Emotion in the Human Face

Emotion in the Human Face

Guidelines for Research and an Integration of Findings

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Authors: Paul Ekman, Wallace V. Friesen, Phoebe Ellsworth
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483147635

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Emotion in the Human Face: Guidelines for Research and an Integration of Findings reviews research findings about the link between the face and emotion and provides some guidelines for study of this complicated but intriguing phenomenon. Some of the conceptual ambiguities that have hindered research and the methodological decisions that must be made in planning research on the face and emotion are discussed. How past investigators handled these matters is presented critically, and a set of standards is offered. This book is comprised of 21 chapters and begins with an overview of questions about how the face provides information about emotion, with emphasis on evidence based on scientific research (largely in psychology). The reader is then introduced to conceptual ambiguities and methodological decisions related to research on the face-emotion connection (including sampling), along with some important research findings. In particular, emotion categories and dimensions that observers can judge on the basis of facial behavior are analyzed, and whether such judgments can be accurate. The similarities and differences in facial behavior across cultures are also considered, along with the relative contribution of facial behavior and contextual information to the judgment of emotion. This monograph is intended primarily for students of psychology, anthropology, ethology, sociology, and biology, as well as those planning or already conducting research on the face.

Table of Contents

  • Preface



    Part One: Conceptual Ambiguities

    I What Do We Mean by "Emotion"?

    II How Do We Determine Whether Judgments of Emotion are Accurate?

    III What Does Establishing Generality Entail?

    IV Can Facial Behavior Be Controlled or Disguised?

    V Can Two or More Emotions Be Shown Simultaneously?

    Review Part One: Conceptual Ambiguities

    Part Two: Methodological Decisions

    VI Selecting a Research Design

    VII Choosing the Eliciting Circumstance

    VIII Sampling Persons

    IX Sampling Behavior from a Record

    X Sampling Emotions

    XI Sampling Emotion Words, Categories, or Dimensions in Judgment Studies

    XII Choosing a Method of Recording

    Review Part Two: Methodological Decisions

    Part Three: Research Findings

    XIII What Emotion Categories Can Observers Judge from Facial Behavior?

    XIV What Emotion Dimensions Can Observers Judge from Facial Behavior?

    XV Can Judgments of Emotion from Facial Behavior Be Accurate?

    XVI Can Measurement of the Components of Facial Behavior Provide Accurate Information?

    XVII are Components of Facial Behavior Related to Observers' Judgments of Emotion?

    XVIII What Is the Relative Contribution of Facial Behavior and Contextual Information to the Judgment of Emotion?

    XIX What are the Similarities and Differences in Facial Behavior across Cultures?

    Part Four: Final Considerations

    XX Research in Progress and Implications for Theory

    XXI Conclusion


    Author Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 204
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1972
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483147635

About the Authors

Paul Ekman

Wallace V. Friesen

Phoebe Ellsworth

About the Editors

Arnold P. Goldstein

Leonard Krasner

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