogeny

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

13.3. Cu Aspect

13.4. Mn Aspect

13.6. Au Aspect

13.7. Transitions and Interactions

Chapter 14. Basalt, Andesite, Rhyolite Sequentially-Differentiated Marine to Continental Volcanic-Sedimentary Association (Bar)

14.1. General

14.2. Economic Importance and Metallogeny

14.3. Massive (Fe), Zn, Pb (Cu) Sulphides Aspect

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

14.4. Gold and Silver Deposits

14.5. Hg Aspect

14.6. Mn Aspect

14.7. Fe Aspect

14.8. Transitions and Interactions

Chapter 15. Pelagic Sediments

Chapter 16. Deeper-Marine, Sandstone-Shale Association: "Flysch Facies"

16.1. General

16.2. Trace Metal Geochemistry and Mineralization

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

16.3. Volcanic-Terrigenous Flysch

16.4. Cleaved/Metamorphosed Volcanic-Terrigenous Flysch: Slate and Schist Association

16.5. Fe (Mn) Aspect

16.6. Massive Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb Sulphide Aspect

16.7. Hg (Sb) Aspect

16.8. Interaction Mineralization in Deformed and Metamorphosed Volcanic-Terrigenous Flysch, Intruded by Granitic Rocks

16.6. Massive, Unmetamorphosed Terrigenous Flysch

16.7. Gold-Bearing "Slate Belts" of "Flyschoid" Character

16.8. Terrigenous Flysch in Plutonic Tin Provinces

Chapter 17. Deeper Marine Argillite (Slate, Schist)-Lesser Chert, Carbonate, Arenite Association ("Black" Sediments Emphasis)

17.1. General

17.2. Trace Metal Geochemistry and Metallogeny

17.3. Fe Aspect

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

17.4. Mn Aspect

17.5. Zn-Pb(Cu) Aspect: Dominantly Stratabound Massive and Barite Deposits

17.6. Zn-Pb (Barite) Aspect: Interaction of the "Black Slate" Association with Tectonism and Magmatism

17.7. Ag Aspect

17.8. Au Aspect

17.9. Phosphate, Black Argillite and Chert Association: V, Mo, U Aspect

17.10. W, Sb, Hg Aspect

Chapter 18. Continental Platforms

18.1. General

18.2. Brief Geology and Lithologic Associations of Platforms

18.3. Metallogeny of Platforms

18.4. Regional Examples

Mineralization Styles of Platforms (Figure)

Chapter 19. Shallow-Marine Detrital Sedimentary Association of Orogenic Belts and Platforms

19.1. Introduction

19.2. The Structural/Geotectonic Types of Shallow Marine "Basins"

19.3. Trace Metal Geochemistry and Mineralization

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

19.4. Marine Conglomerate-Sandstone Association, Containing Resistate Paleoplacers

19.5. Mudrock, Arenite, Minor Carbonate Association

19.6. Phyllite (Schist)-Quartzite Association

19.7. Interaction and "Special Association" Metallogeneses Involving Shallow Marine (Meta)Shale, Sandstone, Minor Limestone Association

Bolivian Tin Province

19.8. Marine Detrital, Minor Carbonate-Evaporite Association, Overlying Continental "Red-Beds"

Chapter 20. Shallow-Marine Carbonates

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Carbonate Lithofacies

20.3. Trace Metal Geochemistry and Mineralization

20.4. Monotonous Carbonate, Minor Shale Terrains: Syngeneticdiagenetic Mineralizations

Shallow Marine Carbonates, Miner. Styles (Figure)

20.5. Pure Carbonates, Evidence of Subaerial Exposure (Unconformities, Karsting), Residual or Physically Deposited Ores

20.6. Carbonate, Lesser Shale, Evaporite Association Transgressive over Red-Beds or Crystalline Basement

20.7. Carbonate-Hosted Zn-Pb Deposits, an Introduction

Mineralization Styles, MVT and APT

20.8. Carbonate, Lesser Shale, Sandstone Association of Platforms and Stable Blocks

MVT-APT Deposits, Empirical Characteristics (Fig.)

20.9. Transitional Carbonate, Distal Volcanism, Faulting Association: Zn, Pb, Cu Aspect

20.10. Strongly Faulted Segments of Platformic Carbonates: Vein and Replacement Fluorite, Barite and Zn-Pb Sulphides

20.9. Shallow-Marine Carbonate, Minor Shale, Arenite, etc. Association of Mobile Belts (Folded, Thrusted, Faulted)

20.10. Interaction Metallogeny of Shallow-Marine Carbonates

Chapter 21. Marine Evaporites

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Evaporites in the Red-Beds - Gray Beds Facies Transition

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

21.3. Bedded Gypsum or Anhydrite Bodies (Red-Beds are Missing or Not Strongly Developed)

21.4. Sedimentary versus Alteration Gypsum or Anhydrite and Associated Metallic Deposits

21.5. Saline Giants

21.6. Salt Domes, Diapirs and Anticlines

Chapter 22. Petroleum, Natural Gas, Solid Bitumens

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Natural Gas

22.3. Liquid Petroleum

22.4. Oilfield Waters

22.5. Solid and Semi-Solid Hydrocarbons

22.6. Interaction Mineralization: Bitumens/Igneous Intrusions

Chapter 23. Weathering, Soil Profiles, Karst

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Humid Boreal and Temperate Climates: Weathering and Soil Profiles

23.3. Humid Tropical Climates, Weathering and Soil Profiles

Weathering Profile (Figure)

23.4. Ancient, Buried Weathering Profiles (Now Located at or below an Unconformity)

23.5. Weathering and Soil Profiles in Arid Climates and the Problem of Duricrusts

23.6. Carbonate Karst

Karst, Mineralization Styles (Figure)

Chapter 24. Recent Continental Sedimentary Environments and Cainozoic Unconsolidated Continental Sediments

24.1. Glacial Environments and Deposits

24.2. Alluvial Environments and Unconsolidated Cainozoic Alluvial Sediments

Ore Setting, Meandering Stream

24.3. Lakes, Bogs, Swamps and Late Cainozoic Unconsolidated Lacustrine and Paludal Sediments

Playas, Mineralization Styles (Figure)

24.4. Desert Environment

24.5. Travertine and Springs Precipitates

Chapter 25. Pre-Quaternary Continental Sedimentary Association

25.1. Introduction

25.2. Most Normal (Gray, Epiclastic) Continental Detrital Association

25.3. Detrital (Redeposited) Bauxite in Continental Sediments

25.4. Coal Association

Mineralization Styles in Coal (Figure)

25.5. Diamictite (Paraconglomerate)-Featuring Association

25.6. Laminated Mudstone, Carbonate, Evaporite (Paleolacustrine) Association

25.7. Transitional Detrital Association, Dominated by Uranium and Vanadium Ores in Sandstones (SUV)

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

25.8. Red and Varicolored Beds Association

25.9. "Volcanic Red-Beds": Continental Sediments Intimately Associated with Contemporary Volcanics

25.10. Continental Carbonates and Siliceous Sediments

Chapter 26. Continental, Pre-Quaternary, Calc-Alkaline Volcanic and Subvolcanic Association

26.1. Introduction

26.2. Geotectonic Setting, Development, and Petrochemical Affiliation

26.3. Geology and Lithology

26.4. Mineralization Styles and Metallogeny

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

26.5. Epithermal Deposits

26.6. Mineralized Example Regions

Chapter 27. Intracrustal and Subcrustal Environments (Introduction to Chapters 28-32)

Chapter 28. Plutonic Granite, Diorite, (Gabbro) Association (GDG) and Its Aureole

28.1. Introduction

28.2. Petrography, Origin and Setting of GDG Plutonic Rocks

28.2. Introduction to GDG Metallogeny

28.4. Mineralization Styles Associated with Phanerozoic (Higher-Level) GDG Association

Mineralization Styles in "Granites" (Figure)

Skarn Model (Figure)

28.5. "Porphyry" (Stockwork, Disseminated) Cu-Mo Deposits

Porphyry Copper Models

Porphyry Copper Alterations (Figure)

Hypogene Zoning Patterns (Figure)

Supergene Vertical Zoning (Figure)

28.6. Copper Skarns and Carbonate Replacements

28.7. Copper Veins

28.8. Sn (W, Bi, Mo, Be, Ta-Nb) Mineralizations Associated with Granite Plutons

Sn, etc., Granite Associated Ores (Figure)

Mineralized Granite Cupolas (Figure)

28.9. Tungsten (Wolframite and Scheelite) Veins, Stockworks and Disseminations in Non-Carbonate Rocks in Granite Aureoles

28.10. Scheelite Skarns

Scheelite Skarn Setting (Figure)

28.10. Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

28.11. Molybdenite (Wulfenite) Veins and Small Pipes

28.12. Molybdenum Skarns

28.13. Postmagmatic Be Deposits

Be Mineralization Styles (Figure)

Be Ore Styles in Granite Cupola (Figure)

28.14. Pb-Zn(Ag) Deposits in "Granite" Aureoles

28.15. Hydrothermal-Plutonic Silver Deposits

28.16. The Ni, Co, Bi, Ag, U Association

28.17. Gold Deposits

28.18. Hydrothermal Iron Ores (Except Skarns)

28.19. Magnetite Skarn and Replacement Deposits

28.19. Manganese Deposits

28.20. Uranium Deposits

U Mineralization Styles Near Granites (Figure)

28.21. Antimony Deposits

28.22. Mercury Deposits

28.23. Bismuth Deposits

28.24. Arsenic Deposits

28.25. Minor Metals and Metalloids: Se, Te, Tl, In, Ge, Ga, Cd

28.26. Summary Graphs of Ore Distribution Patterns

Granite-Associated Ores and Alterations (Figure)

Granite-Associated Ores and Host Lithology

Chapter 29. High-to Medium-Grade Metamorphosed Terrains, Katazonal Granites, Pegmatites

29.1. Introduction

29.2. Petrography, Origin and Setting of High-Grade Metamorphic Terrains

29.3. Trace Metal Geochemistry and Ore Genesis

29.4. Mineralization Styles in Metamorphosed Non-Carbonate Supracrustals (Schists, Gneisses)

29.5. Mineralization Styles in Metacarbonates

29.6. Mineralization Styles in and Related to the Zone of Ultrametamorphism and Granitization

Mantled Granite Gneiss Domes, Ores (Figure)

29.7. Granitic Pegmatites

29.8. Retrograde Metamorphics, Mylonites, Cataclasites

Chapter 30. Continental Fragmentation, Rifts and Paleo-Rifts

30.1. Introduction

30.2. Stages of Rifting and Recent Examples

Mineralization Styles in Rifts (Figure)

Stages of Rifting (Figure)

30.3. Examples of Modern Rift and Taphrogenic Systems

30.4. Exposed Paleorifts

30.5. Assymetrical Portions of Paleorifts Preserved under "Atlantic-Type" Continental Margins; Paleorifts with Shelves Covered by Young Sediments

30.6. Hypothetical, Metamorphosed Paleorifts

Chapter 31. Continental Plateau Basalt and Bimodal Volcanic Association

31.1. Introduction

31.2. Geotectonic Setting and Origin

31.3. Ore Distribution and Economic Importance

31.4. Major Associations and Their Metallic Ores

31.5. Examples of Plateau Basalt Provinces

Chapter 32. Diabase, Gabbro and Similar Dikes and Sills

32.1. Introduction

32.2. Metallogeny and Ores Associated with Diabase Dikes and Sills

Mineralization Styles (Figure)

Chapter 33. Alkaline Igneous Association

33.1. Introduction

33.2. Dominantly Volcanic Alkaline Provinces and Occurrences

Mineralization Styles in Alkaline Volcanics (Fig.)

33.3. Peralkaline Granite-Rhyolite Association

Ores in Peralkaline Granites (Figure)

33.4. Feldspar Syenite-Trachyte Transitional Association

33.5. Nepheline Syenite and Alkaline Gabbro-Dominated Intrusive Complexes

Mineralization Styles, Nepheline Syenite Complexes

33.6. Alkaline Ultramafic Association

Mineralization Styles, Alkaline Ultramafics (Fig.)

33.7. Potassic Alkaline Rocks

33.8. Carbonatites

Carbonatite Depth Levels (Figure)

Carbonatite Mineralization Styles

33.9. Kimberlites and Kimberlitic Diatremes

33.10. Mineralizations Linked to Subtle and Questionable Alkaline Intrusive Parents


General Index

Locality Index

Utilitarian Organization of Metallic Deposits (Fig.)

Genetic Indices

A. Utilitarian Organization of Metallic Deposits

B. Some Popular "Ore Types"

Metals Index


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© Elsevier 1985
1st January 1985
eBook ISBN:

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Peter Laznicka

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